2006 Paper No. 2603
Support Teams (FiSTs) and
Currently, many virtual systems provide opportunities for individual FiST members to practice their Fire Support employment skills such as the Forward Observer’s Call for Fire or the Forward Air Controller’s 9 Line Brief. Additionally, numerous constructive systems provide opportunities for FSCCs to practice Fire Support execution.
existing systems possess numerous fire support training shortfalls. None
interactively teach fire support personnel to create fire plans integrating
close air support, naval surface fires, artillery, and battalion level mortars
in support of the maneuver scheme. No
current training system evaluates a fire plan against an SME-defined rule set
to ensure the plan: is feasible based upon resources available and
battlefield geometry; will achieve weapon effect thresholds on targets;
synchronizes fires with maneuver; and avoids fratricide. No system permits
planners to interactively observe the dynamic execution of the fire plan in
support of the scheme of maneuver prior to execution …
2006 Paper No. 2795
Alion Science & Technology, BMH Operations
Sustainment training of
forward deployed Marines is a highly sought-after goal for the Marine
Corps. DVTE-VFST is a laptop-based
deployable low-cost simulation system that supports indirect fire training of
fire support personnel using current C4I systems such as the Advanced Field
Artillery Tactical Data System (AFATDS) and the Portable Forward Entry Device
(PFED). The Lejeune VFST system, a precursor to the DVTE-VFST, currently
trains Marine Forward Observers (FOs), AFATDS operators, and supports the
development of projects at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) in
This paper discusses
current and future training capabilities forward deployed simulation systems
can offer the Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF). It also includes a technical discussion
about the architecture and design of the hardware and software components of
DVTE-VFST as it relates to C4I technologies.
Finally, we will look...
2006 Paper No. 2973
Bihrle Applied Research, Inc
Cleveland, OH L
The development of
a piloted flight simulator called the Ice Contamination Effects Flight
Training Device (ICEFTD) was recently completed.
This device demonstrates the ability to accurately represent
an iced airplane to train pilots in recognizing and recovering from
aircraft handling anomalies that result from airframe ice formations. The ICEFTD was demonstrated at three recent
short courses hosted by the
2006 Paper No. 2794
Air Force Research Lab
Although there is a commonly held belief that high-fidelity simulators provide a high degree of transfer, some evidence indicates that lower-fidelity simulators can provide benefits without the added expense and complexity of high-fidelity simulators (Wickens & Hollands, 2000). The civilian flight simulator market contains inexpensive systems for training procedures and operations. A plethora of force-cueing devices can augment the lower-fidelity simulators. However, the effect of force-cueing devices on performance and training is a heavily debated topic (e.g., Heintzman, 1997). Furthermore, the available information regarding the impact of fidelity on training effectiveness is documented in a disparate and fragmented literature. The ability to assemble this information in a common location and to establish quantitative, predictive relationships between simulator fidelity and training effectiveness would greatly enhance the value of training programs that utilize simulators to train operators.
this paper, we will describe the Relating Effective Learning to Attributes
of the Training Environment (RELATE) approach, a process designed and
applied in the Performance Effects Related to FORce-cueing Manipulation
(PERFORM) project. The purpose
of the RELATE approach is to establish quantitative, predictive…
2006 Paper No. 2850
Applied Simulation Technologies
The Utah Department
of Public Safety (UDPS) has applied driving simulators to train state
and municipal law enforcement drivers since 2002. They use simulators to teach safe control
techniques in potentially dangerous, emergency driving conditions. In 2004 UDPS initiated a process in cooperation
with the simulation industry to improve the effectiveness of their simulator
application, using lessons learned by their experience. Together, UDPS
and industry produced a new Law Enforcement training program, which
combines a disciplined training curriculum with four key simulator features:
• Objective measurement of driver performance, • Feedback that motivates drivers to improve
their performance during the training, • Data for statistical analysis
of each driver’s performance, and • Statistical analyses on the overall
effectiveness of the driver training curriculum. UDPS has applied this
program, which they named EVOC-101, to train 355 drivers in the course
of eight months. This has generated a wealth of data, enabling objective
statistical analyses on the effectiveness of their simulator
application. Conclusions derived from analyzing this data clearly indicate
that: • Controlling both physical
and psychological factors can mitigate the incidence of simulator adaptation
syndromes (SAS) to a level that is lower than what normally occurs in
real vehicles. • Recurring, objective feedback greatly affects improvement
in driver performance. • Driver performance measurements establish an
objective value for return on investment (ROI). • The data corroborates
a transfer of training from the simulators to real-world vehicles. •
Trainees in this simulator-based curriculum reduced critical errors
in intersections—errors affecting vehicle position, speed and acceleration—by
over 67%. This paper analyzes the driver performance measurements collected
by EVOC-101 during real
application training. …
2006 Paper No. 2807
Inadequate crew resource
management (CRM) behaviors are still cited as causal factors in most
military and commercial aircraft mishaps despite mandatory CRM training
in virtually all aviator training programs, suggesting a need to explore
alternative approaches. A low-cost, PC-based simulator was designed
to elicit the communication and crew coordination behaviors associated
with instrument and visual airdrop missions.
These targeted behaviors were frequently addressed in instructor
comments from earlier C-130 student training records, especially for
navigators and copilots. The
effectiveness of instruction using this device was evaluated. Treatment
group students received a four hour training profile before their first
airdrop flight while control group students did not.
Multiple measures of effectiveness were tracked. Instructors and students rated training effectiveness
using 5-point Likert scales. Ratings from both groups were significantly
greater than “3” (neutral) for task management, communication, and crew
coordination. In addition, instructors reported that the experience
was a good…
Introducing Competency Based Training to the
2006 Paper No. 2513
TNO Defence, Security and Safety
complex and fast changing world calls for professional experts. In this
paper we address the issue of designing training and instruction to
support professional development. A lot of current training does not
have this focus and can even be misleading. For example the focus on
theory, procedures and system handling can stimulate mindless behavior
and easily steer away from conceptual thinking and expertise development.
We argue that from operational experience as well as from modern brain
and cognitive research, it is easy to understand how some of today’s
training can be counterproductive from the perspective of professional
operational performance. We emphasize that a firm base in conceptual
thinking is at the heart of all expertise development and that experience
is the driving force of human development. Implementing modern insights is no trivial
matter. A paradigm shift is required. In our view this can only be obtained
with a “shared vision on training” and through “bottom up” implementation.
We developed a ‘job oriented’ training philosophy and a basic training
concept for training naval personnel of the operational branch. Central
in the training concept is operational challenge, discussion and reflection.
We explain the concept in view of our experiences and discuss the descriptive
models we developed to support training design. Experts and simulation
play a crucial role in making the training philosophy work. We conclude
that the transition from formal instruction to development and training
on the job can be quite natural and smooth in this training philosophy.
We discuss how to consolidate the paradigm and how to control the learning
process on essentials.
2006 Paper No. 2944
of the biggest challenges in designing Virtual Environment (VE) training
systems is identifying the fidelity requirements for the component technologies.
Initial fidelity-related design decisions are often motivated by the
belief that the more accurately the VE stimulates individual components
of the human sensory system, the more likely the system will provide
effective training. Given that
stimuli in the real world are not presented in a simple, scripted manner,
it is quite probable that this is an unrealistic goal. Consequently,
the development of effective VE training systems requires a more holistic
approach and must focus on how these sensory systems converge to support
performance at the task level within the VE. To evaluate the success
of this approach, this process also requires the development of performance
metrics that enable the assessment of how a component’s fidelity relates
to training outcomes, in terms of different types of sensory information. The current work discusses an initial application
of this method to investigate the relationship between system design
and performance in the context of a basic Military Operations in Urban
Terrain (MOUT) task. While these results provide specific design recommendations
for MOUT training, they also suggest a broader application for designing,
testing, and evaluating training systems.
2006 Paper No. 2774
Alion Science and Technology Corporation, BMH Operation
A recent Department of Defense goal is to achieve a seamlessly integrated distributed training environment. Such an environment would integrate Live, Virtual and Constructive (LVC) simulation assets to provide realistic training to the warfighter. However, building such a complex environment presents unique challenges. Technical challenges arise from the disparate platforms, technologies, and protocols used by the simulation assets. Training challenges arise from the increased cognitive demands of simultaneously managing different Instructor Operator Stations (IOS).
A common IOS (C-IOS)
theoretical framework for an integrated distributed training environment
was developed by NAVAIR TSD. The
framework specifically addressed cognitive work load, IOS training,
distributed mission training, and acquisition issues.
This C-IOS concept was implemented as the Common Distributed
Mission Training System (CDMTS). CDMTS has been deployed in various
training environments and has become a common tool for integrating and
managing Modeling & Simulation (M&S) training technologies.
2006 Paper No. 2804
Discovery Machine, Inc.
Capturing the behavioral knowledge of subject matter experts (SMEs) is a vital part of building effective training and simulation environments. The realism of any training scenario is largely determined by the actions of the opposing forces on both an individual and group level. However, current large scale training exercises require large numbers of participants distributed across a network who manually guide the units for red, blue and green forces within the scenario. A need exists for more intelligent automated units that enable effective training without mass participation of active duty players. Intelligent agents are the solution to this problem, but are difficult to construct, requiring long software engineering cycles. Compounding the problem are the long knowledge engineering sessions needed to acquire the knowledge for agent behavior.
This paper describes a method for quickly building domain specific knowledge-capture interfaces (DSKCIs) that enable SMEs to encode entity behaviors on their desktop computers – without requiring the use of complex programming syntax. Here we present an approach that can be used to construct graphical user interfaces for knowledge capture in specific domains, such as anti-submarine warfare or infantry combat.
We describe a method for quickly and effectively producing agents for Computer Generated Force (CGF) systems through the development of dashboards tailored to narrow domains. A dashboard is a GUI in which widget functionality is specified via running process models. These process models act as modification critics to a target model being created by the SME. In this way the SME’s ability to encode process models is enhanced.
We discuss the benefits of specificity in making knowledge capture accessible to SMEs, and the ways in which…
Deployable Virtual Maintenance Trainers: Case Studies on Using Interactive 3D Simulations to Replace Hard Trainers
2006 Paper No. 2878
Hard trainers have proven to be an effective maintenance training tool for the military for many years. Recent advances in technology, however, have made virtual maintenance trainers (computer-based interactive 3D simulations of virtual equipment) an effective and economical alternative to hard trainers. Recent implementations have shown that virtual trainers are often a better solution to meet the military’s training requirements due to their lower development cost, more expedient delivery, more flexible deployment options, and ease of updating. Also, virtual trainers are not prone to breaking down and can be easily replicated and deployed for distance learning, allowing each student to learn at her own pace without the restrictions typically associated with the availability and deployability of hard trainers.
This paper first discusses the advantages and disadvantages of both hard trainers and virtual trainers. It then draws on a number of case studies of successful deployments of virtual maintenance trainers in the US Army and the Canadian Forces to provide Return on Investment (ROI) information on the replacement of hard trainers with virtual trainers. The paper concludes with a number of “lessons learned” on implementing interactive 3D simulations.
2006 Paper No. 2869
TRADOC Program Integration
Office for the Virtual Training Environment (TPIO-Virtual)
Program Executive Office
for Simulations, Training and Instrumentation (PEOSTRI)
2006 Paper No. 2563
Alion Science and Technology
“Only perfect practice makes perfect.” Warfighters must train as they would expect to fight to ensure that sound mental habits are established that will increase their opportunities to make good (and winning) decisions in stressful situations. In 2004, we reported on the Mission Rehearsal Tactical Team Trainer (MRT3), a new program sponsored by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) under the Virtual At Sea Training (VAST) program, which provides SH-60B aircrews the ability to rehearse Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) tactical missions as a team. This follow-on paper discusses current Navy initiatives to enhance MRT3 training capabilities to include integration into the Navy Continuous Training Environment (NCTE), thereby bringing together the total ASW Strike Group team: Aviation, Surface, and Undersea platforms and Strike Group Staffs during an in-port Fleet Synthetic Training (FST) event. This paper will explain the significant training benefits of using MRT3 technologies to provide a complete Integrated ASW training capability within the NCTE and to sites around the globe that do not possess tactical team trainers. …
2006 Paper No. 2822
JXT Applications, Inc.
JXT Applications, Inc.
First Responders must make on-the-spot decisions that affect their own safety and that of many others. They are extremely vulnerable because of the urgency of their decisions, subsequent actions and frequent unknowns surrounding the situations they find themselves in. As potential recipients of their service, we expect them to be well trained and up to date on medical knowledge and procedures, especially for accidents or major incidents. Much first responder continuation training takes place in large seminars and consists of lectures on diverse subjects that may be of interest, and, less likely, of use to most first responders. This issue led to a program to standardize treatment protocols and provide first responders training that keeps their knowledge and skills sharp. This report discusses a set of on-line courses that were developed under military sponsorship, but which are of specific interest and use to the emergency medical service community. The paper reports the partial results of a validation effort for two of these courses: WMD/HazMat and Mass Casualty Incidents. There is much to learn, even from these partial results. The authors have been quite candid in reporting both success and failure.
This paper will report the process employed to evaluate the effectiveness the e-learning system, report the results, and discuss implications. The authors not only report their findings about the effectiveness of the continuation training tool, but also about the use of web-based technology as a delivery medium.
2006 Paper No. 2700
establishing the priority of care among casualties in disaster management,
is generally practiced using constructive tabletop or live exercises. Live exercises require scheduling of medical
providers, trained actors, and frequently focus on organizational and
logistical issues, with little practice of medical response. Actual disasters, such as explosions, hurricanes,
or toxic exposures, occur so rarely that there is little opportunity
for gaining experience during real events. The triage simulation described in this paper
is the result of over a decade of development of virtual reality systems
for medical care training, including trauma, bioterrorism, and chemical
agent casualties. These simulators
present scenarios comprising a scene and one or more virtual patients.
Each casualty has its own injuries, physiological simulation,
and signs and symptoms that change with the evolving condition.
Animations such as vomiting, tearing, coughing, seizure, and
convulsions relate to physiological status and interventions.
The caregiver can navigate the scene, assess and converse with
the patient, monitor diagnostic data, and apply medical devices, medications,
and other interventions. Scenarios were developed for training military
physicians how to perform effective multicasualty triage and practice
initial care of casualties consistent with improvised explosive device
(IED) injuries. These scenarios
provide an evolving medical situation with graphically intense casualties
including amputations, penetrations, massive burns, chest wounds, and
blunt trauma. Child and adult
civilian casualties are embedded with the military casualties to provide
an engaging urban disaster scenario.
Caregivers assign the virtual casualties a triage priority and
administer immediate care as indicated.
A learning module guides the user through standardized protocols,
and interactions are recorded for review, along with pertinent physiological
and behavioral data. This triage simulator has been used at
2006 Paper No. 2711
Simulators are a standard component of training in many military activities, but have only recently become available for medical procedures. Today, medics, corpsmen, nurses, and even surgeons have access to different types of training simulators including full body mannequins for trauma and anesthesiology and virtual reality trainers for endoscopic and laparoscopic procedures. Unfortunately, most current medical simulators target individual performance on specific procedures and do not reproduce the operating environment that is always present under the traditional paradigm that relies on training with genuine patients. We know from other high-risk domains that individual performance is moderated by contextual factors. Therefore, medical personnel need to train in a rich context that replicates the operating environment.
The present paper
describes an immersive Virtual Operating Room (VOR). The VOR is modeled
on a standard OR and is outfitted with both real and virtual equipment.
It also provides an integration platform for other medical simulators.
Trainees interact with a surgical team comprised of real and/or virtual
team members (e.g., attending surgeon, anesthesiologist, scrub technician,
and circulating nurse). Communication with virtual team members is accomplished
with voice recognition and text-to-speech software. A custom designed
simulation controller manages the VOR and functionality of the rendering
platform, speech recognition, and text-to-speech generation modules. The VOR can be used to train surgical teams
and address judgment and decision-making issues among team members.
Most important, the VOR allows medical teams to train the way they operate
without putting a single patient at risk.
2006 Paper No. 2706
Science Applications International Corp.
High-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is increasingly finding its place as the primary all-weather sensor in both attack and reconnaissance aircraft. With ground resolutions of deployed SAR systems ranging from 3.0 meters to 0.1 meter, effectively simulating SAR imagery in a real-time training environment is a challenge, especially if mission rehearsal is a desired training objective.
paper describes methods for constructing realistic medium and high-resolution
clutter and target databases for real-time man-in-the-loop SAR simulation
using both image and non-image source data. Samples of the resulting
simulated imagery are presented and compared to similar imagery from
actual SAR systems. Also discussed are issues inherent to the construction
of realistic, geo-specific SAR databases, including the unique issues
of low-grazing angle tactical SAR and physics-based display characteristics
such as the effects of layover and three-dimensional target representation.
Reusability and correlation issues associated with high-density clutter
databases in multi-sensor training applications are also identified
2006 Paper No. 2668
Southwest Research Institute
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software has Evolved over the past 30 years to a level of capability and accuracy sufficient to support the design and analysis of complex systems. In the aerospace community, CFD tools are routinely used in the design of aircraft; and in some instances, they are used to supplement or reduce wind tunnel testing of prototype designs. In fact, the application of CFD today has revolutionized the process of aerodynamic design, joining the wind tunnel and flight tests as primary tools of the trade. The successful integration of CFD into aerodynamic design suggests that CFD simulations could also be used to develop accurate datasets to support the design, development and validation of training systems. A significant cost savings in training system development may also be realized through the use of CFD simulations rather than using flight or wind tunnel tests.
This technique is
particularly attractive when no flight test data is available or when
it becomes necessary to supplement existing flight test data. The KC-135
Boom Operator Weapon Systems Trainer (BOWST), currently being developed
as a joint effort between the United States Air Force and Southwest
Research Institute®, is one such case where adequate flight test data
does not exist. As reported in this paper, CFD analysis data was used
in the design and development of BOWST flight models and provided the
basis for simulator model validation. In addition, CFD results for the
tanker boom in free flight were compared with available test data and
found to be in good agreement. The CFD approach discussed in this paper
can be extended to other training systems where flight test data is
also lacking. This paper discusses a new approach to simulator development
and specifically the use of the OVERFLOW 2 code in the development and
validation of the BOWST system.
2006 Paper No. 2604
(FP) has always been a high priority for the military, but in recent
years terrorism has changed the nature of FP operations and therefore
training. Terrorists are unencumbered
by large organizations and chains of command, they are able to adapt
and improvise tactics quickly and keep the large, powerful, but slower
to adapt coalition forces on their heels.
One component for victory in the war on terror is to have better
security of coalition resources, to achieve this; security force training
must stay in lockstep with terrorist tactics.
The first step toward this goal is the formalization of feedback
loops from operations to training that objectively defines the changing
requirements. The second step
entails utilizing training technology that can rapidly incorporate the
new requirements into training scenarios, and finally, trainees must
be provided meaningful feedback for improvement.
One such technology that has the ability to create and/or modified
training scenarios quickly and can be used for training close quarter
force protection tasks is Computer Generated Imagery (CGI). This conclusion is drawn from recent research
in law enforcement that suggests CGI based training scenarios are as
effective as traditional video based scenarios for training close quarter
“use of force,” and the fact that “use of force “ training and force
protection training are, in many respects, analogous.
Innovative Debrief Solutions for
2006 Paper No. 2927
How can learners
in a distributed virtual exercise participate in a combined, virtual
after action review (
2006 Paper No. 2962
Large-scale team training presents a challenge for instructors who must coordinate after action review for distributed teams. This paper presents a visual timeline-based debrief toolset that enables instructors to quickly construct and present playback vignettes for salient training points.
The AAIRS (After
Action Intelligent Review System) application being developed for the
Marine Corps’ CACCTUS (Combined Arms Command and Control Trainer Upgrade
System) identifies training points through the use of intelligent data
collection and causal analysis methods.
AAIRS records the training mission execution, which includes
a synchronized collection of exercising force audio communications and
human in the loop interaction with system components (operational C4I
and simulator interface tools). Key exercise data relevant to training points
is tabulated by the debrief construction tool and presented visually
along a timeline for instructor review.
The time consuming process of reviewing sequential recorded radio
communications is eased by visually representing individual transmissions
on the timeline, grouped into dialogs and annotated with speech…
2006 Paper No. 2678
Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
Northrop Grumman Corporation
Stottler Henke is developing for the US Navy’s Surface Warfare Officers School (SWOS) a new generation of Tactical Action Officer (TAO) Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS), interfaced to the Generic Reconfigurable Training System (GRTS). The GRTS TAO ITS allows TAO students to interact naturally using spoken language to command and query simulated entities corresponding to other crew members and off-ship personnel. The TAO supervises the utilization of the ship’s sensors and weapons and, in general, fights the ship. The majority of the TAO’s decisions are manifested by verbal commands and queries. Therefore the development team is developing the required speech recognition capability to allow the ITS to determine what these decisions are from the spoken words. Those decisions are evaluated for correctness, based on the current tactical situation and performance of other, automated, team members. The TAO’s mastery of relevant tactical decision-making principles and ability to apply them in tactical situations is modeled along dozens of dimensions based on the entire history across several scenarios. This student model and the student’s immediate performance is used by the ITS to automatically make real-time coaching decisions, assemble a debriefing, choose the next scenario to give the student more practice on his or her weaknesses, and make other instructional decisions.
In the current situation,
for simulated scenario practice, one instructor is required for every
two students to monitor and evaluate their decisions and to play the
roles of other combat team members…
2006 Paper No. 2928
Georgia Institute of Technology
on rapid decision making by individuals revealed a number of characteristic
errors that occur, related to known human biases in decision making. These biases include the vividness, absence
of evidence, availability, over sensitivity to consistency, persistence
of discredited information, randomness, and small sample biases. The present study was performed to examine
those biases in decision making by small teams, and to assess the effectiveness
of training aimed specifically at reducing those biases. Ten teams of three persons each participated.
Five teams received anti-bias training; the other five teams
received comparable practice but no specific training about the biases.
The basic task for each team was to create incident reports for
incident types of military interest, and to ignore information not related
to these incidents. There were
sixteen types of incidents of interest (e.g. sniper fire, armed insurrection).
Each team had to rapidly process large volumes of information to identify
the incidents of interest and to find the information relevant to those
incidents. Additional information that had to be processed
by the team was either irrelevant filler information, or information
related to a carefully crafted “false alarm opportunity” built around
the decision making biases of interest.
Overall, teams that did not receive the training reported about
68% of the true incidents and about 20% of the false alarm opportunities. Teams that did receive the anti-bias training
reported about 48% of the true incidents, and only about 3% of the false
alarm opportunities. The results
of this basic research on team decision making indicate that some of
the biases observed in individual decision making also operate in small
teams. The results also indicate
that anti-bias training shows promise for reducing the errors associated
with those biases. Additional
work is needed to improve the training.
2006 Paper No. 2521
Surface Warfare Officer School Command
Surface Warfare Officers are facing threats in increasingly dense traffic environments. The use of artificial intelligence is necessary to simulate this complex operating environment for training applications such as the Conning Officers Virtual Environment (COVE) system - a virtual bridge simulator used to train officers in tactical and seamanship decision-making. The Controller Authoring Tool (CAT), described in this paper, empowers surface warfare subject matter experts (SMEs) without computer programming skills to author intelligent aggressor-boat behavior and thus allows instructors to increase the complexity and adaptability of opponent tactics in training scenarios. This increased complexity improves the relevance and quality of training. In addition, CAT reduces the number of instructors needed to achieve a given level of complexity.
CAT addresses a training need at the Surface Warfare Officer’s School (SWOS). SWOS needs a means to 1) create decision-making situations from which students can learn, 2) target each student’s individual tactical weaknesses, and 3) provide feedback that improves student performance. CAT addresses these needs by providing a game-like interface that can be run by tacticians vice technicians, allowing instructors (SMEs) to author unit behaviors, and allowing instructor-in-the-loop run-time behavior modification.
CAT equips units
with a set of basic navigation capabilities (behaviors). These behaviors can be combined…
2006 Paper No. 2741
Georgia Tech Research Institute
The transformation in data communications and information technology to support evolving network centric warfare has given rise to large, complex, dynamic and composable networks. At the same time, agile command and control (C2) concepts and distributed team decision making have dramatically increased the need for team training in distributed environments.
Currently, training exercises that support Joint operational and tactical levels of warfare are large, expensive, and typically require special facilities, bandwidth, and man power. Modeling and simulation federations are often complex and require maintenance and extensive scenario construction. These factors limit the frequency of training opportunities and often run counter to a “train as you fight” paradigm.
this paper, we outline novel concepts and specific capabilities needed
to establish a continuous and scalable training environment for network
centric operations. In particular,
an architecture that supports “embedded training” will be described
and key training functions detailed.
Embedded training for C2 utilizes to a large extent (sometimes
exclusively) the operational C4I enterprise, including communications
infrastructure. In this way, the embedded concept enables
a true “train as you fight” environment and puts training into the hands
of the operational forces. This
paradigm not only supports the large Joint exercise but also smaller
exercises focused on team-building within a single command element or
groups of command elements, as well as mission rehearsal…
2006 Paper No. 2704
Network Ready Key Performance Parameter (NR KPP) requirements for DoD
systems is the key to enabling effective Network Centric Warfare (NCW).
The power of NCW is derived from the effective linking geographically
or hierarchically dispersed knowledgeable entities that enable them
to share information and collaborate to develop shared awareness, and
to achieve a degree of self-synchronization. The net result is increased
combat power that can be generated by a network-centric force.
Net Ready KPP is about performance parameters for exploiting
information to maximize combat power by bringing more of our available
information and war fighting assets to bear both effectively and efficiently,
and developing collaborative working environments for commanders and
soldiers to make it easier to develop common perceptions of the situation
and achieve (self-) coordinated responses to situations.
For training systems, Net Ready KPP applications should focus
on monitoring the Soldier networks to evaluate shared awareness, self
synchronization, collaboration, and NCW.
This paper describes perspectives and concepts of how the Net
Ready KPP should be addressed...
2006 Paper No. 2769
NAVAIR / NETC
The United States Navy is engaged in an enterprise-wide transformation of how it trains. One key component of this transformation is the development of the Navy’s Integrated Learning Environment (ILE). This initiative uses a variety of instructional development strategies to meet the diverse requirements of the Navy’s workforce and assures content which is relevant, current, accurate and engaging. Where content design and development are concerned, the Navy has mandated the use of the Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) guidelines for all learning materials to be used within the ILE.
However, the growth
in capability and flexibility of interactive simulations has led to
a challenge for the Navy, regarding how to integrate the power of these
interactive simulations into the ILE. The Naval Education and Training
Command’s (NETC) Experimentation Lab, located at the NAVAIR Training
Systems Division in Orlando Florida, is experimenting with the tracking
of learning objectives between a Learning Management …
2006 Paper No. 2614
General Dynamics Information Technology
Joint ADL Co-lab
General Dynamics Information Technology, the Joint ADL Co-Lab, MAK Technologies Inc., and mGen Inc., developed a Marine Corps Planning Process (MCPP) Interactive Multimedia Instruction (IMI) prototype. This prototype includes three Sharable Content Objects (SCOs) that incorporate a High Level Architecture (HLA) compliant simulation and are accessible from a Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) 2004 conformant learning management system (LMS). This paper will describe the processes and outcome of the prototype project.
Using Expeditionary Warfare School (EWS) content, the SCOs present instruction and provide practice for Marine Corps S2 and S3 officers on how to produce Enemy Courses of Action (COA) and friendly COA. The students collaboratively learn about the MCPP and apply their knowledge by performing exercises in the Marine Air-Ground Task Force XXI (MAGTF-XXI) simulation. Upon completion of the training, the students run the game to analyze the Blue COA and then are assessed on their application of MCPP principles through a series of questions.
This paper will discuss
the approach used to determine which portions of MCPP were appropriate
to insert realistic training with simulation.
Additionally, we will describe the methodology used to technically
integrate HLA simulation into SCORM 2004 SCOs. As part of the prototype, a student assessment
was developed using…
Using Multi-Player Games for
Extending Training Capability Through The Use of Embedded Domain-Specific Languages in Training Devices
2006 Paper No. 2761
The Boeing Company
Modern training devices are becoming increasingly multifaceted as training domains grow larger and the equipment within these domains increases in complexity. Instructors need the specific capabilities complex training devices provide, yet they need the flexibility to adapt these training devices to meet their ever evolving training curriculum. Through the use of domain-specific scripting languages, instructors can quickly and easily adapt their training system to meet changing requirements rather than modifying their training to cope with the limitations of the devices provided to them.
It is nearly impossible to determine all of the capabilities that a training system will need when the system is initially defined. Often, the customer specifies numerous requirements in an attempt to cover every conceivable training scenario. When requirements are defined to this level of specificity, the software is generally written to meet these specific training requirements rather than to provide an over-arching training capability. This paper will explore the use of scripting languages such as Ruby to embed domain-specific language capabilities into key areas of training systems in order to extend their training capabilities.
are also useful in defining requirements specifications. A domain-specific language (DSL) is a language
designed to be used for a specific task or set of tasks in a particular
field or domain, rather than for general-purpose programming. Requirements defined by a domain-specific
language are more concise, more expressive, and easier to test saving
both time and money.…
2006 Paper No. 2534
The Future Combat
Systems (FCS) program is a Family of Systems (FoS) that will provide
the basis for transforming the Army's current forces. It will be a networked,
multifunctional, multi-mission re-configurable system of systems designed
to maximize joint interoperability, strategic transportability, and
commonality of mission roles. The Future Combat Systems will develop
the capability to rapidly project a dominant ground force anywhere in
the world within days. This strategically deployable, tactically superior
and sustainable force will provide a quick reaction capability to conflicts
arising in the 21st century. This requisite capability requires advanced
technologies, a revolution in both strategy and tactics, and innovative
industrial teaming. FCS is on the leading edge of implementing embedded
training, where individual, crew, and collective training is available
“any time and any where.” FCS is an enabler for our future Soldiers;
giving them a full spectrum of capability across the range of conflict
operations, from major engagements to stability operations, with an
embedded training system that is customized to handle immediate threats.
Through their embedded training capabilities, FCS Brigade Combat
Teams will be able to train in homestation configurations, without the
aid of external training systems, and to interact with live training
ranges, without the use of external instrumentation. To accomplish this,
FCS is reusing existing training software to produce a set of Training
Common Components. This paper describes how the TCCs are being used
to provide a core set of embedded live training capabilities that will
be supplied to all FCS platforms. In addition, this paper describes the challenges
associated with supporting FCS embedded…
2006 Paper No. 2765
US Army Research, Development and Engineering
Institute for Simulation and Training,
Soldier systems of the future will provide many new warfighting capabilities including computers built into the soldier-worn equipment. Embedded training—capabilities that are integrated into operational systems to provide or support training—will be one of the new capabilities that use these computers. Embedded training has been identified as a Key Performance Parameter for Ground Soldier Systems (GSS) that must be satisfied before the system can be fielded. GSS designers have many competing design issues, some of which will affect embedded training implementation. For example, long battery life is a critical requirement for GSS that may well come at the expense of computer processing power and graphics capability, both of which are considerations for embedded training. In addition, cost is a very important issue because embedded training systems for individual soldiers would be fielded in large numbers.
systems have been developed to research embedded training issues for
GSS. One of…
2006 Paper No. 2605
requirement for major Department of Defense (DoD) acquisition programs
is to develop a Human Systems Integration (HSI) plan early in the acquisition
process to address a variety of human-related issues. One element of the HSI plan is the training
plan. The training plan is a
living document that is refined as the acquisition process moves forward. The purpose of this plan is to identify the
high-level structure, staffing, and associated costs of the training
system that is necessary to support the operation and maintenance of
the hardware or software system being procured by Program.
The most common method used to identify the training requirements
is to conduct a formal Job Task Analysis (JTA) using the procedures
specified by the lead procurement Service.
The formal process may be very expensive and time consuming. The data obtained through the formal JTA process
are more useful for making instructional design decisions than for making
the training system design decisions that support cost determination
in systems acquisition. The
purpose of this paper is to present a simplified version of the more
formal JTA process that is oriented towards program management issues,
and produces the kind of information that is required to estimate the
life-cycle training costs for the new or modified hardware or software
2006 Paper No. 2479
As the Army develops its next generation Tactical Engagement Simulations (TES) and replaces its existing laser based systems, many new technologies will be employed to meet the requirements. Future TES programs for the U.S. Army will provide a Live, precision, combined arms Force-On-Force (FOF) and Force-On-Target (FOT) training and testing capability using electronic bullets and RF communications for geometric pairing. The Army’s Future TES must exploit recent advances in data processing, navigation, networking, interoperability, position location, weapons’ orientation and M&S technologies to significantly advance the state-of-the-art of RTCA and automated data collection.
One of many challenges to be encountered
by the Army’s Future TES programs is that of obtaining highly accurate
Position/Location in the use and implementation of Geometric Pairing
(Geopairing). An accurate position/location tracking system
2006 Paper No. 2864
VERTEX Solutions, Inc.
Internal Revenue Service (IRS)
Although Learning Management Systems (LMS) are
well-established foundations for most Advanced Distributed Learning
(ADL) solutions across the industry, Federal Government users have very
different challenges from their private sector counterparts. Some of these challenges include incorporating
and automating the use of established standard forms and related workflows,
reporting and tracking data according to specific government requirements,
and emerging requirements for enabling courseware sharing among Federal
organizations and eventually the public. With many large Federal organizations facing
these challenges recently, several common themes and issues have been
identified by Federal users in both the military and civilian agencies. This paper will draw on specific experiences
from both military and civilian agencies over the past few years to
highlight the common themes and issues, how they are currently being
addressed, how they will be addressed in the future, and how other Federal
organizations can benefit from these “lessons learned.”
Specific case studies will be provided using several different
LMS products, and will include the following Federal organizations: • The US Air Force • The Government Plateau
Users Group (representing over fourteen civilian agencies, including
The following key
themes and issues will be discussed at length in the paper: • Automation
of standard forms…