2007 Paper No. 7107
Modern simulation environments provide powerful practice opportunities for warﬁghters. Current approaches to scenario deﬁnition in these environments specify terrain, platforms, and major planned events, but link only indirectly to training goals. To move these environments from effective practice to effective training, they must incorporate pedagogical knowledge such as training objectives, performance measures, and trainee feedback. We have been working on an approach that provides guidance for scenario design, execution, and review. The approach views scenarios as collections of potentially overlapping learning episodes structured by a construct called the experience—a speciﬁc scenario-based situation that will give trainees an opportunity to make progress towards their training objectives. The conditions that will bring about a particular experience are expressed as constraints. In practice, these are straight-forward statements of conditions in the scenario that must be true in order for the learning episode to take place. For example, in order for a helicopter pilot to work on a training objective in sensor fusion, multiple sensors must be enabled in the helicopter, the targets of interest must be within their range, and it must not be raining. Normally, this is accomplished during scenario planning by placing an event on a Master Scenario Events List (MSEL) that calls for relevant platforms to be in speciﬁed places at speciﬁed times. But those speciﬁcs are often unnecessary from a training perspective. Relaxing them—while enforcing the experience-based constraints—provides the possibility of additional learning opportunities when the scenario does not unfold exactly as expected. The resulting scenario provides trainees with an environment that lets them make progress more reliably against their training objectives, and this results in more effective training. This paper explains the approach and illustrates
2007 Paper No. 7186
Hitachi, Ltd., Defense Systems Group
Developing training scenarios that induce a trainee to utilize specific skills is one of the facets of simulation-based training that requires significant effort. Simulation-based training systems have become more complex in recent years. Because of this added complexity, the amount of effort required to create and maintain training scenarios has increased. This paper describes an investigation into automating the scenario generation process. The Automated Scenario Generation System (ASGS) generates the environment for the expected action flow in chronological order from several events and tasks, with estimated time for the entire training mission. When the user defines the training objectives and conditions, the ASGS automatically generates a scenario that includes not only the initial situation but also the sequential environmental conditions that will present the trainee with subsequent situations relevant to the training objectives throughout the entire simulation exercise. The latter is the main contribution of the research, as the flow of the training exercise can take many directions after start, based on the decisions made by the trainees. The system considers the current situation, and strives to present the trainees with subsequent situations that are consistent with the training objectives, yet in a manner that is natural. It takes advantage of contextualization to accomplish this. This scenario includes a degree of randomization to ensure no two equivalent scenarios are identical. This makes it possible to train different groups of trainees sequentially, who may have the same level or training objectives, without using a single scenario repeatedly. The SVSTM Desktop system is used as the development infrastructure for the ASGS prototype training system. The paper describes and discusses the ASGS prototype, the tests to which the prototype…
2007 Paper No.7168
Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
San Mateo, CA
Fort Leavenworth, KS
US Army Research, Development
and Engineering Command, Simulation and
Simulation and Training (IST),
The advancing state of the art in dismounted embedded
training makes use of helmet-mounted displays, man-wearable computers, and
other immersive hardware to construct increasingly engaging environments. Within such a framework, structured training
methods provide a means to achieve learning objectives and concept retention,
with minimal instructor involvement.
Intelligent structured training applies real-time automated evaluation
and feedback methods based on Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) techniques. This paper reviews results from the integration
of an Intelligent Structured Trainer with the embedded Virtual Warrior Soldier
prototype developed for the Army RDECOM Simulation and
2007 Paper No. 7251
Sterling Heights, MI
General Dynamics C4 Systems
The real-time collection and filtering of the enormous amounts of data resulting from training simulations involving hundreds of entities is a challenge for training system architects. Traditional approaches have relied on human observer/trainers (O/T) to tag key events and prepare the After Action Reviews (AAR), which identified what happened (particularly events contributing to metrics for mission success), why metrics were not met (precursor events that contributed to the metric events), how the critical sequences of events arose (identifying decision points), and provide timely learning points. For collective training simulations, the O/Ts are often overwhelmed in terms of tracking individual behaviors and skills. Automated approaches for capturing human performance data are a preferred method that can provide feedback to each member of a team or unit. This paper describes the application of a novel use of XML Stylesheet Language Transformations to process simulation event stream using an Event-Condition-Action (ECA) rule engine. The human performance data capture used the following process: 1. Data Collection from multiple sources, including IEEE 1278 Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) data and other network data. 2. Protocol Filtering, which is done to reduce the processing workload in the later stages of the pipeline. 3. XML Conversion, where the filtered data streams are converted to a neutral XML format that allows processing using ECA rules. 4. Event Detection, which is done using XSLT to extract key events. 5. Event Processing, which is done to relate selected event sequences to human performance standards. The Embedded Training Group at General Dynamics Land Systems has applied this approach to measure learner performance in distributed interactive simulations, including driver training and gunnery training. Ongoing work is related to using competency standards to specify the ECA rules and generate the appropriate XSLT.
2007 Paper No. 7041
Director Land Synthetic Environments
The current operational tempo within the Canadian Army has forced training policy and planning organizations to become increasingly outcome oriented. There is considerably less interest in the specific tools provided to achieve these outcomes and a strong desire for a systems view of how to best meet the overall training requirements under challenging time and budget constraints. The tools are certainly important, however, they are clearly a means to an end and not an end unto themselves. As natural as the distinctions between live, virtual and constructive simulation may seem to those who are familiar with them, using them in combination and the advent of serious games have begun to blur the distinctions between them making them less useful in terms of describing training outcomes.This paper describes the training needs framework (TNF), which was created to portray not only the training requirements, but also, and more importantly, to facilitate decisions associated with finding the best tools for the job. Specifically, the TNF can be used to map how any tool or set of tools can be applied to produce a particular outcome as part of an overall training plan intended to certify troops for a specific deployment. The TNF is shown to help identify gaps in terms of tools required to achieve the desired training outcomes, but can also serve to facilitate options analysis for filling the gaps. In this context, decision makers are able to objectively assess simulation investments based upon the training outcomes that will be enabled through their use. The paper also provides a specific example of how the TNF can be applied in line with the tenets associated with experiential learning taking; physical, cognitive and affective training requirements into account.
Achieving Simulation Interoperability –
2007 Paper No. 7042
2007 Paper No. 7058
The use of procedural animations in training materials has grown since studies have shown animations to be an effective and engaging medium for introducing students to new procedures. State of the art 3D animation creation tools have introduced new capabilities as well as a new set of considerations and best practices that affect a content creator’s ability to build animations that most effectively meet learning objectives. As well, the background of the content creator is changing as the ease of use of content creation tools increases. This paper will present methods to maximize the benefits of, and best practices for creating, 3D procedural animations. The paper draws from experiences delivering animations in over 35 3D virtual task trainers and interactive electronic technical manuals for the U.S. Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Canadian Forces and Air Force. In these projects, 3D animations were used extensively to familiarize students with individual parts and components of wheeled vehicles, aircraft, and weapons systems; to illustrate maintenance steps and procedures, and to visualize the cycle of operations of a system. Included in the best practices are specific animation design and style guidelines, and recommendations to integrate procedural animations with other training content including interactive parts familiarization and virtual task practice, to most effectively meet learning objectives.
2007 Paper No. 7242
States Army 187th Ordnance Battalion
Training in the U.S. Army is critical for
operational success. Although Training Transformation is an Army focus, it is a
major challenge in wartime in the face of limited available funding and
resources. The U.S. Army Wheel Vehicle Mechanic School (WVMS) at
2007 Paper No. 7301
TNO Defence, Security and Safety
Soesterberg, The Netherlands
Volkel, The Netherlands
Observing maintenance competencies in training
settings is difficult. Many critical attitudes such as safety-awareness or team
skills are covert and occur irregularly. As a result, assessing such
competences for learning and testing often is subjective and not transparent.
TNO and the Royal Netherlands Air Force (RNLAF) together have created a method
for learning and assessing the development of such critical attitudes and
skills, called the Visual Assessment Method for Maintenance training (VAMM). In
this method, video-cameras are set up in the workshop, monitoring a team of
learners doing realistic F16 maintenance tasks. One of the team members is
responsible for evaluation of task performance. A commercial computer-based
tagging tool (Darthfish) is used to mark incoming
video events, and quickly classify them according to predefined evaluation
criteria such as ‘bookwork discipline’ or ‘team co-operation’. A selection of
marked video-episodes is used in an After Action Review (AAR), showing examples
of good and bad displays of attitudes and skills. Both task performers and
evaluator can learn from this reflection process. Instructors may apply the
method in exam settings, providing an objective and transparent manner of
assessing realistic tasks. The VAMM method is currently being tested by means
of a pilot project at a RNLAF school with two teams of four learners. The first
results show that learners are capable to assess mutual task performance by
means of video analyses; (a) a sufficient number of events was
tagged for proper
2007 Paper No. 7294
The Tactical Combat Casualty Care Simulation is a government funded program that combines interactive training techniques with Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) technologies and immersive, 3D game-based simulations to help train Army Combat Medics. The program uses a variety of instructional strategies to immerse students into scenario driven events inorder to teach and evaluate a student’s knowledge regarding the essential tactics, techniques and procedures required to successfully perform as an Army Combat Medic in a battlefield environment. The application was developed for the Army Medical Department Center & School; Department of Combat Medic Training’s (AMEDD,DCMT) “68W10 Healthcare Specialist Course” at Fort Sam Houston, TX. It is being implemented in three stages. First, it is being used in the classroom to familiarize students with initial concepts of providing care on the battlefield. Second, it is being hosted within the school’s learning resource centers. Finally, in August 07, it will be hosted behind Army Knowledge Online and interfaced with a SCORM (Shareable Content Object Reference Model) conformant Learning Management System to provide both online and offline student tracking, assessment and remediation. One critical component of this project is an ongoing training effectiveness evaluation being managed by the Army Research Institute to determine learning transfer in to the field and the overall cost benefits of using the system. Earlier evaluations have resulted in changes to the interface, instructional strategies and playability of the application. This paper will discuss in detail how…
2007 Paper No. 7500
A fundamental challenge for the United States Army is to ensure that it can effectively maintain the Combat Medic forces necessary to meet the challenges of the current battlefield and at the same time transforming Combat Medic capabilities to respond effectively in the future. One of the most important issues is how to train medical personnel in peacetime for the realities of war. In recognition that every soldier is a first responder, the Army has added a virtual capability to its medical training arena, the Medical Simulation Training Center (MSTC). This paper describes the MSTC initiative which standardizes the medical training needed by incorporating a lifelike and medically authentic simulation system designed to provide a broad spectrum of symptoms to give Soldiers the skills to save lives in combat. The new integrated training centers provide realistic wartime training utilizing physiologically-based patient simulators to ensure that they will be able to perform their duties both as a soldier and a medic. The use of simulation based training will provide medical personnel with realistic, high fidelity, mission-oriented training in critical medical skills, decision-making, and team coordination. This dynamic environment provides live, virtual, and constructive training with an emphasis on the Combat Medic Advanced Skills Training (CMAST) and Combat Life-Saver (CLS) training principles while incorporating state of the art technology. The MSTC places training emphasis on realistic simulation while adhering to the principles of tactical combat casualty care ensuring all students receive didactic, hands on, tactical, and technical medical training required to save lives during combat operations abroad.
2007 Paper No. 7506
BanDeMar Networks, LLC
Skilled Support Personnel (SSP) are non-first
responder specialists dispatched to serve in emergency incidents, and include
laborers, operating engineers, carpenters, ironworkers, sanitation workers and
utility workers. SSP called to an
emergency incident rarely have detailed and recent training on the chemical,
biological, radiological, nuclear and/or explosives (CBRNE) agents or the
personal protection equipment (PPE) relevant to the incident. This increases
personal risk to the SSP and mission risk at the incident site. We present the configuration and field tests
of an SSP training system deployed at the
2007 Paper No. 7428
JXT Applications, Inc.
Fair Oaks Ranch, TX
West Point, NY
This program is aimed at providing innovative
training methods and applications for development of dynamic leadership
skills. The training will support
current and evolving national and international requirements. Optimizing the human contribution to joint warfighting, and achieving a war-winning capability for
future operations requires a paradigm shift from traditional leadership
methods. To be effective in the new
paradigm, leadership training must adapt to rapidly changing events and
flexible multi-disciplinary organizational structures such as joint and
multi-national forces operating in collaborative, distributed, network-centric
environments. Military leaders must have
the knowledge and skills to lead successful operations in various battlefield
and non-battlefield environments such as peacekeeping, stability, humanitarian
operations, and working with international organizations. In the new asymmetrical paradigm, the enemy
has set conditions such that
2007 Paper No. 7356
Applied Research Associates, Inc. Klein Associates Division,
High-level U.S. Armed Forces commanders must
often juggle multiple roles while performing in high-stakes, rapidly evolving
operational environments. Newly assigned Joint Forces Air Component Commanders
(JFACCs) make decisions that affect not only military operations, but also have
impact on international political, economic, and social structures. They often have
very limited experience making such decisions. As in other domains, complex
decision making usually develops with experience. Because these decisions have
immediate impact on critical military operations, it is impractical to wait for
commanders to learn these decision skills while on the job. Most existing computer-based instruction for
future military leaders focuses on tactical level training. We have created a
cognitively authentic, computer-based simulation environment that focuses on
the unique demands of commanders in operational environments. This paper will
present the simulation and mentoring system we developed for use with the JFACC
2007 Paper No. 7198
Dynamics Research Corporation
Dynamics Research Corporation
Army Research Institute
The core competency required for mastering and
employing this digital environment in combat lies with a distributed human
decision-making process which is supported by technology but governed by human
interactions. The Army’s digitized Army Battle Command Systems (ABCS) require
extensive training in the latest technological advancements. Research on
decision-making while immersed in the digital environment has revealed that the
greatest opportunities to increase battle staff proficiency will result from a
focus on the human interaction through team training.
2007 Paper No. 7160
Motorized Patrol Operations (MPO) provide Marine Corps commanders with effective means to watch and protect large areas of operations, as well as the ability to quickly adapt to different mission requirements. Marine leaders conducting a patrol must be vigilant and, above all, well trained, as constant changes in enemy tactics and an increasing need for motorized patrols require MPO leaders to make quick and effective decisions without command guidance. The actions taken by an MPO leader are dictated by split-second analysis and rapid decision making, which are difficult skills to teach and assess. Pre-deployment training takes a crawl-walk-run approach to teaching these skills, frequently involving a combination of classroom instruction, live field exercises and increasingly, simulated exercises. Effective performance assessment and feedback are important to both live and simulated training. Without appropriate performance measures, it is difficult to systematically assess the readiness of trainees and the effectiveness of the training curriculum. Furthermore, without any guiding instructional framework, feedback given to trainees is dependent on the style of the individual instructors. Current methods of performance assessment for MPO still are largely informal in nature, relying on the abilities of instructor/observers to accurately remember or take notes on key aspects of performance. This can result in excluding critical aspects of performance and instructor bias in interpreting the results of the training exercise. In this paper, we describe a recent effort to develop observable performance measures that assess MPO leader performance during both…
2007 Paper No. 7200
U.S. Army PEO STRI
Riptide Software, Inc.
Realizing cost savings from systematic software reuse through component-based development strategies has traditionally been a challenging undertaking. Software component reuse will never occur automatically; it must be strongly supported by management, methodology, and process. Factors including technical, managerial, and economic have hastened the failure of many corporate reuse initiatives in the software development industry (Frankes and Fox 1996). For the U.S. Army Program Executive Office (PEO) Simulation Training and Instrumentation (STRI), Program Manager for Training Devices (PM TRADE), their software reuse initiative was further compounded by the complications of coordinating the development of a software product line among several different government contracting corporations who view themselves as competitors. The objective of the PM TRADE product line is to achieve a reduction of software development and maintenance cost by maximizing component reuse and to reduce product fielding times while enhancing training benefits to the Soldier. Through successful execution of the product line strategy, PM TRADE will deliver a set of common components that provide integrated and interoperable training solutions for live collective training across the home stations, Combat Training Centers (CTCs), deployed, and joint training domains. This paper describes the innovative approach PM TRADE is using to establish a LT2 Homestation Instrumentation Training System (HITS) Command & Control (C2). The LT2 HITS C2 Core Software is being developed primarily from a reuse of existing LT2 software components created for use in other live training systems. It is the intent of this paper to capture the successes and failures while implementing this strategy to assist similar projects in the future and further the PM TRADE product line strategy.
2007 Paper No. 7228
The Future Combat Systems (FCS) program is revolutionizing the way the United States Army conducts live training. The need for an Embedded Tactical Engagement Simulation System (E-TESS) has been expressed over the past decade; however it was not capable of being fully realized on the System of Systems scale until the introduction of FCS. This paper will focus on the innovative approaches to E-TESS requirements development, capability design and collaboration with a multitude of stakeholders: Army programs, the training and operational user communities, and platform developers. The paper will address lessons learned and provide best practices recommendations based on the authors’ experiences collaborating across multiple program participants. The FCS program is pioneering the effort to evolve the E-TESS vision by designing in the training capabilities on the platforms upfront, vice engineering an appended training system on the back end. The suite of FCS platforms is size, weight, and power constrained, limiting the ability to embed training-unique components. This is driving the E-TESS developers to capitalize on the concept of “dual use” hardware for both operations and training. By utilizing the FCS Brigade Combat Team (BCT) operational assets, such as the tactical network, radios, sensors and processors, the Soldier can be ready for a live training exercise within minutes of arrival at a homestation, combat training center or a deployed location. The E-TESS capabilities will consist of current and future tactical engagement simulation technologies, which will enable the FCS BCT to train against both current force Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement Simulation (MILES) -equipped vehicles and the future One Tactical Engagement Simulation System (OneTESS) -enabled platforms. FCS will be the first warfighting system to provide the Army an embedded live training capability that supports individual, crew, collective, unit, and leader training anywhere, anytime.
2007 Paper No. 7199
The Boeing Company, Training Systems & Services
Alion Science & Technology MA&D Operation
Simulation-based tactical training exercises are ideal settings in which to evaluate performance. The capability to record the second-by-second behavior of participants, the state of supporting equipment, and the location of entities in the problem provides an opportunity to verify team and individual proficiency, and to identify root cause of substandard performance. However, responsibility for determining cause and effect in tactical scenarios is typically left to the expert instructor. In dynamic, fast-paced warfare areas, such as air-to-air combat, the burden on the unaided expert instructor to monitor, record, and assess the interactions and circumstances that determine mission success, is substantial. This is an area where appropriate technology might help the instructor to improve the evaluation of performance.
The Debriefing Distributed Simulation Based Exercises project (DDSBE), an ONR-sponsored 6.3 research and development project, tested alternative technologies for collecting and integrating performance information to aid in the preparation and delivery of post-scenario after action reviews (AARs). The project’s objective was to provide the information that instructors need, when needed, in a form that supports rapid evaluation. This paper presents a comparison of different performance data collection, analysis, and debriefing systems, and the performance information they make available to instructors in the context of two distributed training research systems. The first system, built to support the DDSBE research effort, analyzed the performance of two …
2007 Paper No. 7361
Old Dominion University
The concept of providing After Action Review
(AAR) has been partially responsible for the effectiveness of military training
events conducted over the past two decades in Live, Virtual and Constructive
environments. However, the practice and
2007 Paper No. 7410
Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
San Mateo, CA
Simulation based training provides not only the benefits of immersion and interactivity during exercises, but also the prospect of automated after action review. As trainees interact with the system and with each other through various interfaces, the resulting body of data can be used to automatically draw instructional conclusions that go well beyond traditional measures of effectiveness. However, complex team training architectures often incorporate or support an entire suite of tools and interfaces with diverse protocols and data conventions. This presents a technical challenge for the development of decision-oriented automated after action review, which can be solved with an abstracted data collection and representation scheme that is compatible with all potential supported interfaces. This paper describes an agile approach for handling analysis data, developed for the Marine Corps’ Combined Arms Command and Control Trainer Upgrade System (CACCTUS). The goals of scalability and modularity target a range of data sources for this application, including the OneSAF Objective System, integrated C4I tools and human-in-the-loop interfaces, and virtual radios on which spoken transmissions are processed with speech recognition tools. Fundamentally the data analyses in a training system depend most on knowledge about the kinds of available data, and less on the collection mechanism itself, which can therefore be abstracted. A consequence is that the data analysis algorithms can be implemented in parallel with the various data collection methods for each integrated tool. Also, for any new requirement to integrate with an additional interface that was previously unsupported, the only implementation requirement is in the data collection code that writes to the repository, with little or no change on the analysis side. This paper provides design details and lessons learned from the CACCTUS effort, and summarizes the more general methodology for abstracting data collection from data analysis in training systems.
2007 Paper No. 7109
National Aerospace Laboratory NLR
Embedded Training provides training capabilities built into or added onto operational systems, subsystems or equipment to enhance and maintain the skill proficiency of personnel. The Joint Strike Fighter program requires an Embedded Training (ET) solution capable of multi-ship interaction, local and distributed weapons simulation, data link, data collection and off-board debriefing. Dutch Space and NLR in cooperation with the Royal Netherlands Air Force demonstrated Embedded Training on an F-16 MLU in the E-CATS Demonstrator event April 2004. This event provided aircrew with the opportunity to fly the E-CATS demonstrator and helped shape the ET requirements for the F-35. E-CATS was a very successful demonstration of single ship ET, however to “train as we fight” requires a multi-ship ET solution. Dutch Space and NLR developed a demonstrator to provide an understanding of the functional ET multi-ship concept from an operator perspective. It allows a pilot to interact with the system and understand what an ET multi-ship capability can provide to him. This demonstrator is therefore ideally suited to provide the operational user with the data and experience necessary to refine ET functional requirements. The demonstration of multi-ship ET capability takes place in a simulated environment. It is based on NLR’s multi-ship research facility F4S (Fighter Four-Ship) consisting of four mobile fighter aircraft simulators. The single ship E-CATS demonstrator capability is integrated with enhanced extensions to enable the multi-ship ET functionality to be demonstrated to the users. The users are able to fly an ET mission in a multi-ship configuration and compare that to a single ship solution allowing unique multi-ship requirements to be identified.
2007 Paper No. 7130
Air Force Research Laboratory Warfighter Readiness Research Division
Georgia Tech Research Institute
Lavender Industries Inc.
Several efforts are currently underway to enhance electronic warfare (EW) training on Air Force aircraft using on-board, “rangeless” EW training. On-board EW training provides closed-loop simulations of air-defense environments for realistic in-flight combat training of aircrews. The training capability can be an integral part of the aircraft operational flight program (OFP) or can be an external simulator carried onto the aircraft. An emerging requirement for embedded EW training is in support of live, virtual, constructive (LVC) threat simulations in multi-element training exercises like Red Flag. The LVC experience requires coordination of multiple air and ground threat systems with multiple aircraft “players” where some are simulated and some are real. This concept allows training against denser, more realistic threat arrays than are typically available on most live-fly EW ranges. This paper provides highlights of an investigation conducted to support a low-cost EW training system that meets current and future requirements of a ground-based threat simulation tool that can stimulate the aircraft EW subsystems and monitor aircraft and operator responses over existing aircraft data links. The investigation identified system architectures for an off-board training system that required minimum changes to the aircraft OFP while providing a centralized threat simulation for multiple aircraft in training exercises without the need for expensive training ranges or flight equipment. A primary feature of this concept is a ground-based threat simulator based on the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) Experimental Common Immersive Theater Environment (XCITE) simulation environment and the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI)…
on-board embedded training system the Virtual Electronic Combat Training System (VECTS).
Switchable Vision Blocks: The Missing Lin
2007 Paper No. 7135
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina
General Dynamics Land Systems Division
The provision of Embedded Training (ET) capabilities is written in the requirements documents for future manned ground fighting vehicles as well as for upgrades to current force fighting vehicles including the Stryker, the Abrams and in the Marine Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV). ET allows vehicle crew members to train anywhere, anytime. Manned Ground Vehicles (MGV) crewmen use optical vision blocks as a safe means to see the world outside. This paper describes an electro-optical Switchable Vision Block (SVB) that not only allows the crew to see the world outside, but also serves as a visual interface to virtual environments for embedded training. Other components for embedded training systems are already in place, including collective simulation systems like CCTT and “drive by wire” systems that allow soldiers to use the vehicle controls either for operations or for training. The SVB is the missing link between current and evolving simulation-based training systems and the soldier. This paper describes the design and development of SVB prototype technology. Three prototypes were created that represent tradeoffs for the multi-dimensional design space. The key challenges for this design were the integration of an optical out-the-window view with high-resolution, collimated views of virtual environments in a way that: Did not degrade operational performance, including transmissivity for the optical view and luminance for the virtual view, Met form and fit restrictions representative of future and current force vehicles Met stringent weight and overall size restrictions Provided a fail-safe configuration that ensured a working optical path view for the full range of failure modes, including ballistic integrity.
2007 Paper No. 7449
U.S. Army Research Institute
Fort Knox, KY
Iowa City, Iowa
This paper describes the design and evaluation of a new system for training terrain visualization. Visualizing the military aspects of terrain is an important but difficult skill to train and acquire. More traditional approaches to training terrain visualization rely heavily on field-based and paper-based training that severely constrain the terrain locations and formats available. Recognition of this prompted the U.S. Army to award a Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) contract to combine training theory and technology to improve terrain visualization training. The prototype training system developed A2TV (Anytime, Anywhere Terrain Visualization Training), allows trainees to interactively view and vary digital representations of terrain by flying and driving through terrain, morphing terrain, and overlaying contour information. The hypothesized value of the A2TV is its ability to harness the potential of interactive training formats with proven training methods including consistent conditions, multiple trials, and immediate feedback. We developed a set of structured exercises in both open and urban terrain areas to train basic skills like visualizing landforms, as well as tactical skills, like identifying key terrain and determining avenues of approach. An evaluation of training with the A2TV compared the landform visualization performance of three groups of civilian students (n= 51) by training format: Fly-/Drive-Thru, Terrain Morph, and Contour Overlay. Our results from the training evaluation demonstrate that two of the training methods result in significant improvement. In addition, we conducted a training potential and usability evaluation with active duty military personnel (n= 30) to refine the A2TV for future training and evaluation efforts. The military participants affirmed the need for training for terrain visualization, provided many constructive recommendations for A2TV refinement, and acclaimed the potential of the A2TV system for training as well as mission planning and support.
2007 Paper No. 7156
Dynamics Research Corporation
Orbis Technologies, Inc
The Army’s approach to task-based training includes the key instructional design activity of “packaging” collective tasks into logical groupings. These groupings of tasks form the basis for the design of instructional events that will be conducted using live, virtual and constructive training approaches. For the Future Combat Systems (FCS) equipped Brigade Combat Team (BCT), nearly 1000 collective and leader and battle staff tasks have been identified. Grouping a large number of tasks into training activities such that all critical tasks and skills are practiced with appropriate sequencing and repetition is an instructional design problem encountered in many training programs, but particularly critical for the FCS program as it prepares to train Soldiers to implement a new family of weapon systems. This paper presents a new approach to this traditional instructional design challenge. The approach involves the use of a data visualization tool being used on the FCS program that allows a number of specific relationships between and among collective and individual tasks to be displayed graphically. The graphical display of task data permits rapid examination of task dependencies, hierarchical relationships, skill and knowledge commonality, and other linkages critical to support training design decisions. A small group tryout was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the tool for designing task-based training. The results were positive, yet less than desired. The shortcomings identified were primarily the result of incomplete functionality needed to fully implement the task-based training design approach that was targeted. However, glimpses of the tool’s exceedingly rich potential for training design were evident in the tryout. The development of new functionality to meet the identified gaps is ongoing.
2007 Paper No. 7108
Salinas Technologies, Inc
In early 2007 the Army commissioned the Future
Aviation Simulation Strategy (FASS) study.
The study was led by the Simulation Systems Development Directorate
within Army Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and
2007 Paper No. 7244
NAVSEADam Neck, CDS
Virginia Beach, VA
Virginia Beach, VA
Force transformation requires a parallel training transformation. Building on the well-tested team learning model deployed fleet-wide through Battle Force Tactical Training System (BFTT), Total Ship Training System (TSTS) will enable integrated ship-wide and force-wide training efficiency and affordability through the integration and automation of the plan, conduct, assess (PCA) processes and overall knowledge management of scenario and event-based training. TSTS tools will enhance the effectiveness and readiness measurement of shipboard training ranging from basic individual watch station competencies through single ship team performance and up to multi-ship theater mission rehearsal. To achieve this goal, TSTS will initially incorporate High Level Architecture (HLA)-compliant training system elements for tactical combat systems, navigation, and damage control, thereby enabling the creation of highly realistic, easily transportable, and rapidly re-created team training scenarios. This system-of-systems development model will require the use of an open and extensible architecture to facilitate the subsequent incorporation of future technology-refreshed training systems. This paper will discuss the common system capabilities, system design, and architecture to be used in the TSTS rapid prototype. The prototype will demonstrate the capabilities of the TSTS Training Management System (TMS) as it relates to shipboard training system elements. In particular, the Combat System Trainer (CST), designed to replace the current BFTT system, will be used to demonstrate the integration of a training system element into the architecture. TMS will incorporate interfaces with other Knowledge Management and Navy tracking and record keeping systems so that past performance, specific situational/environmental needs, and changing mission requirements are all considered in the training event. These Knowledge Management capabilities of TMS will provide the ship trainer with the capability to Plan, Conduct, and Assess tailored training of multiple shipboard teams. Through the use of a standardized architecture, future training systems can be incorporated into an integrated environment of training…
2007 Paper No. 7483
Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
San Mateo, CA
Northrop Grumman Corporation
The Tactical Action Officer on board a U.S. Navy
Cruiser, Destroyer, or Frigate is responsible for the operation of the entire
watch team manning the ship’s command center. Responsibilities include tactical
decision making, console operation, communications, and oversight of a variety
of watchstander responsibilities in air, surface, and
subsurface warfare areas. Stottler Henke, in concert
with Northrop Grumman, has developed the PORTS TAO ITS, an Intelligent Tutoring
System (ITS) for the instruction of Tactical Action Officers (
2007 Paper No. 7394
PC-based simulations are gaining momentum as tools for ship’s operator training in Naval education. Many are designed for use as team trainers, requiring an instructor and a full complement of sailors to participate in training sessions. Such simulators, therefore, do not support single-user, self-paced, instructorless training, which is a main thrust of the U.S. Navy’s Revolution in Training. This paper presents an approach at converting a traditional PC-based team trainer simulator into a self-paced training tool. The approach uses what are called “synthetic operators,” which automate the response of human operators, thereby enabling a single user to focus on operations specific to his or her training. The PC-based trainer used for this work is the Trident Launcher Simulator, a weapons-launcher training device being used in the Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile educational curriculum. By analyzing the simulation’s state, the synthetic operators use their programmed knowledge base to autonomously recognize and rectify equipment failures for the operator positions not being staffed by the user. A distinctive aspect of the employed algorithm is that, because the synthetic operators are aware of actions required by the user’s position, they can trap erroneous user actions and perform remediation. Their knowledge base contains the standard hierarchy of launcher system “casualty” (i.e., rectification) procedures. They also incorporate system knowledge that describes the proper order for conducting procedures during multiple failures. The synthetic operators are coupled to a voice communications driver that issues verbal commands pertaining to the procedural conduct in accordance with the knowledge base. Upon hearing these commands, the user can issue responses via a voice communications interface. This “Synthetic Operator Launcher Simulator” is gaining acceptance as a self-paced tool in the Navy’s training pipeline.
2007 Paper No. 7171
Lumir Research Institute
Air Force Research Laboratory
The importance of fidelity in simulation training has been established as a key factor in training effectiveness. Design and development of simulation systems is dealt with commonly as an iterative procedure in which the goal is to improve on the training effectiveness of the system. Improvements are made based on methods of identifying and resolving deficiencies. Improvements must then be considered relative to available resources to determine how to prioritize the multiple options. The current paper presents a flexible methodology for evaluating the relative effects of multiple deficiencies on a simulation system, utilizing information from warfighters about the effectiveness of a Deployable Tactical Trainer (DTT). First, subject matter experts were asked to evaluate the fidelity of the current DTT system across a set of 199 experiences and emergency procedures (EP). Next, the same subject matter experts identified deficiencies of the current system. Then the warfighters evaluated the 199 experiences and EPs for which deficiency had the most adverse affect on training. A composite score was computed for each deficiency, using weighted variables accounting for 1) the amount of improvement possible and 2) the importance of training for each experience. The deficiency scores provide a means of comparing the relative effect of each deficiency on warfighter training. The impact of utilizing multiple sources of information is presented through a comparison of the different decisions that would result from using partial information or alternative weighting methods. The proximal implications of using the proposed methodology to have the greatest impact on improvement are discussed. The distal implications of the impact the improvements have on pilot perceptions, and ultimately, on objective pilot performance measures, are also discussed. Also discussed is the versatility of the methodology for incorporating information from various sources and weighting systems to include alternative decision-making factors.
2007 Paper No. 7179
This paper describes assessing the effectiveness of training programs using the Study of Organization Opinion (SO3) methodology which has been developed in the course of performing multiple assessment projects for the Army and joint community. SO3 is based on concepts that are foundational to Customer Relationship Management (CRM). SO3 is effective in extracting tacit assessment knowledge from training stakeholders and analyzing the knowledge to provide actionable information to decision makers.
The SO3 methodology uses open-population surveys of training stakeholders. Organizational objectives (study goals) are disaggregated to derive deliverable questions and the likely stakeholder population is studied to choose respondent groups. Questions are linked to respondent groups to create questionnaires. Questionnaires are delivered via multiple means, including via the web, interview, focus groups, and written surveys. Once questionnaires are complete, the data is aggregated using various analysis methods to provide various levels of findings.
The paper provides numerous practitioner lessons learned, such as: the importance to the assessor of knowing the targeted organization, the importance of treating assessment as a cross-organizational competency, and the emphases on response quality. Finally, the paper recommends assessment improvement objectives, such as seamlessly integrating assessment into the training program, persistent assessment, and inter training-modality metrics for measuring training competency required and supported.
2007 Paper No. 7159
The Boeing Company
St. Louis, MO
As the need increases for mission training centers to support large-scale distributed, joint and coalition training exercises in addition to their traditional individual, team, and sometimes collective focus, a corresponding increase in system capability is needed. While current debriefing capabilities may support the traditional training center mission well; these systems often do not effectively support distributed joint and international participation. This paper will discuss the challenges of large-scale distributed debrief focusing on the problem of distributed record and playback. An approach is described that is capable of automatically keeping locally recorded data, time synchronized across a wide-area network. This approach provides distributed synchronization without the requirement to replay data across the distributed network, or through use of common tools. Such capability enables warfighters to use the same tools with which they are already familiar. Details are discussed, including how it achieves synchronization, extension possibilities, security considerations, and analysis of implementation options. Relevant research and experiences with distributed debrief will be discussed including some innovative ideas for advancing debrief state-of-the-art as follows. Highly accurate and automated synchronization, distributed network bandwidth reduction, multi-level security support, and easy legacy system integration to name a few. Recent experiences from the U.K. Mission Training through Distributed Simulation (MTDS) will be included to describe these benefits. The implications of this work point to the need for standards development for distributed debrief. Standardization will lead to improved interoperability for large-scale distributed debrief.
2007 Paper No. 7138
Lockheed Martin Simulation, Training and Support
RS Information Systems
Space has become a critical operating environment that continues to transform military operations along with many aspects of our day-to-day lives. Recent events show that future operations in space will be challenged in a way that requires a timely and effective response in order to preserve space capabilities and to sustain critical services. As with other operating environments, providing an appropriate response to a space threat will require thorough advance training on the part of key space operators and decision makers. Operators in the air, land and sea environment routinely benefit from training capabilities that prepare them to address threats in these environments. However, it can be argued that space operators do not currently benefit from an equivalent training capability. This paper highlights the need for translating proven air, land and sea modeling and simulation techniques to address space training requirements.