Training

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles – A New Challenge for Training System Development

A SYSTEMS APPROACH TO SIMULATED ALTERNATIVES FOR COMMERCIAL DRIVERS LICENSING

Intelligent Systems for Training Damage Control Assistants

MOPED - A Mobile Evaluation System to Support Observers During Distributed Team Training

Assessing Distributed Team Performance in DARWARS Training: Challenges and Methods

Performance Assessment in Distributed Mission Operations: Mission Essential Competency Decomposition

Using Open Source Game Engines to Build Compelling Training Simulations

Virtual Environments for Training First Responders - FiRSTE

Deployable Simulation Training for Operational Medical Personnel

Lessons Learned From Virtual Flag Integration

Training Strategies for a Deployed, Distributed Virtual Environment

Correcting The Vision – Introducing The Joint National Training Capability (JNTC) Advanced Training Technology Laboratory (JATTL)

Training Tomorrow's Submariners Today - An Innovative Approach and Simulation-based e-Learning System

Royal Navy Merlin Training System: Sonobuoy and Dipping Sonar Training

Stick and Rudder Training for the Mind

STRATA: DARWARS for Deployable, On-Demand Aircrew Training

DARWARS Ambush! – Authoring Lessons Learned in a Training Game

The DARWARS Tactical Language Training System

Embedded Distributed Training: Combining Simulations, IETMs, and Operational Code

Scenario Management Methods for On-Board, Self-Directed Training of a Naval Command Team

Integrating Technologies for Shipboard Helicopter Signaling Skill Training

Rethinking the Collective Task Analysis Process to Support Future Combat System (FCS) Embedded Training

THE UTILITY OF METRICS IN TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS - LESSONS LEARNT FROM RN TNA

Enhancing Simulation-Based Training with Performance Measurement Objects

How to Effectively and Efficiently Develop, Test, and Train Rules of Engagement

The Use of MMF to Organize, Train, and Equip the Force

Auto-Authoring Instruction from Ontological Representations of Procedures

Mixed Reality: A Tool for Integrating Live, Virtual & Constructive Domains to Support Training Transformation

MILITARY OPERATIONS OTHER THAN WAR: A TOOLBOX FOR WARRIORS

OneSAF Interoperability with CTIA – A LVC Connectivity Approach

CACCTUS: Linking the Live, Virtual, and Constructive Environments

Promoting Air and Space Operations Center (AOC) Training Transformation by Quantifying and Refining AOC Training Scenarios

Army Training Support System and Implications of Training Transformation (T2)

Evolving DODAF: An Integrated Training Enterprise - Delivery Architecture Framework

Performance Support Solutions: What You Need When You Need It

Advanced Training for Commanders: A Competency-Based Approach to Training Requirements Definition for the JFACC

Cross-Divisional Analysis of Competency-Based Training Requirements for the Air and Space Operations Center (AOC)

SYNTHETIC TECHNOLOGIES – A SELECTION SCHEMA FOR FUTURE AIRCREW TRAINING SYSTEMS

 

 

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles – A New Challenge for Training System Development

 

Tony DalSasso, Chief Engineer

Jeffrey Pfledderer, Technical Expert

Special Projects Branch

Training Systems Product Group

Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio

 

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles are an increasingly important resource in the conduct of modern warfare. Systems such as the Air Force’s MQ-1 Predator have proven their effectiveness numerous times in recent combat operations. These systems were rapidly developed and fielded, sometimes transitioning from concept demonstration to operational use without the intermediate steps normally accomplished under the traditional system acquisition process. In addition, UAV programs have proven to be very useful testbeds for new and innovative ideas, taking a “what-if” exercise and making it an operational capability almost overnight. This approach stands in stark contrast to manned aircraft upgrade programs, which require a much more time-consuming and exhaustive testing and certification process.

 

One result of this rapid laboratory-to-field implementation approach has been the lack of robust, fully capable training systems being made available to the warfighters at the time the system is operationally deployed. Training has largely been conducted on an ad-hoc basis using suboptimal resources, resulting in training deficiencies which ultimately may have contributed to mishaps and loss of aircraft. The accelerated process has simply not provided sufficient time or resources to accommodate a traditional training system development. A longer term, but equally significant, problem resulting from this approach has been trainer concurrency management. Keeping up with aircraft changes in such a fast-paced environment poses a significant challenge, even when sufficient planning has been accomplished. However, the abbreviated testing process has shortened the timeframe available to simulator developers to develop concurrency modifications for the trainers. This problem is further compounded by the lack of robustness in the rapidly-fielded initial training systems.

This paper will discuss the unique training system issues resulting from the rapid fielding of such systems, and provide recommendations for implementing timely and effective training systems in this challenging environment.

2004 Paper No. 1793

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A SYSTEMS APPROACH TO SIMULATED ALTERNATIVES FOR COMMERCIAL DRIVERS LICENSING

 

Talleah L. Allen, Ronald W. Tarr, John White, Scott Tanner

University of Central Florida Institute for Simulation and Training

Orlando, FL

 

Background

This paper describes the systems approach we used to develop and validate a virtual diagnostic and training solution for the ground transportation community, specifically those who hold a Commercial Drivers License (CDL). The training system integration includes a computer-based knowledge test, virtual mechanical compliance walk-around inspection, and simulator-based driving skills tests. Using a systems approach, we designed the Virtual Check Ride System (VCRS) to be a cost-effective, time-saving alternative to standard CDL testing and training.

 

ADDIE Model

Using the ADDIE (analysis, design, develop, implement, and evaluate) Instructional Design Model, we created a blended interactive multimedia intervention. Participant characteristics included commercial truck-driving students and expert drivers. Expert drivers were classified as drivers who have been driving commercial vehicles for more than three years and those with less than three years are classified as novice.

 

During the analysis phase, the Federal Department of Transportation (FDOT), Florida and Michigan State DOT, and Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) from various truck driving schools were consulted to determine federal, state and corporate CDL knowledge and driving skills requirements and challenges. Various technologies, including driving simulators, were analyzed to determine what level of simulation technology worked best with this type of blended intervention. It was during this phase that we realized the ADDIE Model would not work on a performance and technology-based design effort.

 

A Diagnostic and Training Tool

Based on the analysis, a bank of 500 knowledge test questions were developed and internally validated by Subject Matter Experts (SME). The design phase began with a Computer Based Training (CBT) module, which generates a dynamic After-Action-Review (AAR). The CBT, AAR, and simulated driving scenarios (Off-Road, Rural, Urban, Freeway and City) were assessed by SMEs to measure driving performance, driving skill levels, and critical thinking skills. Implementation, evaluation and validation are currently in progress.

 

The validation scores collected thus far suggest that the Virtual Check Ride is a fair assessment of the CDL and may be a cost and time benefit if incorporated into the training and re-certification procedures of organizations.

2004 Paper No. 1540

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Intelligent Systems for Training Damage Control Assistants

 

Stanley Peters , Elizabeth Owen Bratt, Brady Clark, Heather Pon -Barry, Karl Schultz

Stanford University CSLI

Stanford, CA

 

The Navy is shifting its training and education from traditional methods, such as on-site instruction, texts, and observing students during drills, to computer-supported learning such as web-based instruction and computer simulations in lieu of live drills. This transition presents the challenge of keeping the best parts of traditional methods of instruction while obtaining the advantages that computers afford. The challenge is more difficult because to maximize savings in manpower, money and time, computer-based learning must be able to teach, evaluate and give feedback to students without any instructor in the loop.

 

A valuable aspect of traditional training methods, in which computers currently fall short, is the 'mentor/student' relationship: an experienced person discussing a novice's performance with him or her. The mentor gives the student direct, personalized feedback in a setting where the student can ask questions and discuss issues. Most computer simulations are lacking in this type of interaction.

 

We propose that giving computers the ability to debrief and discuss a student's actions using natural language will more closely simulate this relationship and greatly improve the effectiveness of computer-based learning. To assess this hypothesis, we are utilizing natural language technology to (1) allow students to use a damage control trainer for surface ships by speaking with the simulation system, and (2) to support a subsequent spoken discussion with an intelligent tutoring system that provides an after action review of the student's performance. The combined system performs a mentoring function, helping students learn correct actions and avoid 'practicing mistakes'. We are studying the usefulness of this mentoring system for students under training in damage control, and will present results about differences in rate of learning with and without mentoring. An additional benefit of natural language interaction with the computer systems is that students train as they will actually perform on duty.

2004 Paper No. 1908

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MOPED - A Mobile Evaluation System to Support Observers During Distributed Team Training

 

Annemarie Hiemstra, Marcel van Berlo & Wytze Hoekstra 

TNO Human Factors

Soesterberg, the Netherlands

 

Distributed team training, often in joint settings, is becoming more and more important in the military training today. As the teams and training staff are not physically on the same location, special attention should be paid to performance measurement and feedback. Important questions are what should be measured during distributed team training, how this should be evaluated during the After Action Review, and in what ways the training staff should be supported in doing this. In this paper we will explore these issues and describe a tool, the Mobile tool for Performance measurement and Evaluation in Distributed training (MOPED), which we have developed specifically for distributed team training.

 

When evaluating team performance in distributed team training it is important to not only address the performance of the local team, but also the performance of the local team in relation to the other teams in the training and vice versa. The mobile evaluation tool is a hand held device that supports the evaluator in observing team performance. The observer can send data to a central database, where the data of all observers of the distributed team are analyzed and then sent back to the local observer, who can now complete the debrief. Some other functional features of the tool are on call checklists based on targeted behaviors and a debrief organization screen that facilitates the observer's preparation of the After Action Review.

 

A preliminary version of the tool was tested at the Royal Netherlands Navy during a small scale pilot. The results were promising and used to improve the tool. MOPED will be tested more thoroughly to identify those aspects of distributed team training that are crucial for the teams and should be addressed during the After Action Review. Special attention will be paid to the support of observers in providing this AAR.

2004 Paper No. 1531

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Assessing Distributed Team Performance in DARWARS Training: Challenges and Methods

 

Shawn A. Weil, Frederick J. Diedrich, Jean MacMillan

Aptima, Inc.

Woburn, MA

 

Talib S. Hussain, William Ferguson,

BBN Technologies

Cambridge, MA

 

DARWARS is envisioned to be a virtual training environment in which multiple distributed individuals will interact with each other and with synthetic entities to in order to acquire operational skills. Training in teamwork skills will be a significant component of the DARWARS experience. In particular, DARWARS will provide the capability for training multiple teams of players at the same time, where the teams will interact in a variety of ways, thereby providing training opportunities for a wide variety of skills. Accordingly, DARWARS faces a significant challenge in assessing teamwork skills as player s interact with the simulation and with each other, and in providing that assessment to players in the form of coaching during a training session or feedback in an After Action Review (AAR). Assessing the performance of distributed teams in a simulation-based environment faces three major challenges: (1) creating situations in which the relevant teamwork skills are appropriate; (2) measuring behavior in these situations; and (3) providing assessment to learners at the appropriate moment and the appropriate level of detail. This paper will review our methods, discuss the measures most relevant to DARWARS, and present an example of teamwork measurement in a multi-player commercial game scenario designed to teach teamwork skills relevant to military teams.

2004 Paper No. 1858

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Performance Assessment in Distributed Mission Operations: Mission Essential Competency Decomposition

 

Todd Denning, Mike France, Jeffrey Bell

Simulation Technologies, Inc.

Nellis AFB, Nevada, Mesa, Arizona

 

Dr. Winston Bennett , Maj. Steve Symons

Air Force Research Lab

Mesa Arizona

 

Mission Essential Competencies (MECs) are in continuing development by the Air Force Research Laboratory for training program enhancement within all mission areas of Air Combat Command. They are unique to specific mission areas such as air combat, suppression, air-to-ground attack, etc. yet provide broad training assessment possibilities in large force team training. MECs are defined as the higher-order individual, team, and inter-team competencies that a fully prepared pilot, crew or flight requires for successful mission completion under adverse conditions in a non-permissive environment. As the definition suggests, MECs are conceptually impractical to use as a means of performance assessment. Decomposing the MECs into their component knowledge, skills and experiences with logical links from observable events represents the most appropriate approach. This paper discusses the approach to decomposition and linkage taken by researchers and subject matter experts to identify and quantify observable events at the task level and to define requirements for observation systems to produce data of sufficient fidelity to support assessment. Air to Air Task-to-MEC mapping links observable events in DMO through knowledge, skill, and supporting competency sets to ultimately make assessments that can be traced to the MEC level. The task mapping product permits objective data from the AFRL’s Performance Evaluation Tracking System (PETS) to inform probabilistic assessments of competencies through separate logical constructs for instructional support. During the process, important lessons were learned about the initial MEC process and construct, quality of SME information, and how the development of MECs within a mission area may be improved to facilitate decomposition to observable and assessable levels. Applications of the decomposition product are presented to highlight confidence levels of objective and subjective grading requirements for PETS or similar data collection systems as well as logic techniques developed to bridge areas difficult to assess within existing DMO architectures.

2004 Paper No. 1616

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Using Open Source Game Engines to Build Compelling Training Simulations

 

Perry McDowell , Rudolph Darken

MOVES Institute - Naval Postgraduate School

Monterey, California

 

The arguments for increasing the amount of computer-based training are clear, convincing, and essentially over: almost every unit in the military is shifting its training strategy to include a larger percentage of computer-based training. The question now is how to create computerized training systems using the best and most cost-effective methods.

 

One solution is to increase the training done in simulators. Military simulator-based training has been used in substantial, expensive systems for over thirty years, first in flight trainers and later in vehicle simulators. Simulator training was limited to such large scale problems and solutions due to the cost of procuring, operating and maintaining these systems. However, with today’s technology, simulators can be built for any area of the military, and operated on standard desktop computer systems or game consoles for a wider range of tasks.

 

In order to demonstrate such training systems’ efficacy, we have built an application to train shipboard personnel in basic Damage Control, which is a task every shipboard Sailor must complete. The simulation is very similar to “First Person Shooter” games which are wildly popular with the military’s primary demographic. We intend to conduct research using this system to determine its effectiveness in improving performance.

 

One of the most intriguing parts of this research is that this trainer was built with an open source game engine created in house. By using an open source engine, we have saved the licensing fees charged by large game companies, which normally run between $500,000 and $1,000,000. Additionally, this open source engine removes the legacy stovepipe that stunts the use of so many current training systems. This not only greatly reduces the initial cost, but significantly reduces the cost of follow-on because the application is not tied to a certain vender who is able to charge exorbitant rates.

2004 Paper No. 1868

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Virtual Environments for Training First Responders - FiRSTE

 

Michael G. Hilgers, Ming C. Leu , Richard H. Hall , Sanjeev Agarwal

University of Missouri

Rolla, MO

 

Terry Lambert

Battelle

St. Robert, MO

 

Robert Albright

MANSCEN

Fort Leonard Wood, MO

 

Kyle Nebel

TACOM

Warren, MI

 

Since September 11th the need to train civilian response personnel to cope with terrorist activity has greatly intensified; yet affordable and effective training methodologies are elusive. The First Responder Simulation and Training Environment (FiRSTE) system is built to address this situation. Its purpose is the application of virtual reality simulations for training civilian first responders to deal with weapon of mass destruction events in a zero-risk environment while applying proper procedures, techniques, and protocols.

 

Underwritten through support from the Tank-automotive, and Armament Command, FiRSTE is designed to accommodate personal protection equipment, be physically stressful, mentally challenging, compatible with federal simulation standards, and portable. Since the target training audience includes rural and small town civil responders, FiRSTE was built using inexpensive components to demonstrate the affordability of such training technology.

 

Forward motion control in the virtual environment is driven by the trainee walking on a treadmill modified to communicate with a gaming engine via a data acquisition card. The trainee holds a mock-up of a Photo Ionization Detector (PID) which has the same mode control buttons as the actual device. The virtual environment is viewed via a head mounted display placed w ithin the mask of a self-contained breathing apparatus. A mouse wheel embedded in the PID mock-up provides directional control. The release of chemical toxins within a building and the associated sensor behavior is simulated using HLA-compliant software developed by the investigators. Three concept exploration phases have been performed using local firemen. Quantitative and qualitative measures were collected, and analyses were carried out with the goal of evaluating: a) the nature of users’ navigation through the environment; b) the degree of perceived fidelity and presence; and c) subjective and objective effectiveness of the training tool.

2004 Paper No. 1766

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Deployable Simulation Training for Operational Medical Personnel

 

Roberta Gearhardt

JXT Applications, Inc

Beavercreek, Ohio

 

William J. Walsh

JXT Applications, Inc.

Fair Oaks Ranch, TX

 

Laura Millitello & Andrea Snead

University of Dayton Research

Dayton, Ohio

 

Current training for deployable medical personnel occurs in the field through on-the- job training and focuses on the acquisition of procedural knowledge. This severely limits the capability of training organizations to rapidly produce “mission ready" personnel for the field, and hinders mission performance for deploying medical forces, both ground based and air evacuation teams. Medical professionals need a means of accelerating the acquisition of expertise in decision-making and team coordination that underlies responses to chemical, biological and radiological (CBR) threats. This paper describes the use of cognitive approaches to determine the training scenarios needed and the content to be included in simulation-based training to ad dress the potential threat environments where ground based medical crews and aerospace medical personnel are expected to operate. The use of simulation based training will provide medical personnel with realistic, high fidelity, mission-oriented training in critical medical skills, decision- making and team coordination for emergency response and rapid deployment. The simulations developed will be hosted in multiple delivery media to facilitate their use at the home duty station, on transport aircraft en-route to deployment, at ground bases and in theater. A conceptual high-level design and demonstration has been developed in this Phase I SBIR effort to prove the concept for the training technologies and simulation.

2004 Paper No. 1710

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Lessons Learned From Virtual Flag Integration

 

Alan Berry 

Scientific Research Corporation

USAF Distributed Mission Operations Center

Kirtland AFB, New Mexico

 

The United States Air Force Distributed Mission Operations Center (USAF DMOC) has participated in distributed simulation exercises since the mid-1990s. Four years ago, the DMOC initiated a series of exercises that immerses warfighters in an intense virtual environment. Now known as Virtual Flag, nine of these exercises have successfully trained warfighters in an environment closely simulating battle conditions. The DMOC integrates operational and simulation systems from Joint Services in an exercise environment that includes units located from coast-to-coast and scenarios with thousands of entities. This paper presents methodologies used at the DMOC that integrate these systems in warfighter training exercises.

2004 Paper No. 1648

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Training Strategies for a Deployed, Distributed Virtual Environment

 

Peter Crane

Air Force Research Laboratory

Mesa, Arizona

 

Capt Erik Jilson

USMC Training & Education Command

Quantico, Virginia

 

Eileen Entin, Rebecca Morley

Aptima, Inc.

Woburn, Massachusetts

 

Matthew Archer

SDS International, Inc.

Orlando, Florida

 

Distributed Mission Operations (DMO) is a U. S. Air Force program to augment aircraft training with multi- participant, simulator training. DMO Mission Training Centers have been established for F-15 and F-16 fighters and for AWACS mission crews. In addition, a DMO research testbed has been developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory in Mesa, Arizona centered around four, high-fidelity F-16 simulators with full field-of-view visual display systems. DMO training centers typically focus on a single platform using large-footprint systems at a fixed location. In contrast, the U. S. Marine Corps’ Deployable Virtual Training Environment (DVTE) consists of networked laptop computers that support simulation for the many weapons types and Military Occupational Specialties that comprise a Marine Air Ground Task Force. DVTE systems are low-cost and lightweight so that they can be used on shipboard or in a deployed environment. Although physically very different systems, DMO and DVTE are both designed to provide mission-oriented, scenario-based team training that will enhance warfighter skills in teamwork, communication, situation awareness, and tactical execution. The Air Force Research Laboratory’s Warfighter Readiness Research Division and the Marine Corps Training and Education Command, Training and Education Technology Division, supported by SDS International’s Advanced Technologies Division and Aptima, Inc., are working together to develop a training strategy for DVTE based on lessons learned from DMO effectiveness research. Training strategies derived from Air Force experience using DMO are being applied to Marine Fire Support Team (FiST) training using DVTE.

2004 Paper No. 1849

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Correcting The Vision – Introducing The Joint National Training Capability (JNTC) Advanced Training Technology Laboratory (JATTL)

 

Warren Bizub

Director Advanced Training Technologies JNTC

Suffolk, Virginia

 

Mark Phillips

Battle Laboratory Director VMASC

Norfolk, Virginia

 

 

Until recently there has been no real single portal for migration of technology and technical training concepts into a single Joint context. This however, is necessary for the Joint National Training Capability (JNTC) to achieve its mission of “training the Joint warfighter”. This portal is the flagship laboratory for the JNTC network or Joint Training and Experimentation Network (JTEN), known as the JNTC Advanced Training Technology Laboratory (JATTL). This laboratory will act as a lens by concentrating on Research, Development, Test & Evaluation (RDT&E) of technologies, which enhance capabilities in the JNTC technical focus areas (Command, Control, & Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance (C2 & ISR); Live, Virtual and Constructive (LVC) Environment; Instrumentation, Data Collection and After Action Review (AAR); Opposing Forces; Information/Knowledge Management; Architecture/Standards) while ensuring interoperability, maturity, stability and most importantly relevance for candidate technology under development for use in Service and Joint training environments. The ATT mission is to evolve, enhance and provide tools, processes and products for the JNTC by acting as the technology pipeline in support of joint training for the warfighter. A sustained process using systems engineering and acquisition best practices to identify, evolve, enhance and develop new capabilities that address training requirements, challenges and shortfalls is essential. ATT is and will leverage existing and future Science & Technology (S&T) investments to a maximum extent with Industry, Academia, Government and International organizations. Finally, by taking a holistic approach, the JATTL will assimilate joint standards and architectures to enable a seamless integrated LVC training environment for on demand warfighter use.

This paper will describe the concept for the JATTL and explain the modes and methods for transferring technology and expertise into the JNTC as well as outlining technical challenges that it is focusing on to set new benchmarks.

2004 Paper No. 1787

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Training Tomorrow's Submariners Today - An Innovative Approach and Simulation-based e-Learning System

 

Yakov E. Cherner

ATeL, LLC

Swampscott, MA

 

Arnold O. Lotring, Glen Graebner

Submarine Learning Center

Groton, CT,

 

The paper describes the simulation-based online training system that is being developed to assist submarine technical personnel in understanding applied engineering principles as well as to enhance their skills in preventing and troubleshooting emergency situations. The system challenges the learner to explore the design and operation of several major devices and their components in a virtual computerized environment. The underlying technological principles and scientific laws are linked to the virtual reality experience.

 

The system is designed with a flexible multi-layered and open-ended architecture. It comprises virtual experiments, interactive lessons, problem exercises, quizzes, integrated assessment and auxiliary tools for instructional modification. All training resources are based on a uniform pedagogical approach and are conceptually linked in such a way that they compliment each other. The system employs “learning-by-doing’ and problem-based training methodologies that prove to be effective for all learners including those with limited technical training but who will be assigned to highly technical job areas. This new approach attempts to provide alternate opportunities for the learner to understand and master technical training topics. A training cycle begins with the virtual exploration of a particular process or system using realistic highly interactive simulations. The trainee is then provided with an interactive lesson that focuses on underlying technological and scientific principles to support the learner's conceptual understanding.

 

Realistic Java or Flash simulations immerse trainees in job related virtual environments enabling them to perform tasks that are similar to those they will face in real life. Learners are able to (1) observe the physical processes insightfully at different levels of detail, (2) analyze constraints between relevant parameters, (3) push these parameters beyond normal allowed values to simulate infrequent operating conditions or casualty situations, (4) run “what if” scenarios, and (5) acquire data from virtual experiments for detailed analysis and comparison to actual operating conditions in a theory to practice approach. Such complex activities help trainees master troubleshooting skills and better appreciate the potential causes of hazardous or even emergency situations.

2004 Paper No. 1592

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Royal Navy Merlin Training System: Sonobuoy and Dipping Sonar Training

 

Martin Fortin

CAE inc.

St-Laurent, Canada

 

Alan Redman

Lockheed Martin ASIC

RNAS Culdrose, UK

 

WO1 Kevin Best

Royal Navy

RNAS Culdrose, UK

 

The Royal Navy Merlin Training System (MTS) is a complex network of five training devices that provide a fully immersive, realistic training environment for flight crews and mission systems operators. The MTS was designed and built by CAE, under a subcontract from Lockheed Martin, to provide extremely realistic front line squadron/flight training for Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) and Anti-Surface Warfare (ASuW) missions. When operated in its integrated m ode, with a front cockpit and a rear crew trainer coupled, full aircraft operations are supported, allowing complete aircraft training.

 

The acoustic simulation developed for the MTS includes high-fidelity simulation of the Merlin helicopter acoustic suite which comprises a dipping sonar system and a sonobuoy processing system. The acoustic simulation is fully integrated as part of the MTS overall sensor simulation which also includes radar and ESM.

 

Another important innovation of the system is the capability to train up to three crews performing ASW operations in the same scenario. The simulation considers the mutual interferences between all acoustic sensors and processing coherent information among them. All dipping sonar components (cable model, control panels, signal processing, tracking processing, sonar mode management and video and audio generation) are fully simulated using COTS PCs with the Linux operating system. For the sonobuoy processing system, the real processing unit is being stimulated using dedicated hardware interfaces. Complex sonobuoy types such as BARRA, CAMBS and HIDAR are supported. The sonar systems are fully integrated into a virtual acoustic and synthetic environment.

 

This paper describes the acoustic training capabilities of the MTS. It will detail how multiple aircrew acoustic training is performed on the MTS in a mutual interactive-mode environment and will explain how the various developed monitoring and control tools allow the instructors to achieve efficient training and role-play capabilities.

2004 Paper No. 1720

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Stick and Rudder Training for the Mind

 

Mr. Arthur W. Gallo

BMH Associates, Inc.

2602 Challenger Tech Court

Suite 230

Orlando, Florida 32826-2708

 

Mr Jonathan P. Glass

NAVAIR TSD

12350 Research Parkway

Orlando, Florida 32826-3275

 

CDR Charlie Frye

NAVAIR TSD

12350 Research Parkway

Orlando, Florida 32826-3275

 

Ms. Cathy C. Matthews

NAVAIR TSD

12350 Research Parkway

Orlando, Florida 32826-3275

 

Mr. Dave M. Kotick

NAVAIR TSD

12350 Research Parkway

Orlando, Florida 32826-3275

 

“Only perfect practice makes perfect.” Said another way, warfighters must train as they would expect to fight in order to ensure that sound mental habits are established, which will increase the Warfighter’s opportunities to make good (and winning) decisions in stressful situations. Unfortunately, for many reasons (e.g., lack of resources, inadequate technology, legacy system limitations, time, etc.) military personnel have not always been able to train in a manner consistent with their doctrine and tactics. Recent Department of Defense (DoD) and Navy “Transformation” doctrine emphasis on realistic integrated training, along with significant advances in Modeling and Simulation (M&S) technology, have resulted in training opportunities that aircrews could once only dream about.

This paper will describe a new initiative to enable netted tactical team training within the Navy. The initiative, part of the ONR-funded Virtual At Sea Training (VAST) program, is called Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Air VAST. ASW Air VAST will result in a system of deployable and networked laptop trainers for the aircrew of the SH-60B (LAMPS MK-III). As part of this program, a new system called the Mission Rehearsal Tactical Team Trainer (MRT3) has been developed to allow the aircrew to perform mission rehearsal as a team with the crew’s ship and other ASW air platform counterparts. The MRT3 is designed as a fully integrated tactical team trainer for the LAMPS aircrew and the entire ASW Team. It is not a flight trainer; rather, the focus of this deployable system is on providing a capability to develop ASW tactical team expertise, specifically the cognitive aspects associated with performing a tactical mission. Therefore, MRT3 can be described as a “stick and rudder trainer for the mind” that facilitates collaborative decision making and enables Warfighters to train in an operationally relevant synthetic battlespace, just as they would perform during combat operations.

2004 Paper No. 1764

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STRATA: DARWARS for Deployable, On-Demand Aircrew Training

 

Benjamin Bell
CHI Systems, Inc.

Fort Washington, PA

 

Joan Johnston

NAVAIR Orlando TSD

Orlando, FL

 

Jared Freeman

Aptima, Inc.

Washington, DC

 

Frederick Rody

VTSG, Inc.

Herndon, VA

 

Current practices in team training rely either on coordinated scheduling of personnel local to a base or ship (which limits the availability, breadth, and consistency of training), or on TDY training at a dedicated facility (which presents few opportunities, risks rapid skill degradation, and incurs high costs). To overcome these limitations we are developing Synthetic Teammates for Realtime Anywhere Training and Assessment (STRATA). STRATA is supporting DAR PA’s Training Superiority (“DARWARS”) program and its vision for persistent, on-demand distributed mission training. STRATA integrates several innovative technologies that, for the first time, allow users to interact in challenging, engaging scenarios with distributed human and synthetic players, executing realistic missions at varying challenge levels. Our goal is to achieve considerable improvement in user performance by combating skill decay, to afford on-demand practice of both individual and team-level skills, and to provide tools that enable designers to create innovative training that is fully deployable with minimal equipment requirements.

A central feature of STRATA is the use of intelligent, interactive synthetic teammates that communicate verbally with users and exhibit realistic task and team behaviors. STRATA also affords instructor-optional training, through the use of advanced capabilities for automated mission briefing, individual and team performance measurements, and automated after-action review (AAR). STRATA is being demonstrated in the context of Close Air Support training. More broadly, the combined capabilities of synthetic teammates and automated instruction affords team training that is truly on-demand.

2004 Paper No. 1626

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DARWARS Ambush! – Authoring Lessons Learned in a Training Game

 

David E. Diller, Bruce Roberts

BBN Technologies

Cambridge, MA

 

Stephen Blankenship, David Nielsen

Total Immersion Software

Alameda, CA

 

As the conflict in Iraq has moved from open combat toward stability and support operations, both sides have reacted to the changing nature of the conflict. This has resulted in an in creased need to quickly revise military tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs). This need, coupled with the largest rotation of U.S. troops since World War II, has resulted in an increased need and effort to capture and pass along lessons l earned to troops rotating into the conflict area. This paper describes the design and implementation of a “lessons learning” game, DARWARS Ambush!, developed under the DARPA Training Superiority Program (DARWARS) and managed by the Office of Naval Research (ONR). DARWARS Ambush! is a computer-based training game that enables squads to experience and respond to am bush situations. Although initially focused on the most common types of ambushes observed in Iraq, those involving convoy operations and improvised explosive devices (IEDs), DARWARS Ambush! is designed to be useful in training for more general operations, such as military operations in urban terrain (MOUT). A primary feature of DARWARS Ambush! is that it allows troops in the field to construct and modify scenarios based on their experiences in order to pass along their hard-won knowledge to other military personnel. The system is being developed as a modification of an existing commercial game, which provides an immersive and compelling experience. This “leveraging” of commercial software is enabling the project to meet its ambitious schedule – development, testing, and deployment within six months.

2004 Paper No. 1835

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The DARWARS Tactical Language Training System

 

W. L. Johnson, S. Marsella, H. Vilhjálmsson 

CARTE, USC / Info. Science Institute

Marina del Rey, CA

 

The DARWARS Tactical Language Training System (TLTS) helps learners acquire basic communicative skills in foreign languages and cultures. Learners practice their communication skills in a simulated village, where they must develop rapport with the local people, who in term will help them accomplish missions such as post-war reconstruction. Each learner is accompanied by a virtual aide who can provide assistance and guidance if needed, tailored to each learner’s individual skills. The aide can also act as a virtual tutor as part of an intelligent tutoring system, giving the learner feedback on their performance. Learners communicate via a multimodal interface, which permits them to speak and choose gestures on behalf of their character in the simulation. The system employs video game technologies and design techniques, in order to motivate and engage learners. A version for Levantine Arabic has been developed, and versions for other languages are in the process of being developed. A first version is scheduled to be transitioned into use by US Special Forces in late 2004.

 

The TLTS project has developed and integrated several advanced technologies, including speech recognition tailored for learner speech, motivational tutorial dialog, learner modeling, and multi-agent social simulations. The virtual aide in the game is implemented as a pedagogical agent, able to interact with learners at a motivational and social level as well as a cognitive level. Character behavior in the game is controlled by the Psychsim cognitive modeling system, that models the motivations of social agents. Multi-user authoring tools enable linguists, instructional designers, and simulation developers to collaborate in the specification and construction of lessons and simulations in multiple languages. The TLTS is part of the DARWARS Training Superiority program developing new technologies for military training.

2004 Paper No. 1568

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Embedded Distributed Training: Combining Simulations, IETMs, and Operational Code

 

George Cooper , Randy Brown, Brooke Whiteford, Geoffrey Frank

RTI International

 

MAJ(P) Keith Perkins

DOT US Army Signal Center

Ft Gordon, Georgia

 

SFC Joseph Lizama

15th Signal Brigade

Ft Gordon, Georgia

 

Sustainment training on the operation and maintenance of high availability systems is difficult since the system cannot be taken out of service for training purposes. However, the operators and maintainers must be well trained to react quickly to events that could jeopardize system availability. Web-delivered simulations are a good way of providing such training because they won’t affect system availability and are widely available.

 

High availability systems require sophisticated system control software to support fault tolerance and online maintenance. These systems and their Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals (IETM) are becoming much more tightly integrated, and use of the system control software is an essential part of operation and maintenance training. The best way to train interactions with this software is to incorporate as much of the actual software as practical into the simulation, so that the operator/maintainer “trains as he fights.”

 

This paper describes a simulation that was developed to train 31S MOS soldiers how to operate and maintain the AN/GSC-52A ground strategic satellite communication station. This simulation required integration with the strategic software for system Control, Monitoring, and Alarms and with the system IETM. This simulation was developed to support conversion of 31S to assignment oriented training. The simulation includes a “system control and indicators” lesson that shares its content with the corresponding section of the IETM. A signal flow lesson is used to help the student visualize the content of the “concept of operations” section of the IETM. Operational lessons include pre-operational checks and restoring communications links. Troubleshooting lessons include the use of test equipment such as spectrum analyzer.

 

Web-based delivery of these simulations presents challenges for balancing training requirements and delivery systems and capabilities. This paper describes some of the tradeoffs made in the development of this simulation.

2004 Paper No. 1922

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Scenario Management Methods for On-Board, Self-Directed Training of a Naval Command Team

 

Dr. E.F.T. Buiël

TNO Physics and Electronics Laboratory

PO Box 96864, 2509 JG The Hague

The Netherlands

 

Lt/cdr R.J. van Kampen

Royal Netherlands Navy

PO Box 10000, 1780 CA Den Helder

The Netherlands

 

TNO Physics and Electronics Laboratory, The Hague (The Netherlands), investigates the potentials of embedded training for the Royal Netherlands Navy (RNLN). Embedded training is defined as an interactive, simulation-based training capability built into operational systems in order to enhance and maintain skill proficiency. Our objective is to find an embedded training solution, which enables an operational command team to prepare for new missions and live training by means of self-directed training and self-assessment on-board.

 

Scenario management is the process of defining, preparing, executing, analyzing, and evaluating a training scenario in an interactive simulation-training environment. Scenario management of on-board, self-directed team training is challenging. This is because no dedicated training staff is available; team members must perform scenario management tasks all by themselves. Frequently, team members will lack the didactic experience of a dedicated training staff. Additionally, as they are themselves part of the training, they lack the time to assess the team performance during the scenario execution. Even more important, they lack insight in the overall team performance and the performances of individual team members. This is why scenario management tools need to provide didactic support to the team and need to facilitate the registration of team performance during the scenario execution.

 

This paper describes two scenario management methods for self-directed training. A peer-to-peer method has been evaluated, where each team member act s as a trainee as well as an observe r for colleague team members. This method seems feasible for self-directed training of a small team in a not too complex training scenario. In other situations, a different solution has to be found. Here, a scenario management method will be considered, where one team member no longer trains his or her primary task, but coordinates the training, and acts as the training facilitator for the other team members. This method will be evaluated in 2004.

2004 Paper No. 1484

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Integrating Technologies for Shipboard Helicopter Signaling Skill Training

 

John W. Ruffner, Ph.D., Kathleen D. Titley, Jim Fulbrook, Ph.D.

DCS Corporation,

Alexandria, Virginia

 

Thomas M. Franz, Psy.D.

NAVAIR – Orlando Training Systems Division,

Orlando, Florida

 

A wide range of training technologies, such as instructor-led, hands-on, computer-/web-based training (CBT/WBT), and virtual reality simulation are integral parts of a trainer’s toolbox. Since each technology has strengths and limitations, integrating technologies to achieve skill training effectiveness is necessary. Signaling helicopter landings, takeoffs, and flight operations on U.S. Navy ships with small decks is a critical mission skill initially trained in the schoolhouse and later reinforced during shipboard training. Currently, U.S. Navy schoolhouse Landing Signal Enlisted (LSE) courses train signaling skills using a combination of instructor presentations and practice sessions with an actual helicopter, during which each trainee receive s only approximately two minutes of supervised practice. Students are not qualified as LSEs after the course; they must pass a shipboard certification, which may not occur for many months after schoolhouse training. As a result, the Navy identified a requirement to develop and implement additional training and simulation opportunities for signaling skills. This paper describes the development of a CBT/WBT solution for the LSE as an Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) Prototype course. The goals of the project are: 1) to prepare deployed LSE personnel for their Personnel Qualification Standard (PQS) certification once aboard ship and 2) to document the challenges of developing an ADL SCORM conformant course. This paper discusses the results of the training development and integration efforts, and presents examples illustrating novel uses of multimedia and interactive training. In addition, we discuss challenges faced and lessons learned about integrating training technologies and developing SCORM-conformant courseware.

2004 Paper No. 1735

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Rethinking the Collective Task Analysis Process to Support Future Combat System (FCS) Embedded Training

 

David Olsen

Dynamics Research Corporation

 

Bob White

Science Application International Corporation

 

Mike Flynn

Northrup Grumman Information Technology

 

Ed Kersey

Dynamics Research Corporation

 

Jim Mowery

Computer Sciences Corporation

 

Chris Graves

Human Resources Research Organization

 

In the near future, the Future Combat System (FCS) Embedded Training (ET) system will provide Soldiers with stand-alone and distributed collective training that is enabled through embedded training technologies within FCS systems. FCS embedded training will support live, virtual and constructive (LVC) training approaches. Training Support Packages (TSP) for the FCS equipped Unit of Action (UA) will provide all the materials needed for conducting collective training. To support FCS embedded training, the TSP must be a mechanism that will provide commanders with the flexibility to tailor training based upon specific needs of their units. A substantial collective task analysis effort is currently underway to support design of the TSPs that will be implemented in an embedded training environment. This requires a substantial “rethinking” of the traditional collective task analysis process identified in the Army’s Systems Approach to Training (SAT). This paper addresses challenges related to conducting a collective task analysis when the end product is embedded training. Particular emphasis is placed on the approach being used to identify task conditions and how this approach will support a commander’s ability to tailor training in an embedded training environment. Finally, discussion is provided on how data products from the task analysis are being leveraged to support FCS embedded training system and software engineering teams.

2004 Paper No. 1533

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THE UTILITY OF METRICS IN TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS - LESSONS LEARNT FROM RN TNA

 

Lt Cdr C. B. Cook RN

NTE(TTD)

Portsmouth, UK

 

Adoption of formal Training Needs Analysis (TNA) in the Royal Navy (RN) followed an investigation by the UK National Audit Office (NAO) into the use of simulators in training. The NAO report, released in 1992, recommended the implementation of rigorous methods for assessing the effectiveness of training solutions across the UK Armed Forces. Now in common use, TNA is the single methodology recommended by the UK MOD Acquisition Management System for determining the most cost-effective methods of meeting training requirements.  The aim of this paper is to research and expose the ways in which the RN, through its published guidance on the conduct of TNA, has sought to fulfil the requirements of the NAO report. In particular, the Author w ill investigate and justify the importance awarded to auditability and objectivity, common threads to the evolving TNA methodology, and conduct a review of existing metrics employed in TNA. This review will explore the utility of metrics, based on evidence from RN TNA, and will present a set of lessons learnt from the implementation of quantification techniques. Thus the Author will attempt to set the limits of achievable objectivity throughout TNA and seek to disprove the commonly-held misconception that auditability is confined exclusively to the domain of metrics.

 

The paper will conclude with recommendations formulated to assist TNA practitioners strike an objectivity balance, which seeks to avoid reliance on metrics alone. The Author’s recommendations will be placed in context of the RN’s latest guidance on TNA, which seeks to redress the balance generated by earlier over-prescription of quantification. In this way, a practicable approach for addressing the objectivity/subjectivity equilibrium will be presented, enabling the training analyst to generate more timely, meaningful and reliable information in support of the acquisition process.

2004 Paper No. 1530

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Enhancing Simulation-Based Training with Performance Measurement Objects

 

Webb Stacy, Ph.D., Jared Freeman, Ph.D.

Aptima, Inc.

Woburn, MA & Washington, DC

 

Stephanie Lackey, Danielle Merket

NAVAIR Training Systems Division

Orlando, FL

 

Current simulation object models are optimized to support practice, not training. Training requires support for human performance measurement and feedback. This, in turn, requires that simulation object models give first class status to data concerning human performance. We define Performance Measurement Objects (PMO), which represent actors, behavioral data, and measurement methods. PMOs support the real-time requirements of intelligent agents, human observer/instructors, and distributed performance assessment processors.

2004 Paper No.1704

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How to Effectively and Efficiently Develop, Test, and Train Rules of Engagement

 

William M. Knarr, Jr.

Simulation Center

Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA)

Alexandria, Virginia

 

Richard K. Wright

Simulation Center

Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA)

Alexandria, Virginia

 

Rules of Engagement (ROE) that govern the use of force have come under increased scrutiny since the commitment of forces to Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in Afghanistan. ROE have come to the attention of Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld, who wants to improve the ROE development, testing, and training process. He sought solutions through the Defense Science Board (DSB) and Joint Staff. The FY 2002 DSB on “Training for Future Conflicts” was asked to look at ROE training challenges. In addition, in June 2002 the Secretary of Defense tasked the Joint Staff to rewrite the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, Standing ROE. His guidance was to keep them simple and understandable, with emphasis on the commander’s mission and the ability of service members to execute the ROE.

 

The genesis for this project was ROE issues arising from OEF. Some individuals perceived that ROE confusion and constraints, both in terms of targeting sets and approval authorities, resulted in frustration and missed opportunities. ROE issues and concerns are not endemic only to this conflict. They occurred in other military operations before and after OEF. Nor are they isolated to on e service or functional area; the multitude of environments and perspectives make applying them complex and require combatant command and service ROE supplements to support the operational environment. The problem becomes, “How do we more effectively and efficiently develop, test, and train ROE?

 

The objectives of this effort are to (1) identify key ROE issues/lessons learned in various case studies from the warfighter’s perspective; (2) identify shortcomings in the ROE development, testing, and training process; and (3) offer training and simulation solutions.

2004 Paper No.1547

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The Use of MMF to Organize, Train, and Equip the Force

 

Ronald Smits

Dynamics Research Corporation

Andover, MA

 

John Kearley

Dynamics Research Corporation

Virginia Beach, VA

 

The Missions and Means Framework supports DoD’s transformation from a Forces-based, materiel-centric (focused on the "players") Cold War posture to a Mission-based, capability-centric (focused on the "playbook") asymmetric warfare focus. The framework establishes a disciplined, repeatable procedure for explicitly specifying the mission and assessing mission accomplishment. The framework is an integrated procedure for deriving mission requirements in accordance with join t guidance, analyzing the task, cap ability, and solution trade-offs, and specifying the required capabilities and training needs. This paper will outline the concepts of the MMF and detail the methodology’s successful employment in each of the following 4 areas:

a)        The US Army’s Future Combat Systems Acquisition Program (supporting the Program Office, the Combined Test Organization, and the Training IPT)

b)       Operations Plan to Task Decomposition in support of DUSD(R) as requested by Joint Staff J-7. The Study identified the war plan mission-specific JMETL for the responsible combatant command (USPACOM) down to supporting tasks at every subordinate echelon. The resulting list of decomposed tasks, conditions and standards was provided to the Joint Staff and DUS D(R). The office of the Undersecretary of Defense (Personnel and Readiness) will use the interim and final reports to guide their combatant command readiness reporting

c)        The Joint Readiness Mission for the Joint National Training Capability, specifying mission to task to capability to materiel and non-materiel solutions to determine effective Joint Training Requirements

d)       The use of Missions and Means Framework

 

The paper will further demonstrate how these results are consistent with the “Joint Defense Capabilities Study: Final Report” recently completed. This Study, led by the Honor able Pete Aldridge, concluded that among other findings, a common framework is essential to enable the organizational change requirements for DOTMLPF.

2004 Paper No. 1753

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Auto-Authoring Instruction from Ontological Representations of Procedures

 

Alan O Meeks, Gabriel Aviles, Lee Lacy 

Dynamics Research Corporation

Orlando, Florida

 

The Semantic Web is the next evolution of the World Wide Web (WWW), offering new technology solutions for developing and presenting instruction. The key enabling technology supporting the Semantic Web is ontologies. A new WWW Consortium (W3C) standard, the Web Ontology Language - OWL, is used to encode ontologies for the Semantic Web. OWL can be used to represent and structure procedural knowledge for use in job aid delivery systems. By auto-authoring procedural instruction in real-time based on current conditions, development costs are reduced and just-in-time training can occur.

 

This paper describes the results from a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) research effort to develop ontologies and software to auto-author procedural Interactive Multimedia Instruction “on-the-fly” from disparate Semantic Web knowledgebases. The job aid delivery system dynamically selects content using specific user conditions when instruction is needed. This capability is enabled through the use of OWL-encoded procedural knowledgebases. The content is formatted based on pedagogical rules that take into consideration the end user’s form factor and delivery mechanisms including user interface issues (e.g., screen real estate). Sample demonstration content has been developed for Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) technicians responsible for handling Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs).

2004 Paper No. 1745

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Mixed Reality: A Tool for Integrating Live, Virtual & Constructive Domains to Support Training Transformation

 

Frank S. Dean , Jr., Pat Garrity

STTC, RDECOM

Orlando, FL

 

Christopher B. Stapleton

University of Central Florida

Orlando, Florida

 

The art and science of simulation, interactive entertainment and experiential learning have converged to provide new capabilities that have the potential to melt the boundaries between the training domains of virtual, live and constructive simulation and to create the next generation of Mixed Reality. Pulling from the foundational research of augmented reality, Mixed Reality has been able to tap the latest science and technology to spark the imagination and emotions. Mixed Reality may be the missing component needed to meet the challenge of transforming combined/joint training into the future. Once fully developed and implemented, Mixed Reality must create a training environment that combines the visceral nature of live training, with the dynamic and non-linear characteristics of virtual and constructive simulation.

2004 Paper No. 1894

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MILITARY OPERATIONS OTHER THAN WAR: A TOOLBOX FOR WARRIORS

 

Mr. John Cipparone, Mr. Wayne Randolph 

Dynamics Research Corporation

Andover, MA

 

The importance of “military operations other than war” (MOOTW) continues to grow as DoD structures its forces to combat threats that challenge our democratic values. As in Afghanistan and Iraq, MOOTW often encompasses open-ended missions unrelated to traditional military co re competencies. Geopolitical factors, transformations in U.S. security policies, terrorists’ attacks, and the proliferation of technology, all serve to reinforce DoD’s mandate for its warfighters to “fight and win” on the MOOTW battlefield.

 

To acknowledge such realities, and in response to operational needs for modeling non-force-on-force peace support and stability operations, the Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO) continues to explore modeling and simulation (M&S) technologies relevant to MOOTW. In consonance with the initial vision that created a prototype MOOTW “toolbox” to advance planning, end-to-end analysis, decision support, rehearsal, and training, DMSO is refining its effort to en able the tools to be used in a complementary manner across the levels of war. Correspondingly, an ex tension of this program includes ongoing initiatives to extract C4ISR data from selective DoD  C4I systems and to ingest discrete data into the toolbox to initialize/update vignettes for the models/applications to use.

 

This paper will describe the current status of DMSO’s initiative to develop and field a “toolbox” that enables warriors to prosecute aspects of selective mission areas within MOOTW across shifting civil-military operations. Inclusive in this paper is an overview of the toolbox architecture that enables tools to exchange data in Extensible Markup Language, thereby providing leaders more time to think through symmetric and asymmetric interactions inherent in MOOTW. Moreover, lessons-learned from the toolbox’s recent employment in Iraq by an analyst from the Center for Army Analysis will be discussed as it relates to ongoing and future opportunities in support of Service and joint operations.

2004 Paper No. 1514

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OneSAF Interoperability with CTIA – A LVC Connectivity Approach

 

Paul Dumanoir

U.S. Army PEO STRI

Orlando, Florida

 

Barbara J. Pemberton

U.S. Army PEO STRI

Orlando, Florida

 

William Samper

U.S. Army PEO STRI

Orlando, Florida

 

The U.S. Army Program Executive Office (PEO) Simulation Training and Instrumentation (STRI) is using a product line approach to develop two major simulation domain products – OneSAF Objective System (OOS) for the Computer Generated Forces (CGFs) domain and the Common Training Instrumentation Architecture (CTIA) for the live training instrumentation domain. The OOS is the Army’s next generation entity level brigade an d below constructive simulation, specifically designed to meet the needs of the three major Army modeling and simulation (M&S) domains. OOS is based on a Product Line Architecture Framework (PLAF), which provides a mechanism to organize, categorize, and define the layered software structure to incrementally meet the OneSAF requirements. The OOS PLAF identifies functionally relevant software components that can be used as building blocks for higher level functionality. The CTIA is a product line architecture that provides the foundation by which the Live Training Transformation (LT2) product line common and product-unique components are developed and then employed by the LT2 applications. The CTIA provides its own PLAF (protocols, standards, interfaces, etc.) to leverage commonality of requirements in support of integrated exercises using multiple training range instrumentation, Tactical Engagement Simulation System (TESS), and targetry systems at Combat Training Centers, home station, institutions, and while deployed. This paper provides an overview of these two simulation products and proposes a concept whereby these two products work together in conjunction with the Army Constructive Training Federate (ACTF) and the Combined Arms Tactical Trainer (CATT) family of virtual simulators to provide a seamless Army and Joint interoperable Live-Virtual-Constructive (LVC) connectivity solution.

2004 Paper No. 1482

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CACCTUS: Linking the Live, Virtual, and Constructive Environments

 

Lieutenant Colonel Robert K. Armstrong

Deputy, Technology Division, TECOM

Quantico, VA

 

Dr. Michael Page Bailey, PhD

Director, Technology Division, TECOM

Quantico, VA

 

Lieutenant Colonel Gregory R. Caldwell

Liaison Officer, Technology Division, TECOM

Orlando, FL

 

Nancy Harmon

Project Officer, CACCTUS, PM Training Systems

Orlando, FL

 

The Marine Corps’ Combined Arms Command and Control Training Upgrade System (CACCTUS) is a transformational program that will add significant enhancements to the all aspects of Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) training. CACCTUS will enable comprehensive Marine Corps staff, unit, and individual training across the Live, Virtual, and Constructive (LVC) training realms through the incorporation of all appropriate Command, Control, Communication, Computers, and Intelligence (C4I) architectures and equipment. Further, CACCTUS will facilitate multi-echelon as well as distributed training opportunities, thereby increasing the breadth and scope of future training events. Also, CACCTUS will incorporate links to and from the live training environment, to include robust capture and display of events for detailed after action review. This paper describes the capabilities that CACCTUS will bring to the Marine Corps and how it will further Marine Corps Training Transformation.

2004 Paper No. 1572

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Promoting Air and Space Operations Center (AOC) Training Transformation by Quantifying and Refining AOC Training Scenarios

 

Capt David Rodriguez , Lt Chad Tossell

Air Force Research Laboratory

Mesa, AZ

 

Dr. Michael Garrity, Rebecca Morley

Aptima Inc.

Woburn, MA

 

The AOC is a weapon unlike any other in the United States Air Force (USAF) inventory. Training hundreds of personnel across various duty specialties to function toward common Joint Force Air Component Commander (JFACC) objectives is a complex and arduous task. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Warfighter Training Research Division, along with Aptima Inc., and the Group for Organizational Effectiveness (GOE), have undertaken this challenge and have begun to define AOC training requirements. The method by which they have defined these requirements includes an in-depth and specific functional work analysis of each division to obtain the necessary knowledge and skills a person needs to be competent in his or her position within an AOC.   This paper focuses on three ways to apply this process to transform traditional AOC training. To date, AOC training events utilize large-scale scenarios built by experienced AOC personnel. These scenarios focus on training objectives at a general level across the AOC. Consequently, due to the numerous jobs within an AOC and the generality of the current scenarios, traditional AOC training has not been efficient. The outcomes of this research can be used to enhance scenarios used for AOC training and construct a training repertoire at a level more inclusive of the entire training audience, thus optimizing the training received during large-scale exercises and ensuring AOC operators receive the most comprehensive training possible. By linking a comprehensive list of specific knowledge and skills to actions elicited by scenarios, we aim to (1) identify possible training gaps missed by current scenarios, (2) refine current scenarios to better focus the training objectives for all participants, and (3) develop a more comprehensive list of scenarios to cover all knowledge and skills required to be an expert AOC operator working within the Combat Operations Division (COD) and related support functions.

2004 Paper No. 1822

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Army Training Support System and Implications of Training Transformation (T2)

 

Randall Chalkley 

U.S. Army Training Support Center

Fort Eustis, Virginia

 

The Army’s Training Support System (TSS) is based on an analysis of the training capabilities required to develop and sustain an expeditionary land force for conducting operations within the Common Operating Environment. The TSS encompasses the capabilities required to enable an operationally relevant training environment which is networked, integrated, and interoperable using analysis of new warfighting capabilities and operational capability trends on training support in the Army. The intent is to ensure a robust, persistent capability that provides the full spectrum of training whenever and wherever needed. This paper will describe the framework of the TSS components and supporting subcomponents and capabilities. This structure provides a rigorous and exhaustive description of 1) the product lines that define the related families of training systems, 2) the architectures and standards that enable interoperability and networking, and 3) the business processes in management, evaluation, and resources that produce these capabilities. The paper will also discuss the implications that DoD Training Transformation (T2) capabilities will have on the Army TSS, such as how the TSS must be extensible and integrated into the emerging T2 training capabilities. This will also enable the “gap and seam” approach that JNTC uses for identifying vertical and horizontal Joint training deficiencies and redundancies to the area of training support. Finally, this paper provides a description of not only how the T2 capabilities will affect TSS design, but also provides suggestions on how T2 could benefit from the fundamental analysis on which the TSS is built.

2004 Paper No. 1690

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Evolving DODAF: An Integrated Training Enterprise - Delivery Architecture Framework

 

David A. Dryer , Hungria Berbesi 

Virginia Modeling, Analysis and Simulation Center (VMASC), Old Dominion University

Norfolk VA 23529

 

This paper describes an approach to help enable 21st Century transformation of military training organizations using an integrated enterprise-delivery architecture framework (IEDAF). This architectural framework is currently being used to model the U.S. Army Training Support System (TSS) and has promising application to the Joint National Training Capability (JNTC), as well as other enterprise domains. The current Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DODAF) has limitations when applied to training enterprise development. Although many DOD framework products have been applied to other enterprise domains, the views, relationships, and associated data types were originally in tended to develop Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems. C4ISR and other similar systems map well to current DODAF operational, systems, and technical standards views. In contrast with such operational systems, a military training support enterprise can be described as a complex system of endeavors within national security and defense environments, enabling delivery of highly integrated training capabilities to meet warfighter mission needs. The DODAF is not as well suited to model such enterprise systems, which conduct life cycle activities resulting in a full range of deliverable system s and services. These enterprises need to frame concepts including; customer-driven deliverable use cases, deliverable system views, enterprise business practices, and enterprise system infrastructure. Relationships between these concepts need to be defined, as well as characteristic s including; enterprise to deliverable interactions, modes of delivery, and deliverable types. To address these needs, IEDAF extends DODAF by incorporating both an “enterprise” dimension and a “deliverable capability” dimension in its framework. Five views and associated schema extensions are specified involving; deliverable operational and implementation views, enterprise business practice and system views, as well as a technical standards view. In the military training domain, this is enabling the development of a fully integrated, interoperable training support enterprise driven from planned delivery of military operational and training capabilities.

2004 Paper No. 1695

This paper is available on the 2004 I/ITSEC CD ROM.

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Performance Support Solutions: What You Need When You Need It

 

Rich Arnold

Vice President, Training and Simulation

UNITECH

Centreville, VA

 

Steve Flowers

U.S. Coast Guard

Performance Technology Center

Training Center Yorktown, VA

 

Performance support system (PSS) products are tools that supplement the performance limitations of a performer or system. These products can manifest in many forms ranging from simple paper based quick references to portable data assistant (PDA) applications and fully web deliverable immersive synthetic environments. In many forms, these applications are widely used in government and industry, including the U.S. Coast Guard, Federal Aviation Administration, and U.S. Marine Corps. This presentation includes practical examples of replicable tools and methods proponents can use to foster cost-effective PSS development and implementation within any organization. Drawing on case study examples and practical applications that blend simulation, training and exercises with PSS to significantly improve field performance, various models and perspectives are explored. Specific elements include:

·          Presentation of a take-away performance support model participants can use to identify when PSS is appropriate and, if so, what sort of PSS solution w ill best fit their needs. Model elements include price/cost, solution sets, training Vs. PSS, project complexity/scalability, media, deployment strategies relative to infrastructure and cultural readiness.

·          Definition supported by examples to highlight the differences between performance support, training, and simple job aids and examples of methods for moving desktop support to other delivery methods when the performer doesn’t work at a desktop or in an office environment.

·          Methods and perspectives that can be applied to blend training and performance support into powerful and complementary learning/job support tools, including designing solution complexity based on user/performer expertise and creating performer and job appropriate PSS interfaces, metaphors, and language.

·          Demonstration of highly engaging and effective non-vendor specific PSS examples that range from PDA based solutions to server delivered desktop immersive environments.

2004 Paper No. 1669

This paper is available on the 2004 I/ITSEC CD ROM.

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Advanced Training for Commanders: A Competency-Based Approach to Training Requirements Definition for the JFACC

 

Dr. George Alliger

The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc.

Albany, NY

 

James M. McCall

Simulation Technologies, Inc.

Mesa, AZ

 

Dr. Michael J. Garrity and Katrina See

Aptima, Inc.

Woburn, MA

 

Lt Chad Tossell

Air Force Research Laboratory

Mesa, AZ

 

The Joint Force Air Component Commander (JFACC) is the commander of air assets and answers directly to the Joint Force Commander (JFC). The Air and Space Operations Center (AOC) is the weapon system which enables the JFACC to accomplish these command and control (C2) responsibilities. Currently, JFACCs receive little preparatory training for the complex AOC environment. General John P. Jumper, CSAF, said of Kosovo: “LGen Michael Short, JFACC of Operation Allied Force, trained himself in the operational level of warfare… [Most of us in Air Force leadership] trained ourselves, because our system did not.” (AF Magazine, April 2000). Unfortunately, this is still the case. The Air Force recognizes that the AOC’s weapon system designation necessitates a comprehensive training program.

 

The AF Research Laboratory, Mesa Research Site, has begun an effort to define JFACC training needs in terms of requisite competencies, knowledge and skills critical to the JFACC responsibilities. JFACC competency definitions will provide a foundation for the development of advanced training and competency assessment tools. Ultimately, this will provide the means to design critical events into a scenario targeted at training JFACC-specific objectives. This vital link between competencies and scenario-based training is the key to future development of specialized training for senior C2 personnel. The initial participants for this effort were former JFACCs in the Air Force. Results will be validated via interviews with recent JFACCs, as well as other senior AOC leadership, including AOC Directors and Division Chiefs.

 

In this paper we will discuss the initial results of our analysis with the former JFACCs. Additionally, we will analyze the findings of this effort against results of other ongoing competency definition efforts aimed at the lower level operators within the AOC. Finally, we will discuss potential approaches to training senior-level personnel in scenario-based training environments.

2004 Paper No. 1834

This paper is available on the 2004 I/ITSEC CD ROM.

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Cross-Divisional Analysis of Competency-Based Training Requirements for the Air and Space Operations Center (AOC)

 

Dr. George Alliger

The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc.

Albany, NY

 

James M. McCall

Simulation Technologies, Inc.

Mesa, AZ

 

Dr. Michael J. Garrity

Aptima, Inc.

Woburn, MA

 

Capt Larry Beer, Lt Chad Tossell

Air Force Research Laboratory

Mesa, AZ

 

As a result of standardization and fiscal inefficiencies, the US Air Force designated the AOC as a weapon system four years ago to improve its condition. Since then, this classification has sparked multiple efforts to advance AOC training. One such effort that has caught the interest of many in the Air Force, including the current Chief of Staff of the Air Force, is competency-based research conducted by the Air Force Research Laboratory Warfighter Training Research Division, Aptima Incorporated, and the Group for Organizational Effectiveness (GOE). Detailed competency-based knowledge, skill, and experience requirements have been identified for individuals working throughout the AOC, from the Joint Force Air Component Commander (JFACC) down through each position within four of the five major divisions of the AOC.

 

While the AOC training research efforts have been focused at the division and JFACC levels, this paper will leverage both approaches to begin to identify overall implications for AOC operator training. More specifically, the competencies, knowledge, skills, and experiences will be compared and contrasted across the four divisions. Special emphasis will be given to how these coincide with or differ from the JFACC analysis effort. In addition, a comprehensive inventory of AOC training requirements will be developed from this analysis along with recommendations for competency-based training for AOC operators at all levels of responsibility. Finally, as progress is made towards automated and enhanced training performance measurement, this analysis will help drive several efforts in targeted training tool development for AOC operators and teams.

2004 Paper No. 1827

This paper is available on the 2004 I/ITSEC CD ROM.

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SYNTHETIC TECHNOLOGIES – A SELECTION SCHEMA FOR FUTURE AIRCREW TRAINING SYSTEMS

 

Steven J. Tourville, PhD

Lockheed Martin Simulation,

Training & Support

Orlando, FL

 

Richard T.M. Deverson, LCDR Royal Navy

UK MFTS,

Defence Procurement Agency

Abbey Wood, United Kingdom

 

The UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) have recognised a gap exists between their current training cap abilities designed to support a past generation of ab-initio flying training requirements, and the projected need to produce aircrew capable of performing in next-generation operational aircraft with modern mission systems. The MoD is responding by conceptualising a future UK Military Flying Training System (UKMFTS) system design, to which industry is anticipated to propose a number of future synthetic technology solutions. Any evaluation of new, potentially emergent, synthetic capabilities to support claims of integrated training capability, however, must include informed consideration of how such technologies are conceived in current practice, the degree of effectiveness, and for what projected purposes these may be used in relation to future training systems.

 

Thus, the MoD sponsored an applied study into in-service synthetic technologies and protocols, viewed in terms of how these may become integrated into a next-generation flying training system. The study includes assessments of sixteen cross-functional synthetic technology areas, current and projected applications, a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) construct, and a summary-level schema in tended to inform Mo D decision-makers on selection protocols where synthetic technologies are conceptualised for training system purposes.

 

This paper describes the study approach and synthesises the synthetic technologies assessment and schema results.

 

Data to be reported within each synthetic technology area include: (1) current and projected advantages and limitations (e.g., speech recognition systems provide a practical mechanism to navigate MFD screens, however, high-noise and/or stress environments cause imperfect results) ; (2) TRL; (3 ) projections of future training techniques (e.g., advanced distributed learning systems enable change in training delivery strategies to an ‘online’ flight school paradigm); and (4) projections of training tasks, methods, or related purposes, as may be applied to an future flying training system’s operational capability.

2004 Paper No. 1527

This paper is available on the 2004 I/ITSEC CD ROM.

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