I/ITSEC 2000 TABLE OF CONTENTS
Emerging Concepts Technology Applications
What Makes A Distance Education Program First Rate?
Learning With Reflection: Project Praxis
Experiments In Decision Analysis Techniques For Simulation Based Acquisition
Immersive Virtual Environments To Support System Design And Acquisition
Development Of A Virtual Distributed Collaborative Environment
Development Of A Virtual Proving Ground Using High-Resolution Terrain
21st Century Terrain - Entering The Urban Work
Dynamic Terrain In A Distributed Simulation Environment With Low Cost PC
Quantitative Performance-Driven PC-Based Image Generator Evaluation For Visual Integrated Display Systems
Developing Intelligent Infrared Targets For Testing And Training (Irt3)
Establishing Unit Control Methodology To Support Embedded Simulation
Simulation Driven Virtual Objects In Real Scenes
Tracking Technologies For Virtual Reality Training Applications: A Case Study
An Evaluation Of The Training Effectiveness Of Virtual Environments
Employing Augmentation In Virtual Environments For Maintenance Training
Finite-State Grammatical Model And Parser For Air Traffic Controller's Commands
A Speech-Controlled Interactive Virtual Environment For Ship Familiarization
Speech Recognition In Noisy Military Training Environments
Aggregation Of Entities For Entity-Aggregation Simulation Interoperability
On The Fidelity Of SAFs; Can Performance Data Help?
Use Of Active Network Technologies For Distributed Simulation
Higher-Level Integrated Team Training Environment For Space (Hilite)
Closed-Loop Adaptive Training - Applications For Satellite Operator Training
An Empirical Evaluation Of The Java And C++ Programming Languages
Direct Use Of Avionics Software In Trainers
Simulator Cost Reduction Using A Distributed I/O And Distributed Power Architecture
Automated Linear Feature Extraction In Support Of Rapid Database Generation
Enhancing Training Systems W/ Text Mining
Extending Simulation Interfaces To Mobile Computing Platforms
Improving Simulator Accuracy With Integrated Analysis Of Flight Data
Military Medicine Modeling And Simulation In The 21st Century
New COTS Hardware And Software Reduce The Cost And Effort In Replacing Aging Flight Simulators Subsystems
Realistic Modeling Of Chemical And Biological Agent Transport And Effects
UCAV Distributed Mission Training Testbed: Lessons Learned And Future Challenges
VERTS Synthetic Urban Environment Development Process - End To End
Web-Based Simulation And The Virtual Reality Modeling Language
Education Instruction and Training Methodology
Mentoring The Development Of Low Cost, Web-Deliverable Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS)
Development Of A Learning Continuum For The Navy Learning Network (NLN)
Live Web Based Training, Is Synchronous Better? Prototype Case Study Results
MITAS And Mentor - Authoring Systems For Developing Computer Based Instruction With 3d Microworlds And Dialogue
What Is A CBT Element?
Improving CBT By VR Elements
Briefing Room Interactive (BRI): An Assessment Of A Web-Based Flight Preparation System In The F-117a
DOD Advanced Distributed Learning Network
The Field Guide To Veterans Service Representative (VSR) Training: A Web Based Training Case Study
Tactical Action Officer Intelligent Tutoring System (TAO ITS)
A Constructivist Approach To Distance Learning For Counterterrorist Intelligence Analysis
Coaching Techniques For Adaptive Thinking
Cognitive Training Initiatives: A Case Study Of Aircrew Training
Technology Infusion Change Management: From Technology Frenzy To Transformation
Maximizing Technology Integration Efforts Using A Research-Based Approach
Building An Affective Component To Enhance An Intelligent Tutoring System For Shiphandling
Intelligent Tutoring System For Tactical Aircraft
Lessons Learned And Future Challenges
Intelligent Tutoring Systems For Procedural Task Training Of Remote Payload Operations At NASA
Guidelines For Evaluation Of Internet-Based Instruction
Distributed Digital Skills Laboratory: A Virtual Coaching Environment For Information Systems Training
Using The Theory Of Equivalency To Bring On-Site And Online Learning Together
Distributed Learning In Support Of Enhanced Regional Security
Database-Managed Training system For Customer-Specific Training
Guidelines For Designing Online Learning
Training The Marine Corps With Tactical Decision Games
Structuring Training For Simulations
Soldiers As Distance Learners: What Army Trainers Need To Know
Human Factors Engineering and Integration
Networked Simulators: Effects On The Perceptual Validity Of Traffic In Driving Simulators
The Development Of Information Visualization design Guidelines
Fighter Aircrew Visual Cue Analysis In Aircrew Terms
A Generic Assessment Tool For Evaluating C2 Exercises
Guidelines For Developing A Hand-Held, Configurable Set Of Team Performance Measurement Tools
The Application Of A Validated Human Performance Model To Support Predictions Of Future Military System Capability
Using Human Performance Prediction To Assess Manning Requirements
A Bridge Between Cockpit/Crew Resource Management And Distributed Mission Training For Fighter Pilots
Supporting Shipboard Network Operations Through Electronic Performance Support Systems
Knowledge Representation As The Core Factor For Developing Computer Generated Skilled Performers
Realtime Modification Of Large Scale Exercises: Supporting The Management Of Human Trainer Resources
Considering Human Requirements In Training System Design: A Vision For The 21st Century
Modeling Architecture To Support Goal Oriented Human Performance
COURSE OF ACTION TRAINING FOR HELICOPTER PILOTS
OPTIMIZING THE TRANSFER BETWEEN GENERIC AND TYPE-SPECIFIC SIMULATORS IN INDIVIDUAL AND TEAM TRAINING
Modality Preference And Short Term Memory
The Advanced Technology Crew Station (ATCS) Design Methodology: A Crew-Centered Approach
Modeling and Constructive Simulation
Environmental Data Modeling For Simulation System Requirements Specification
Extending The Terrain Common Data Model To Training Simulations On Low-Cost Visual Systems
Propagation Models And Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Trainers
Communication With Intelligent Agents
Design Of An Observation-Based Autonomous Re-Planning Capability In A Synthetic Unit
Force XXI Battle Command Brigade And Below Digitization Of CCTT
A Temporal Database Approach To Simulation Data Collection And Analysis
Competing Context Concept: Experimental Results
Development Of An Abstract User Interface To Support Multi-Modal Interaction
How Hard Is It To Make A Visual Simulation Database?
Representation Of Urban/Suburban Sprawl Through Real-Time Generation Of Pseudo-Random Cultural Feature Entities
Conversion For Distributed Mission Training PC-Based Image Generators
Modeling Platform Behaviors Under Degraded States Using Context-Based Reasoning
Simulating Human Cognitive Processes: Exploring Aggregate Behaviors In Tactical Simulations
Development Of A 2nd Generation Semi Automated Forces (SAF) Workstation
Modeling And Simulation Augments V-22 Operational Testing
A Case Study On Model Integration, Using Suppressor
GOMS Modeling Application To Watchstation Design Using The Glean Tool
DMT "Fair Fight" Temporal Triad: Weapon, Counter-Measures, Target Via Distributed Ordnance Servers
A Knowledge-Based Simulation Architecture For Assessing And Managing Risk
Data-Driven Knowledge Engineering
Development Of Task-Aware Simulation Systems
Development And Application Of A CB Weapons Effects And Sensor Toolset
Policy and Management
Satellite Command And Control Training For The 21st Century
Crisis Planning And Response (CPR) Web Portal: Opening The Doors Between Interagency And Coalition Communities
Cost Effectiveness Of Embedded Training On Army Ground Vehicles
Always Ready To Learn The Coast Guard Advanced Distributed Learning Initiative
Merging Resident ND Non-Resident Curricula Through Management, Innovation, And ADL Initiatives
Advanced Distributed Learning Co-Laboratory Network
Beyond Our Borders: The Future Of Coalition Simulation
Building Simulation Centers For NATO And PFP Countries
Synthetic Environments - A Vital Tool For UK Defence
Determining Return On Investment In Terms Of Readiness
U.S. Navy's Fleet Aviation Readiness Assessment And Resource Optimization: A Case Study
The Impact Of Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) On Joint Readiness: An Operational View
Specifying The Bowman Simulator Using The Systems Engineering Approach To Training
Standardised development of a needs statement for advanced training means
Procuring A Military Training System In The Commercial Market: Lessons Learned
Evaluating Training Management Software Products: A Case Study
A Decision Support System For Evaluating Training System Improvements and Ensuring Return On Investment
Partnering With High Schools To Build A Greater America: A Case Study
Training and Live/Virtual Simulation
Using Distributed Mission Training To Augment Flight Lead
The Road To DMT
EVOLUTION OF THE PROCESSES USED TO EVALUATE AIRCREW TRAINING DEVICES IN A DISTRIBUTED ENVIRONMENT
A Complex Synthetic Environment For Aircrew Training Research
Training In A Synthetic Environment For Improved Operational Effectiveness In Collective Air Operations
The Subjective Objective Assessment Of Airmanship
Integration Of Fielded Army Aviation Simulators With MODSAF: The Eighth Army Training Solution
Lessons Learned From The Special Operations Forces STOW-A HLA Exercise
I/ITSEC 99 Joint Training Event: HLA Federation Perspective
Legacy Flight Simulation Transitions To The High Level Architecture (HLA) And The Naval Aviation Training Systems Interoperability Maturation Model
Using JTIMS For Knowledge Acquisition In Training And Simulation Requirements Definition
Determining The Right Mix Of Live, Virtual, And Constructive Training
Automated Decision Aid System For Hazardous Incidents (ADASHI)
Military Based User Assessments For Medical Simulation
Simulation Of Voice Communication By Speech Synthesis
Training In Distributed Virtual Environments
Training-Transfer Guidelines For Virtual Environments (VE)
Training Teams With Simulated Teammates
The Army Aviation Collective Training Solution: AVCATT-A
Close Combat Tactical Trainer SAF On A PC
Incorporating Virtual Simulation With Interoperability Training
Integrating Complementary Views On An Exercise Into An Objectives-Based Training Support Toolset
Centralized Training Analysis Facility For Live Training
Australian Collaboration With USN Battle Force Tactical Training Program
An On-Board Training System For LPD-17
Interoperability Of Air Combat Training Systems
Using HLA For Integrating Weapons Analysis Lethality Tool Set (WALTS) With Live Flight Ranges And Virtual Simulators
Improved Battle Training Though FBCB2 Communications Link With Miles 2000
Tactical Driver Training Using Simulation "Recent Experiences In Law Enforcement Driving Simulation
Low Cost Tactical Trainer Instruction / Tactical Training
An Evolutionary Approach To Embedded Training
Baseline Interoperability For Marine Corps Air And Ground Simulators: The Marine Air Ground Task Force Federation Object Model (MAGTF FOM)
paper addresses the issue of quality in Distance Learning ("DL")
programs. It attempts to
examine the issue of quality in distance learning from different angles.
Everywhere you look, new "electronic" institutions are offering
distance learning courses. The
proliferation of DL courses means that colleges, businesses and the military
now have choices in selecting distance learning programs and can implement
first rate programs. At issue in determining quality in distance learning is
"through whose eyes is the quality determined?"
On one hand, technologists built the systems and networks on which DL
programs operate and view quality in mostly technological terms: access,
successful transmissions, download time, etc.
On the other hand, educators, who also view access as a criterion for
quality, concentrate more on the program's ability to elicit learning.
Educators are more interested in the conditions of learning than bandwidth
One of the major components of a first rate DL program is the DL strategy employed by a specific institution. About a decade ago, the first, crude attempts at "distance learning" incorporated various methods to teach people who were widely dispersed geographically. In the early days, video broadcasts presented lectures and early attempts at computer-based learning consisted of throwing text onto the computer screen. Electronic books were merely poor imitations of their print counterparts. For the most part, these first approaches were rather unimaginative. In the last decade, the continuum of distance learning strategies progressed from the simple -- Web pages with text delivered over the Internet, Computer Based Training (CBT) delivery and one-way teleconferences/ videoconferences – through more advanced – synchronous instruction using white boarding available online; two way, interactive synchronous teleconferences; asynchronous videoconference supported by online materials with student collaboration and interaction -- to the more mature technologies of today: online synchronous and asynchronous delivery of instructor-developed curricula and multi-media instructional objects, artificial intelligence including various avenues for student interaction/ collaboration and total virtual campus solutions integrating DL courseware with other school functions and student support applications. Regardless of the DL strategy, courseware online needs to motivate, interest and fully involve the students in the learning process. When a boring campus lecture course is converted to monotonous text scrolling across the screen, even the most dedicated and motivated students zone out. The primary test of a course’s inherent quality is if it fully engages the students and elicits the desired learning outcomes. This paper explores what research has indicated are the components of effective courseware, how distance education programs can meet the conditions of learning and how to determine quality.
learning improves significantly when students participate in structured
learning activities in small groups of peers. As the U.S. military moves
from schoolhouse instruction to web-based distance learning, the student
loses this important contact with other students. The educational value of
student collaboration has led to the use of conventional groupware tools,
such as chat and email, in distance learning environments. While these tools
can enrich learning, they require at least two participants who are
available at the same time and cannot guarantee the quality of assistance.
Students in a web-based environment require high-caliber instructional
support on demand. A simulated learning companion, acting as a peer in a
distance learning environment ensures the availability of a collaborator and
encourages the student to learn collaboratively, while drawing upon the
advantages of distance learning. The learning companion we designed for
PRAXIS encourages the student to reflect on and articulate past actions, and
to discuss future intentions and their consequences.
Simulation Based Acquisition (SBA) is an emerging approach for DoD systems
acquisition. SBA can be applied
to a number of acquisition areas, and could be considered as a candidate
strategy or best practice for training systems acquisition. In particular, since training systems often directly include
a simulation component, the potential benefits from SBA may be even more
significant for training systems acquisition than for other types of
systems. It is generally
accepted that SBA must be supported by a collaborative information
technology environment, built around integrated design tools, product and
process databases, models, and simulations.
author’s paper published in the 1999 I/ITSEC conference proceedings (see
Reference 1) described the preparation of an experimental environment to
evaluate candidate data analysis and decision-making techniques that
appeared promising for use within SBA.
The experimental focus included techniques for the post-analysis of
model results, and an evaluation of the desirable characteristics for tools
and techniques that could be used for shaping, defining, and quantifying the
"decision space" very early in the analysis and design process.
The 1999 paper discussed some insights gained during the preparation
process for the experiments, but the experimental results were not available
in time for inclusion. This paper is a continuation that presents the
research involved a series of experiments in which groups of experts applied
different pre- and post- analysis methods to a small scale but realistic
design problem – in this instance, the design of a notional missile.
Data believed typical of what may be expected from future SBA
environments were presented to experts in missile design, who then used the
data to reach missile design trade-off decisions.
A number of information displays were programmed, and in the course
of a series of decision problems, the experts’ preferred display formats
became apparent. Suggestions
for making the preferred displays even more useful were recorded during the
sessions. This paper reviews
the types of information display formats utilized, indicates the ones found
to be most useful by the decisionmakers, and identifies their proposals for
further improvement. In
addition, to help prepare for the graphical data presentation sessions,
structured group decision analysis techniques were employed in advance to
assess the relative importance of several of the decision factors.
This paper summarizes additional insights for SBA decisionmaking
based on employing this alternative decision analysis approach.
M. Bochenek, Ph.D.
Army Tank Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center
at the U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering
Center (TARDEC) are developing and applying high end projection-based
immersive virtual reality tools and engineering-fidelity simulations to meet
Army customer demands for simulation-based evaluation of ground vehicle
designs, technology, and proposed product improvements throughout a
vehicle's life cycle. As part of TARDEC’s continuous improvement of its
Simulation-based Development Processes, TARDEC acquired two projection-based
immersive visualization facilities (i.e., CAVE
, PowerWall ) to
permit multi-functional integrated concept/product teams to assemble and
solve design problems with the assistance of high-end computer visualization
tools. These technologies involve real-time simulation and interactions
through multiple human sensorial channels making users believe they are
interacting with real vehicle systems when in actuality they are only
interacting with computer generated replicas.
this synthetic environment team members can simultaneously enter a virtual
product design world and jointly evaluate design issues, ideas and
parameters, each from their own experience, perspective, and functional
responsibility. This paper will describe our virtual product design process,
the visualization toolset assembled, a
summary of the customization necessary, highlights of our experiences
to date in a series of user applications, changes and effects on the Army
acquisition process, and future research directions. These visualization
tools are being used in the Army to evaluate technologies that will
significantly change the user’s role in the operation of its vehicles. It
will also have application in the development and evaluation of technologies
going into the Army’s Brigade Combat Team and Future Combat Systems.
M. Bochenek, Ph.D.1
Army Tank Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center,2EDS VR
Center, 3MultiGen-Paradigm Inc.
Federal, 5SGI OpenGL Performer
a dual use science and technology effort, the U. S. Army Tank Automotive
Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC), in partnership with
EDS, SGI and MultiGen-Paradigm, is developing a unique suite of software
tools that provides the capability for geographically distributed teams or
individuals to conduct engineering level design reviews and analysis within
a common synthetic environment, a virtual distributed collaborative
environment (VDCE). This paper describes the impact of collaborative virtual
environments on Army acquisition processes, issues related to collaboration,
methodologies used to develop technical solutions, an overview of the
technical architecture, and results of experimentation and applications to
military system acquisition. The
VDCE technology and its application to Army processes has the potential to
improve Army acquisition processes, to improve system product quality, and
to reduce system development costs.
A. Reid, Ph. D.
TARDEC, in conjunction
with their Dual Use Application Program partners, is collaborating to create
a realistic, engineering-level of detail, virtual environment in support of,
both the Army’s Simulation Based Acquisition and Simulation Through the
Life Cycle programs, along with commercial product development. The Vehicle
and Heavy Equipment Virtual Proving Ground (VHEVPG) will be used by the Army
and Industry to apply "proof of concept" demonstrations through
use of high fidelity, motion based, human and hardware-in-the-loop
simulations. This is being accomplished through the utilization of
high-resolution engineering-level vehicle models, terrain and visualization,
along with three of the worlds most advanced ground vehicle motion
simulators. These include both TARDEC’s Ride Motion Simulator (RMS) and
Crew Station/Turret Motion Base Simulator (CS/TMBS) and the National
Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS) located at the University of Iowa.
Environment will exploit the unique capabilities provided by each individual
simulator- the high frequency capability of the RMS (up to 50 Hz), the large
active payload (25 tons) of the CS/TMBS, and the sustained accelerations and
large motion envelope of the NADS. The objective of these programs is to
develop a high-fidelity VHEVPG comprised of dynamic models, experimental
terrain techniques, enhanced graphics and associated data collection and
analysis techniques across distributed, concurrently running, simulations.
This environment facilitates the evaluation of vehicle and human
performance, human-machine interoperability, vehicle and crew compartment
design, along with the design of training simulators. The results of this
program will enable the acquisition
of vehicles and their subsystems, resulting in an efficient user oriented
Executive Office – Intelligence, Electronic Warfare, and Systems
This paper describes the Rapid Terrain Visualization (RTV) programs
advancements in the rapid collection of high-resolution digital topographic
elevation and feature data in support of crisis or contingency operations
for both military and civilian users. The ability to rapidly collect
high-resolution urban terrain data affords our leaders and planners the
capability to implement the next generation of visualization tools and
tactical decision aids.
in this paper highlights the technology developed to collect this data as
well as prototype applications evolving to exploit high-resolution urban
Upton and Tim Woodard
As technology utilized in simulation has grown, so have the requirements for
a realistic solution to the dynamic terrain problem in the synthetic
environment. In order to
support the DoD Simulation Based Acquisition (SBA) initiative, the need for
a high fidelity Synthetic Natural Environment simulation is fundamental and
critical. Specifically, a realistic dynamic terrain solution is required by
the Advanced Concepts and Requirements (ACR) community, and maneuver forces
using simulation to support their collective training objectives. Research
has previously been conducted in the area of dynamic terrain implementation,
and the dynamic environment. Dynamic
terrain is not new to the simulation community, however previous efforts
have required high-end computational platforms, were unable to perform in
real-time, and were often low fidelity in appearance. With the fast paced
improvements in the performance of Personal Computers (PCs) and image
generators, the realism that is required for a dynamic terrain
implementation is now achievable on a PC. The US Army STRICOM sponsored a
Phase I Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) topic addressing these
requirements, which has progressed to a Phase II effort.
In the Phase I effort, Diamond Visionics Company (DVC) and AcuSoft
teamed to provide a PC based technology demonstration of dynamic terrain
incorporating simple soil dynamics. Phase
II objectives include the development of a platform independent software
solution that has an open architecture and application program interfaces,
providing the fundamental functionality required by digital synthetic
environments to implement dynamic terrain in a DIS/HLA network. The
developed solution will use SEDRIS (Synthetic Environment Data
Representation and Interchange Specification) as the underlining data
standard. This paper will address the use of dynamic terrain in a
Distributed Simulation Environment utilizing low cost PC platforms.
It will examine the challenges of implementing dynamic Synthetic
Natural Environment in a distributed simulation environment, specific issues
related to DIS networking, and the challenges and advantages associated with
HLA migration. It will also
address interoperability with simulations and systems that encompass a wide
range of fidelity, resolutions and application domains.
and performance of training systems devices have become key factors in
improving availability of training to a broader military community.
An example of this is the Target Projection System (TPS) embedded
within Boeing’s Visual Integrated Display System (VIDS) – a product
delivered to a number of military training programs such as the T-38 and the
USAF Distributed Mission Training (DMT) F-15C and DMT F-16 programs.
Driven by a dedicated image generator (IG), the TPS simultaneously
projects multiple high-resolution images of aircraft onto VIDS screens.
Until recently, only a desk-side workstation or a full-featured,
high-performance IG has had the polygon and pixel-fill performance necessary
to generate the TPS aircraft imagery. However,
rapid advances in PC-based three-dimensional (3-D) graphics technology have
finally offered such performance at a much lower cost.
This paper describes Boeing’s effort in transitioning PC-based IG
technology into the VIDS product by quantitative measurements of PCIG
performance using TPS-specific benchmarks.
IG performance requirements and their embodiment in benchmark
databases and test software are described.
Available PC-based IG descriptions are provided followed by a
comparison of the benchmark test results, as well as a discussion of issues
with real-time image generation hardware and software integration. Finally, a recommendation of the TPS PC-based IG is presented
based on the observed performance, as well as IG features and other
‘non-performance’ factors. Suggested
PCIG applications conclude the paper.
paper will describe the developmental steps of a Live Fire Testing and
Training Initiative project to develop intelligent, interactive infrared (IR)
targets for use in both training and testing. The University of Central
Florida (UCF) team will develop an IR projection capability suitable for
providing live-fire targets for testing and training with IR systems in the
8-12 micron band. The system will use a Computer Generated Forces (CGF)
system to control the IR projector imagery to provide intelligent,
shoot-back capable, IR targets projected onto a fountain of water. Current
IR Target systems are unsatisfactory. Conventional approaches use IR targets
physically heated with heating strips that are constantly being "blown
away" when used in live fire. In
addition heating strips have slow response time and cannot provide fast
changing and moving imagery. Scanning
laser projectors are not suitable since their interaction with the scanning
mirrors in Forward Looking Infra Red (FLIR) sensors
produces the appearance of a cloud of butterflies. The unique
developmental approach detailed in this paper is based on the Texas
Instruments (TI) video projector Digital Light Processor (DLP) technology.
The project is designed to produce the full range of military targets on
unique reusable and renewable water-based projection screens.
Inter-Vehicle Embedded Simulation Technology (INVEST) program is dedicated
to providing onboard simulations in support of training exercises for
tactical vehicles. The Synchronized Player Model (SPM) portion of the INVEST
program was conceived to reduce the wireless communications bandwidth
between the embedded simulations used in a coordinated training exercise.
Current research of the SPM project focuses on the development of a Unit
Control Language (UCL) used to provide the virtual models of a live
unit.This research identified a set of unit control primitives that operate
as high level behaviors to facilitate synchronization between live vehicle(s)
and their simulation model. This paper describes the primitives identified
for successful control and the Difference Analysis Engine (DAE) developed
for primitive selection. Experiments
to validate the UCL as a potential means of vehicle synchronization were
executed within a Java testbed environment and generated results that were
evaluated against current dead reckoning techniques. The success of this
unit control language, merged with previous research in independent vehicle
control provides optimal solutions for reducing bandwidth in coordinated
training. Future research
includes analysis of Subject Matter Experts decision making criteria for DAE
Gelenbe and Khaled Hussain
together with the School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (SEECS)
and the Institute for Simulation & Training (IST) at the University of
Central Florida are developing a system to allow virtual objects to be
placed in live images in real time. The proposed approach is simulation
driven in that it will use a geometric database of the site of the live
scene to drive a simulator which will be used to predict the location of the
synthetic object in the real scene at each instant of time.
The research we are conducting involves object identification in the
real world scene using registered overlays, registration of the real world
view with the synthetic view of the virtual terrain data, placement of the
virtual object with the synthetic terrain and then the natural view using
simulation, and finally realistic integration of the synthetic object into
the live scene. New techniques are being developed to determine the
occlusion of virtual objects based on their relation to terrain features in
the live scene. This paper
describes the whole process used in the project, discusses the basic
algorithms and presents novel techniques
used for recognition and placement of the objects.
response to continuous reductions in available funds, time, personnel, and
facilities dedicated to training, the United States Marine Corps (USMC) is
avidly exploring supplementing its current training with virtual reality (VR)
training applications. The goal of these applications is to provide a
computer-mediated experience in which trainees can perceive and interact
with a synthetic or simulated battlefield and simulated objects in a
realistic manner. VR training devices have the potential to meet the
flexibility, portability, and reconfigurability training requirements that
are now necessary to prepare for ever-increasing USMC operational demands.
Recent advancements of VR technologies are increasing the potential for more
realism in VR training devices. Despite the tremendous advancements in VR
technologies, one major question remains. Are these advancements significant
enough to support the levels of realism required for training purposes? To
answer this question, the USMC through the Office of Naval Research (ONR) is
conducting several VR initiatives. One of these initiatives is the Small
Unit Tactical Training Advanced Technology Demonstration (SUTT ATD) Program.
The top-level goal of the SUTT ATD is to demonstrate how VR technologies can
be used to support current and future USMC training requirements. These
requirements range from the training of individuals operating in close
combat situations to the training of a crew of individuals operating in a
wide array of combat vehicles. One of the major SUTT ATD tasks is the
evaluation and assessment of various VR technologies. These include
computers (hardware and software), tracking systems (for human and/or weapon
motion), locomotion systems (for traversal through a virtual environment),
and graphical display technologies.
paper focuses specifically on the SUTT ATD tracking technology studies. With
the emergence of many new tracking technologies (e.g., mechanical, acoustic,
inertial, magnetic, and optical) over the last few years, it is extremely
difficult to determine the appropriate tracking solution(s) for various
training applications. Because tracking requirements may differ
significantly for different applications, selecting the appropriate tracking
system for a specific application becomes even more challenging. While
technical specifications such as accuracy and resolution may be useful
indicators of tracking system performance, for comparative purposes they can
be misleading. In most cases, these specifications are tied to environmental
conditions that are ideal for the specific technology. In addition to
conducting accuracy measurements in more representative environments, these
studies address other qualitative measures such as cost, ease of use,
footprint, reliability, expandability, and technical support. They are also
intended to present an approach to resolving the technical issue of finding
and selecting appropriate tracking technology solutions.
During the Boeing Joint Strike Fighter Concept Development Phase, we investigated the feasibility of using three-dimensional (3D) solid models, implemented within a Virtual Environment (VE), as a low-cost partial replacement for conventional hardware mockup trainers for aircraft maintainers. Currently, there are few studies directly comparing performance using VE-based training to more conventional methods. This paper summarizes the results of several empirical studies conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of aircraft maintenance training within VEs. In these studies, trainees were taught a simple remove-and-replace maintenance procedure. The task, while not complex, required a number of ordered steps involving visual and physical obstructions. Training effectiveness was assessed with a written test of task procedures and with an objective assessment of task performance on a hardware mockup. Measures of performance included task completion time and procedural errors (e.g., incorrect action, wrong tool). The initial study compared hardware mockup training to two alternative display formats: solid model-based VEs and 3D line drawings implemented as computer-based displays (CBD). Within each of these display formats, we compared passive "hands-off" training with user-interactive training. Results of the study indicated that as realism in the virtual training environment increased, performance approached that achieved with the more costly, time-intensive hardware mockup training. Another study assessed immersive Virtual Reality (VR) for task training. Participants in this condition trained for the maintenance task in an immersive VR, wearing a head-mounted display and interacting with task components using a 3D mouse. Results indicated that training time for the immersive condition was longer than the other CBD training methods, with a diminished task performance. Finally, using participants from the initial training study, we addressed the effectiveness of using Ves for maintenance rehearsal three months after completing initial training. Rehearsal involved a review of the task using one of two CBD methods. The first rehearsal condition was a review with annotated technical drawings; the second was the solid model-based interactive VE. A third group, the control, had no rehearsal. Performance for all participants was evaluated as before – with a written test of task procedures and performance on the hardware mockup. Results of this study showed a trend for better performance after interactive VE rehearsal over that of the other two conditions. Collectively, these studies indicate that solid model-based VEs provide a potentially significant alternative to hardware mockup based training, resulting in savings in training time and cost. Further research is needed to identify the types of training scenarios for which VEs are most effective.
application of conventional training methods displays many disadvantages
particularly for highly complex equipment. Significant improvements and cost
reductions can be achieved by means of three-dimensional computer
visualization and animation of technical scenarios. This paper identifies
with a list of common problems which will be improved in the Virtual
Training environment. The main
idea is to develop a general modeling methodology that can be utilized in a
wide variety of scenarios, while minimizing the need for programming
simulation source code. The
different layers of information used to define a training scenario are then
described in detail. Both the
author’s view and the trainee’s view of the developed prototype are
presented. Finally, the paper concludes with a description of the goals of a
most recent research project which will adapt these scenario structures for
utilization in an Augmented Reality environment
L. Ortiz, Ph.D, PE
paper presents a grammatical model for the air traffic controller's (ATC)
commands using finite-state transition networks (FSTN). The grammatical
representation is used by a syntactic parser and recognizer for the analysis
of the grammatical structure of the commands. A grammatical description
using FSTN is proposed for the ATC's commands assigning word categories and
syntactic structure that can be followed by a syntactic parser for
recognition and parsing. This paper, also, presents an innovative model
using "skip loops" for the implementation of a syntactic parser
using finite-state transition networks to delete and remove incorrect or out
of syntax words. These words could be the effect of mixed streams of words
or errors in the conversion from spoken language to characters. The skip
loop is an arc that allows the finite-state transition automata (FSTA) to
delete a word that does not match the grammatical structure of the sentence,
and continue the recognition process without affecting the syntactical
definition of the sentence. This particular approach is especially useful in
areas such as the command language of the air traffic controller (ATC). The
model uses FSTN with skip loops to model and recognize ATC’s command
language. The use of skip loops allows deleting words that may be present in
the statement that are unrecognized or that do not fit into the grammatical
structure of the ATC's language. This technique facilitates the recognition
of the statement minimizing the possibility of declaring the statement as
ill-formed. Two syntactic parser prototypes are implemented using Prolog and
CLIPS. These techniques are useful in applications like military tactical
environments that are exposed to rapidly changing commands, streams of
information, and different sources of background noise. Many critical
decisions have to be made extracting the correct information from multiple
input streams making difficult and uncertain the selection of the correct
input information. The method presented introduces a certain degree of
intelligence using current AI techniques to obtain an intelligent syntactic
parsing of the input information. The parser syntax can be defined to
dynamically adjust its model to follow a particular stream of information
that sounds or looks appropriate for the particular context. The purpose of
the parser will be to model the process that resembles the human ability to
follow a single dialog in an environment where there is many conversations
and background noise.
paper describes an interactive virtual environment (VE) designed to help
Navy personnel become familiar with the layout of a ship. The system
combines a 3D VE model of the ship with a spoken natural language interface
that enables the user to issue verbal commands and queries to the model. By
allowing the user to ask "Where am I?" or "Where is the
Communications Center?", or tell the system to "Show me how to get
to the Control Room from here" the virtual environment becomes more
than just a passive representation of a 3D space – it becomes an active
training aid that may help speed the learning process.
paper also discusses the need for better integration of graphic
representation and object identification information to support future
interactive VE systems.
common problem using speech recognition in simulated training environments
is that computer speech recognition often fails at even moderate noise
levels. Although training realism is increased when simulated noise
environments such as a carrier landing deck are incorporated, the intense
noise from military activities makes speech recognition highly problematic.
This research developed adaptive noise canceling digital filters to enhance
computer speech recognition in high noise environments. This particular
design is specific to the Landing Signal Officer Trainer (LSOT FY 99 Block
Upgrade was initiated under Contract N61339-97-D-0003, Delivery Order 010, 7
April 1999 by NAWCTSD project manager Ron Cole), but the high noise speech
recognition technology adaptation is applicable to a large number of
training, simulation, and operational systems. The project focused on
removing the additive noise in the environment with adaptive digital filters
inside a speech recognition algorithm. The adaptive filter relies on a
recursive algorithm that is self-adjusting, which allows the filter to
perform in situations where complete knowledge of the signal is not
available. It is a process where the parameters of the adaptive filter are
updated from one iteration to the next, and the parameters become data
dependent. The design of the adaptive filter employs two signal estimates,
one for the noise and the other for the combined speech and noise signal.
The adaptive filter identifies the noise signal and looks for similar
spectra in the speech signal. It then removes any matching noise signal from
the speech signal.The speech recognition algorithm source code was modified
to incorporate the adaptive filter after the acoustic signal processing
which consisted of a 256 speech sample (real part of the Fourier Transform).
The recognition is triggered by a push to talk microphone and the initial
signal period is used as the noise estimate (or in the case of the LSO
trainer, the synthesized aircraft noise is used since the noise is known and
does not require an estimation). A Least Mean Squared adaptive filter is
performed and the noise reduced complex Fourier coefficients are processed
by the speech recognition system. This avoids the distortion encountered
when transforming the filtered data back to the time domain. The LSO trainer
environment simulates an aircraft carrier landing deck with an ambient noise
level of 80 dB. The speakers use handsets which feed into a PC based speech
recognition system running the Entropic HTK speech recognition system. This
system was modified to incorporate the adaptive filter in the frequency
domain for noise cancellation. Examples
of the LSO noise environment, speech input, and recognition performance are
presented for this research. This
research was funded by a combination of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)
contracts from the Naval Air Warfare Center Training System Division in
Orlando and the Air Force Research Laboratory.
The NAWCTSD SBIR contract N61339-98-C-0017 was initiated by program
manager Robert Seltzer and the Phase II effort was completed on 31 July
Lawrence A Rieger
TRADOC TPO OneSAF, GRC International, Inc., An AT & T Company
continual evolution of military simulations has provided much of the
technology for the exchange of entity data between the environments.
In particular, the extensive development in the resolution and
granularity of aggregate simulations, combined with the entity data and
ownership transfer capabilities of the High Level Architecture (HLA), has
broken much of the virtual to constructive barriers for meaningful and
productive data exchanges. So much so that in simulations, the real division
has changed to be between the entity and aggregate simulations environments.
The real challenge is no longer moving entity data between the live,
virtual and constructive environments, but rather the movement of entity
data between the entity and aggregate environments.
This paper discusses eliminating the artificiality of aggregate state
casualty resolution and assessment tables and the aggregation and
de-aggregation of entities when passing ownership between entity and
recent report developed by the National Research Council (NRC) for the
Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO) encourages the use of real
world, war-gaming, and laboratory data in support of the development and
validation of human behavioral models for military simulations. Also
encouraged in this report is the use of interdisciplinary teams embracing
the disciplines of the psychological, computer, and military sciences to
create such models. This paper describes the use of an artificial
intelligence modeling framework, observational learning, to support these
objectives. This framework combines the research methods of experimental
psychology with the machine learning methods of computer science to develop
behavioral models from data generated by military experts participating in
live and/or simulated exercises. To date, research has demonstrated that
behavioral models developed through this framework can be integrated into
popular Semi-Automated Force (SAF) systems to enhance their performance.
However, there has been no known investigation as to what the benefits of
this approach are with respect to behavioral model fidelity. This paper
introduces the interdisciplinary nature of observational learning by briefly
surveying its history with respect to computer science and psychology and by
illustrating how it can be used in conjunction with military experts. Next,
this paper examines experimental evidence to determine whether a significant
difference exists between SAF performance and human performance for a
low-level, skill task. Finally, this paper demonstrates how behavioral
models developed through human performance data generated by military SMEs
can be used in conventional SAF systems to make SAF performance more
While distributed simulation infrastructures have evolved
dramatically over the past several years to provide ever increasing levels
of flexibility, abstraction, and interoperability, the scalability and
performance of the simulation infrastructure continues to be a critical
limiting factor. In particular, it is now becoming apparent that the
limitations of the supporting networking technologies are a significant
impediment to achieving needed levels of scalability and performance.
Advancing the state-of-the-art for large-scale distributed simulations
therefore requires significant advances both in the underlying network
technologies and in the ability of simulations to exploit these new
capabilities. Under the Specialized Active Networking technologies for
Distributed Simulation (SANDS) project sponsored by the Information
Technology Office (ITO) of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA),
TASC and the University of Massachusetts, Amherst (UMass) are developing
Active Networks-based capabilities to improve significantly the performance
of network-based distributed simulations . Our primary objective is reducing
the substantial amounts of irrelevant network traffic delivered to
simulation hosts in order to both improve bandwidth efficiency and to reduce
the considerable overhead associated with reading and discarding unneeded
data. Our approach involves installing dynamic packet filters within the
network that act on behalf of each host to eliminate unneeded packets as
early as possible. Our goal is a seamless integration with the High Level
Architecture (HLA) Declaration Management (DM) and Data Distribution
Management (DDM) services. Use of Active Networks to provide interest
management services offers several important benefits to large scale
simulations: (i) Because each entity can install its own filters,
information filtering is accomplished in a "receiver-driven"
manner, allowing each entity to customize its filters according to its own
need. This decentralized approach allows active filtering to scale well as
the number of entities grows large. (ii) Because active filtering is
performed at a routing point, filtering can also be dependent on the state
(e.g., congestion-level) at that router. In particular, this allows both
entities and network routers to determine which data should be shed in times
of congestion overload, and provides an effective means for mediating among
the conflicting demands of different entities.
the Air Force continues the Expeditionary Aerospace Force (EAF)
implementation, two factors are paramount to its employment: 1) training the
geographically-separated, yet organizationally-related, EAF units for their
area of responsibility prior to their on-call window, and 2) incorporating
space-based systems into all EAF training and operations to gain the force
enhancement effects fundamental to successful EAF employment. These two
factors will yield the light, lean, and lethal force possible through the
EAF concept. However, to
realize the full combat potential of the aerospace team, the EAF plan
requires units to train as they would fight, despite the limits imposed by
financial constraints and geographic separation.
Providing this training capability is Distributed Mission Training (DMT),
the concept the Air Force is pursuing as the means to train aerospace teams
using realistic synthetic battlespaces.
DMT is an overarching approach applied to several domains – DMT-Air,
DMT-Space, DMT-Special Operations, and DMT-Command and Control – with each
domain having its own unique issues preventing a universal solution. This
paper focuses on DMT-Space (DMT-S) and examines using DMT to conduct team
training for space crews as part of the overarching EAF paradigm.
We examine the team training requirements and system capabilities
needed for such an approach, and present the results of our efforts to
design and implement a prototype DMT-S training environment using the High
Level Architecture and other distributed simulation technologies. Our
prototype system provides the simulation assets that are needed to deploy a
simulation environment for space operators involved in space missile warning
activities. Further, the HILITE environment enables realistic, real time
interaction between space-based system operators and dynamic digital threat
environments. This allows
operators to train effectively at any time and from any location. In
addition, we examine the potential connectivity and interplay between the
DMT-S and DMT-Air segments to determine the requirements and possible
scenarios for a fully heterogeneous and multi-system battlespace capability.
This information will be of significant interest to the I/ITSEC
community as it focuses on strategic training initiatives and provides a
unique and timely perspective on how DMT technologies can be applied to
support space operator training requirements.
Winston Bennett, Jr.
adaptive training is an emerging concept that integrates
object-/objective-based adaptive interactive multimedia instruction (IMI),
intelligent tutoring system (ITS), and modeling and simulation technologies.
The result is an inherently learner-focused training approach that
dynamically manages mastery of knowledge and skill learning objectives.
This paper describes an application of closed-loop adaptive training
concepts to Air Force satellite operator training. A generalized
instructional design methodology is presented for creating a closed-loop,
adaptive training system. This
paper describes how the methodology was applied to the new three-phase Space
Training concept for Satellite Command and Control Training at the 534th
Training Squadron at Vandenberg AFB.A high-level architecture and design for
a Satellite Operations Training System (SOTS) is presented.
The SOTS design outlines training system configuration options,
hardware and software architecture, and general software component
descriptions. The modular architecture integrates two
commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) satellite simulation products with proven
intelligent tutoring and advanced distributed learning (ADL) technologies.
The architecture is scalable and extendable to large-scale training systems,
simulation-based embedded trainers, and distributed mission training (DMT).
scarcity of applicable empirical data on the issue of C++ versus Java
performance led the authors to conduct their own series of performance
studies. A performance comparison was made of Java and C++ in the
implementation of a test system representative of those encountered in
simulation systems. The algorithms chosen were deemed to be representative
of both the algorithms used in simulation systems and those which consume
the majority of the time-based computational load. They included a hull
dynamics model, geometric intervisibility, and a scheduler / dispatcher. The
exact same algorithms were implemented in both Java and C++. As with some
developmental programs, execution speed was not the only item of concern in
this study. Often programmer productivity and error rates are major factors
in choosing a particular programming language. To capture information about
these factors, productivity rates of each of the programmers were recorded
as they developed code from scratch and ported the code to the new language.
Subjective evaluations from each of the programmers concerning their
opinions on the ease of using the language for the given applications was
also collected. This paper describes the programming language study and
presents empirical and subjective findings that both program managers and
developers should be aware of when making programming language selections
for future simulation systems. This is the second paper in a series of
empirical studies the authors have conducted into the relative performance
programming languages and their suitability to the Modeling and Simulation
of the historic problems of aircrew training simulators has been concurrency
of the trainers with the aircraft. With
aircraft systems being updated more rapidly with software operational flight
programs instead of hardware changes, the concurrency problem is
exacerbated. Lockheed Martin
has successfully used the main mission computer Operational Flight Program (OFP)
on commercial computer hardware in aircrew training simulators.
Now with new trainers, and updates to existing training simulators,
we are expanding the concept into other avionics software, starting with the
Digital Terrain System (DTS). This
paper describes the current work of developing and implementing the DTS OFP
into the F-16 Mission Training Center for the United States Air Force and
the Mid Life Update (MLU) aircrew trainers for the European Participating
Air Forces. This development
process takes advantage of the commonality of the software used in testing
the avionics software in the Aircraft System Integration Lab and that used
in implementing the avionics software in trainers.
The common Ada Virtual Machine Interface (AVMI) plays a critical role
in the trainer implementation by providing executive and input/output
functional interfaces between the real OFP and the simulated environment.
The AVMI methodology greatly assists in implementing avionics
programs into trainers, and solves some of the problematic conditions of
porting real OFPs into commercial computers in training simulation.
typical full flight simulator has 1,200 or more Input/Output (I/O) points,
comprised of a combination of digital inputs (DIs), digital outputs (DOs),
analog inputs (AIs), analog outputs (AOs), synchros, and resolvers. In a
conventional I/O system, discrete wires are run to each I/O point through a
series of connectors, cables, and distribution panels before arriving at an
I/O cabinet where the signal is digitized and transferred via high-speed bus
to the host computer. The system is complex and is a bottleneck for both
hardware development and hardware/software integration (HSI). For example,
when several panels share a common distribution panel, every panel must have
its wire Assignments complete before the distribution panel can be complete
and HSI cannot begin until all the connected systems are ready to be
powered. To eliminate these bottlenecks and to reduce the overall complexity
of the system, BAE SYSTEMS has investigated various embedded computer system
products for decentralizing the I/O system. We have concluded that
commercially available products can effectively meet the computational and
networking requirements of a distributed I/O system for flight simulators
and do so at lower cost than the typical centralized system. However,
further analysis of this concept revealed additional savings by
decentralizing the power distribution as well. The result was the
development of a unique I/O-Power module that fundamentally alters simulator
development. This paper discusses the analysis and development work
conducted to draw this conclusion.
of the UK Ministry of Defence element of the STOW programme investigated the
time and cost drivers pertaining to the entire process of the rapid
generation of Synthetic Natural Environments (SNE) databases. Data
requirements, products, information and systems were analysed to identify
bottlenecks and gaps. Traditionally, construction of SNE databases is a time
consuming and very labour intensive exercise. It involves a very high degree
of effort to generate the required source terrain and feature data, and
significant further effort to convert source data into a compiled SNE
database. Standard military datasets are typically used to provide the bulk
of the data for a SNE database (e.g. DTED and DFAD). However, such datasets
may not be available for the specific area of interest, they may be at an
inappropriate scale, they require augmentation and they are likely to be
based on out-of-date mapping sources. An alternative worldwide and
up-to-date source is required. The new series of Earth Observing satellites
are creating a large archive of up-to-date geospatial data. The major
blockage has moved down the value-added chain and it is the conversion of
data into information that has become the major time and cost driver. An
approach to automated feature extraction from EO imagery is presented which
uses an object-orientated geodata model as the framework to store contextual
knowledge and to use this in the control of feature extraction routines. The
problem of geographic extraction has proved complex and ideally requires the
incorporation of contextual clues similar to those used by human
interpreters of imagery. Often the feature recognition algorithms work at
local levels and in a bottom-up fashion and lack the higher level control
that would allow a more global understanding of parts of the image. The
paper proposes a control strategy that incorporates both the global and
local views. The geodata model comprises a class hierarchy representing the
features under study and their likely relationships. Each class of object
within this model contains criteria that need to be satisfied in order to
strengthen the belief that an instance of that object type has been
recognised. The criteria cannot be rigid and the system must be able to
control partial recognition of objects and identify conflicts. The system
described will apply these ideas to the problem of geographic object
recognition, focusing on the specific requirements of linear feature
text-mining technology uncaps the vast of amount of information locked in
documents. Using advanced
computational linguistic techniques, text-mining solutions can read and
comprehend the content of large amounts of documents.
Once analyzed, the informational content of numerous documents can be
categorized and accessed in multiple formats, such as summaries, key
concepts and events, relationships among concepts, and visual relationship
diagrams. Text-mining can be applied to many applications that require
in-depth understanding of the information buried in documents; one such
application is training. Using
text-mining, courseware can be linguistically analyzed and represented in a
manner suitable for rapid and organized access.
Such systems can improve the training process by focusing the trainee
on the right information, and efficiently navigating the trainee through the
course material. In this
manner, traditional computer-based training (CBT) systems can operate with a
greater knowledge of the course content, automatically answer questions,
shorten the training time, and present training material in a more
hand-held Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) market has seen impressive growth
over the last several years, with the application space expanding as fast as
new uses are discovered. One
area left mostly unexplored in this mobile yet powerful computing platform
is that of mobile simulation applications. A large percentage of the
simulation community uses simulation as a method of predicting the outcome
of a given physical state coupled with certain external conditions.
This could be in the form of an emergency response team needing to
determine hazardous material flow or a military planner needing to resolve
blast radius information for force protection.
Given that simulation is needed to determine such numerically based
results, there are two methods of employing hand-held PDA devices to help
such decision-makers in their reasoning process. The first method involves
carrying out simulation calculations on the PDA device itself. This requires that the actual computation is not
CPU-intensive and can provide a reasonable approximation in a short amount
of time. The PDA platform
ensures ease of data input and information display because of the design of
the PDA user interface and the need for efficiency and simplicity. The
second method involves exploiting the newest area of PDA integration; namely
that of a wireless data link with a network.
In this manner, the PDA is simply a client in a client/server model,
where the actual data computation of the simulation is carried out on a
larger server, then the information is sent to the PDA via the network.
This allows a simple and mobile interface to any number of powerful
simulation tools. This paper presents an approach for using the
aforementioned benefits of the mobile PDA to provide simulation data to a
wider audience. This approach presents methods for providing simulation data
on the PDA in the form of database look-ups, rendering physical phenomena
through graphical displays, and connecting to a host computer for the
client/server model of information retrieval.
We will present example implementations of this approach that cover
database table access, 2D/3D rendering, and client/server data flow in PDA
applications that enable simulation-based reasoning.
use of detailed physics-based models and the availability of large
quantities of high accuracy theoretical (CFD), wind-tunnel, and flight test
data have intensified the need for coordinated and automated techniques to
gather and analyze data and to improve simulator accuracy with the results
of the analysis. A major
problem is that most of these data are not used to increase the fidelity of
any simulator because the data reduction is too hard, it requires a highly
trained engineer and complex system identification tools.
Even data that are used may do more harm to a simulator than good if
not correctly processed to ensure proper calibration and consistency.
steps are required to process any data for it to be useful in creating and
adjusting a simulation math model. Appropriate
maneuvers must be selected and extracted from all of the collected data.
Sensor calibrations, axes transformations, and wind compensations
must be calculated and applied. Even
given calibrated and consistent aircraft data, the simulation math model
depends on the flexibility and representation capabilities of the model, the
power of the system identification procedure, and the effectiveness of the
engineer. While each step can
be performed separately, an integrated architecture enhances the
capabilities of each piece by relieving the data handling burdens and
emphasizing the engineering process.
Integrated Data Evaluation and Analysis System (IDEAS) provides one
architecture to bring all of these diverse data into a common environment
for analysis. IDEAS is a
networked client/server environment of high fidelity tools tailored for
dynamic system modeling, particularly flight test data analysis and flight
simulation. It includes a
database management system designed specifically for flight test data, and
both generic and specialized tools of data filtering, data calibration,
modeling, system identification, and simulation update.
Specialized user tools are easily added and have full access to the
flight database and other IDEAS tools.
Dynamic simulations hosted under IDEAS range from full operational
flight trainers (OFT) to detailed subsystem components such as engines or
landing gears. A recent
addition to IDEAS is an expert system shell that can command and control all
elements of the environment. Rule-bases
are available or can be constructed to support all components of data
analysis as well as simulator update and validation.
power of the integrated architecture has been demonstrated on several recent
programs. A preliminary
examination of helicopter flight data and comparison to simulator response
was performed on the tarmac after the test.
A detailed system identification and simulator verification of
aerodynamic, engine, and gear models with FAA comparisons were made of a
large transport aircraft. Each
was done at a greatly reduced engineering cost.
Examples such as these show the efficacy of the integrated methods.
we enter the 21st century, military medicine struggles with critical issues.
One of the most important
issues is how we train medical personnel in peace for the realities of war.
In April 1998, the General Accounting Office (GAO) reported,
"military medical personnel have almost no chance during peacetime to
practice battlefield trauma care skills. As a result, physicians both within
and outside the Department of Defense (DOD) believe that military medical
personnel are not prepared to provide trauma care to the severely injured
soldiers in wartime…." With some of today’s training methods
disappearing, the challenge of providing both initial and sustainment
training for almost 100,000 military medical personnel is becoming
"training gap" is huge, and impediments to training are mounting.
For example, restrictions on animal use are increasing, and the cost
of conducting live mass casualty exercises is prohibitive. Many medical
simulation visionaries believe that four categories of medical simulation
are emerging to address these challenges: PC-based multimedia, digital
mannequins, virtual workbenches, and Total Immersion Virtual Reality (TIVR).
TIVR is the most effective solution, although it is the most expensive and
will take the longest time to develop. To address the TIVR challenge, the
Medical Simulation Training Initiative (MSTI) is a visionary military
program that seeks to develop a multi-functional simulation platform based
on a Personal Computer, with 3-D holographic imaging of anatomic
compartments and/or body structures. We envision the interface to be an
exoskeletal robotic device, haptic gloves and other interactive surgical
devices. Success requires several key components. First, a strategic plan.
Second, single-agency integration of research efforts. Third, research in
"enabling technologies", e.g., tissue modeling, haptics
integration, physiological representations and overall systems architecture.
This is necessary to develop realistic representations of medical procedures
as a basis for simulation. Fourth, careful efforts among domain experts in
their own fields, e.g., physicians, nurses and "combat medics",
working side by side with engineers, computer scientists, designers, experts
in education and training, human factors engineers, and managers, to ensure
useful products for end users. MSTI will provide a risk-free, realistic
learning environment for the spectrum of medical skills training, from buddy
aid to trauma surgery procedures. This will, in turn, enhance limited
hands-on training opportunities and revolutionize the way we train in
peace…to deliver medicine in war. High fidelity modeling will permit
manufacturers to prototype new devices before manufacture "…".
flight simulators, developed in the 1975 to 1985 time frame, are approaching
the end of their supportable life cycle.
The host computer systems on many older simulators, including the
I/O, mass storage components, and visual components, have become virtually
unsupportable. Spare parts are
no longer available and software upgrades and enhancements are not easily
achieved. New developments in Commercial-Off-The-Shelf
(COTS) computer peripherals have yielded very flexible, and highly
miniaturized, components, which result in lower cost and rapid hardware and
software replacement. Until
recently, many older hardware systems were too expensive and too time
consuming to replace, because there were no COTS solutions that would
directly replace the custom components and/or interfaces. Today, new
hardware architecture exists in the form of "IndustryPacks" (IP).
VITA Standards Organization (VSO) and SBS Greenspring Modular I/O
prepared the IndustryPack standard. IndustryPacks
use carrier board technology and support a wide application base.
This architecture provides an exceptionally simple interface, high
data rate, true bus independence, and an open specification.
IndustryPacks are rapidly becoming the standard for real-time,
embedded, critical I/O and "real world" functions.
Individual functions of IndustryPacks do not require processor
related bus features such as mastership, cache coherence, or split cycles.
Carrier boards for the IndustryPacks have gained industry wide
support. Many prominent companies are developing products that meet
the IndustryPack specification. As military and aerospace budgets shrink,
cost efficiency and time to market is becoming a major concern in the
military and aerospace market. COTS IndustryPacks are playing a major role
in systems development, which includes the efficient replacement of older
technology. This paper examines the design approach, cost efficiency and
time to market, for the replacement of hardware and software components of a
typical aging flight simulator. The
flight simulator to be examined consists of a host computer system and
multiple I/O subsystems. The host computer has an I/O interface for each I/O
subsystem. The new design will
demonstrate the replacement of entire I/O subsystems, as well as the
replacement of only the host I/O interfaces for other I/O subsystems, using
IndustryPack technology. The
replacement of I/O, and/or host I/O interface, will enable the replacement
of the flight simulator’s host computer with a new state-of-the-art
computer system. A low cost COTS distributed computer system, using Linux,
with its embedded network protocols, will upgrade the host computer. Windows
NT will operate the replacement I/O subsystems and will be networked with
the Linux host. IndustryPack
technology will be utilized in both the new I/O subsystems and in the new
host computer I/O interfaces. Design
benefits include bus and processor independence and software portability.
challenges of modeling Chemical and Biological (CB) agent behaviors in a
Virtual Environment are significant but are not insurmountable. Several of
the challenges are endemic to the Modeling and Simulation (M&S)
community at large, such as the building and manipulation of the urban
terrain databases for neighborhoods and within the structures themselves.
Micrometeorology for airflow predictions and specific dynamic features of
the environment in which the agent behaviors occur are another challenge to
be overcome. The agent behaviors of interest are release, transport,
diffusion, persistence, interaction with active and passive sensors, and
affects on human behavior (casualty and degradation). Current operational
models for chemical and biological (CB) hazard predictions operate above the
threshold of most likely terrorist or asymmetrical warfare releases. These
models are driven by meso-scale meteorology models providing broad Gaussian
plumes over top of the terrain database. Micro-scale meteorological models
exist that will predict the hazard in the urban neighborhood domain level
terrain database. Agent transport, diffusion and deposition must also be
modeled within the architectural database of structures. This appropriate
level of physical modeling will provide an agent behavior profile that
sufficiently models the agent release, its deposition on the
terrain/architectural database, the casualty affect on human avatars, and
the interaction with sensors. These conditions will change over time
relative to the agent's persistence and micrometeorological dynamics. The
modeling and representation development will be arduous. Potential
contributors are immature. The pay-off will be quality training conducted
within the simulations using high fidelity physics models. The physical
fidelity will enable trainee attention-to-detail for skill development in
survey, detection, rapid forensics, information development, and
communications resource allocations. The appropriate level of physics in the
models and representations will enhance the emotional fidelity of a training
system. This is a critical simulation feature in emergency responder
preparation for the crisis conditions of a CB agent incident or weapons of
mass destruction (WMD) terrorist event.
UCAV DMT Testbed research will focus on technologies for: defining effective
training strategies for UAV/UCAV operators; assessing the delta in training
required for multiple vehicles; advanced displays driven from human factors
design; integration of Geneva Aerospace s Variable Autonomy Control System;
and integrating several UAV and UCAV Flight Model into the Testbed.
Potential applications include direct linkage of UCAV Testbeds as
Participants in DMT. This paper chronicles the development of the UCAV DMT
Testbed from the perspective of lessons learned and details features planned
to support the initial research efforts planned for 2000. Four successful
UCAV DMT demonstrations and experiments are presented from a lessons learned
perspective. Starting with the initial separately developed PC-Based UCAV
simulations; evolving to the merging of the Simulations and initial DMT
research experiments including DMTO&I testbed, I/ITSEC99 and planned
AFRL Mesa UCAV DMT Demonstrations. Key testbed components included the
LiteFlite Flight Simulator, JSAF and SOAR applications, and the Variable
Autonomy Control System (VACS). The unique and innovative portions of this
paper detail the components integration for UCAV missions and operational
concepts, along with the human factors engineering on the VACS human-system
interface design and LiteFlite researcher toolkit interfaces. Illustrative
examples, are also included with sufficient details to support other
government, industry and academic organizations participation in future UCAV
DMT experiments and demonstrations. Participating organizations include but
are not limited to AFRL Mesa, SDS International, Geneva Aerospace, Eglin 46
th Test Wing PRIMES, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center/Tuskegee University,
Computer Science Corporation. Future participants may include Navy Pax River
(MFS and Distributed Simulation Groups), AFRL Wright-Patterson and Naval
Aerospace Medical Research Lab. Additional discussion includes related UCAV
DMT Research topics of :
support of the Department of Defense (DoD) Virtual Emergency Response
Training System (VERTS) program, the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA)
team is currently in the process of creating thirteen very dense and highly
detailed virtual urban environments. This
is a very new and different challenge from the terrain database creation
present and past. Presently, we
see larger and larger terrain databases being created, but the level of
detail in geometry is not very high, except in small isolated areas.
We also see some very high level of detail synthetic environments,
but they are mainly for visualization, not for real-time, interactive
immersion. Our VERTS
environments are very dense (to include selected building interiors) and are
intended for the immersion and real-time interaction of numerous
participants. This is the first
time that either the SEDRIS or the SAF communities have been confronted with
synthetic environments of this level of complexity.
We are all experiencing some pain in learning how to deal with these
complex synthetic environments.The VERTS synthetic urban environments are
created from a very wide variety of source data.
These range from extremely accurate and well-managed geographic
information system (GIS) files to in-house generated data where information
was of poor quality, missing or not captured.
This paper examines our process of obtaining and manipulating source
data, creation of the run-time terrain databases, creation of a SEDRIS
Transmittal, checking the data with some of the SEDRIS tools, and the
creation of a compact terrain database for use with semi-automated forces.
This review is a high-level beginning-to-end presentation of how we are
getting there today, tomorrow; the use of various tools, and our experience
with SEDRIS. We discuss the issues involved in collecting and processing
urban data, and share some of the pitfalls we have encountered and some of
the work-arounds being developed.
U.S. Army Simulation, Training and Instrumentation Command (STRICOM) is
currently exploring web-based simulation technologies to support Advanced
Distributed Learning (ADL) environments.
One emerging industry standard is the Virtual Reality Modeling
Language (VRML) which allows stunning three-dimensional images to be
delivered over the World Wide Web (WWW).
Leveraging the constantly increasing power of the personal computer
(PC) and Internet communication technologies, these three dimensional
simulation environments can be delivered anytime-anywhere. Several prototype
VRML applications have been developed for STRICOM to demonstrate the
benefits of three-dimensional modeling and simulation environments in
support of ADL. This paper will outline the VRML applications developed thus
far, including a simulator that uses VRML and the High Level Architecture (HLA)
to allow multiple desktop PCs to engage in a virtual battle over the
Internet. In addition, the
paper will examine other emerging Internet standards from the Web3D
Consortium and ADL’s Sharable Courseware Object Reference Model (SCORM) to
determine how they will impact the use of three dimensional simulations in
future web-based training environments.
Performance Support Systems (EPSS) are fast becoming a key tool to enhance,
augment or replace traditional Coast Guard training and performance support
programs. The U.S. Coast
Guard’s Performance Technology Center (PTC) Yorktown is spearheading Coast
Guard design, development, evaluation and implementation of cost-effective
EPSS applications. The center
has achieved excellent results by creating production processes that enable
the PTC’s technical staff to leverage their expertise by using a highly
successful novice developer mentoring system.
Novice developers are drawn from subject matter experts (SMEs) and
accomplished performers (APs) and are provided with the tools, coaching,
mentoring and technical assistance needed to produce a wide range of policy,
doctrine, maintenance, operations and training EPSS.
paper provides a broad definition of EPSS, defines EPSS generated by the PTC
and explains why the Coast Guard is seeking to exploit EPSS as a key
component of the service’s workforce performance support system.
PTC is spearheading cost–effective EPSS production within the Coast
Guard by using a mentored production approach.
APs and SMEs drawn from operational, support and training center
commands receive minimal training and continuous mentoring to help them
produce web-deployable EPSS that support improved task performance from the
typical user. The authors
outline the mentoring program including tool selection and use, production
process, process pros and cons, case study information and performance trial
of the benefits of Online Learning Networks is the capability to define and
administer a continuum of learning that is tailored to each individual
learner based on job task skill and knowledge requirements. This structure
provides a method of linking learners to required organizational training
and education requirements that will be key to any Return on Investment (ROI)
strategy. This paper covers the steps that were followed to derive an
initial curriculum continuum structure for the Navy Learning Network (NLN)
supporting a potential audience of 1.2 million people.
The lessons learned are addressed as well as long term vision and
strategies to create individually tailor learning continua. The NLN
implementation includes the structure for mapping a curriculum continuum to
each learners career path. This
structure allows individual learners a method for adding their own personal
training and education goals. The short-term continuum structure is a
starting point that has defined curricula mapped to a specific pay grade and
job series. The initial structure for the NLN accounts for individual and
group relationships of one-to-one and one-to-many curricula. College degree
programs related to specific job requirements can be integrated into the
short-term continuum. NLN design also provides for the addition of leader
development and professional education. This comprehensive NLN vision builds
a direct relationship to the organization long-term health and stability as
well as to specific job skill development.
As each variable is added to NLN, the level of complexity grows.
Recommendations and strategies are presented to assist those who want to
implement a similar approach.
paper and presentation describes the U.S. Coast Guard’s phased test and
evaluation of live web based training (WBT) as an alternative delivery
method for providing training and performance support to Coast Guard
personnel located throughout the United States. The Coast Guard tested
synchronous (live) WBT using typical courses and instructors, desktop
computers, the Internet (home students) and Coast Guard’s Intranet
(at-work students) and a commercial off the shelf (COTS) WBT tool. The test
objectively assessed if WBT, much hyped in the media but little used in the
Coast Guard, is a suitable and cost-effective method to provide training and
performance support for our workforce. The team also compared the method
against other alternative technologies. Our results strongly indicate that
live WBT is a good fit for the Coast Guard.
Live WBT enables Coast Guard trainers to cost-effectively provide
high-quality instruction direct to field personnel. The evaluation team
measured no significant difference between resident and live WBT
instructional methodologies. Live WBT also offers a return on investment
(after costs) of over $200K per year for an annual throughput of 750
students. The team reached these conclusions by focusing on three primary
goals. They were:
Identify if live WBT is a good fit for given our equipment and
Determine any effectiveness differences between WBT and resident
Determine specific costs and benefits tied to this delivery method.
U.S. Army Research Institute sponsored the development of two advanced
authoring and delivery systems entitled MITAS and Mentor.
MITAS (Multimedia Instructional Tutoring and Authoring System) is a
Windows-based tool for developing and presenting computer-based instruction.
Among other features, it uses a unique approach to lesson development
featuring 3D animation in a microworld environment. Mentor is a natural
language understanding and problem-solving system in which the software
simulates either a subject matter expert or conversational agent.
Mentor uses dialogue to support informational and procedural lessons.
This paper will describe MITAS and Mentor along with the approach used
to make the microworld and dialogue capabilities authorable with minimal
training and effort.
cost estimation is one of the most elusive and difficult tasks performed by
training professionals. Typically
these techniques are based on development and delivery time.
Delivery time is commonly referred to as "CBT hours".
An in-depth study of 25 experienced CBT developers was unable to
clearly define or agree on what constitutes an hour of CBT. Common
definitions include "average student contact time" or "online
student interaction time". In
one study, delivery time ranged from 45 to 420 minutes for a sample group of
886 learners. With such a wide range of delivery times one cannot expect to
reliably predict development time as a function of delivery time. This paper
introduces a "CBT element" and the methodology used to divide
lessons into these elements. Interactive
courseware lessons are comprised of many CBT elements.
Unlike a CBT hour, a CBT element is based on complexity of programming
(i.e. level of interactivity, branching, etc) rather than time. One benefit of implementing this unit of measure is the
elimination of the student completion time as a variable.
However the more significant benefit is that CBT elements can be used
to more accurately estimate courseware costs.
forward by massive economical improvements in the realm of simulation, we
currently observe an accretion of the Computer Based Training (CBT) sector
with the simulation sector. The availability of low-cost systems for 3D
visualization on the basis of PCs allows the incorporation of simulator
components into classical CBT programs. This in effect makes it possible to
use constructive learning theories as the simulation components allow for a
very realistic interaction of the learner and the training object, so that
quasi-free exploration techniques are within the reach of CBT. An operational
field for coupling classical CBT with VR-techniques is the training of EOD-units
within the German Navy. The trainees shall learn categorization and
identification of all sorts of munitions and bombs. Further more they shall
be trained in proper disarming and handling the explosives. At present these
goals are taught by means of classical lessons. Teaching the construction of
the objects is accomplished by means of visual instructions using structural
models. Environmental effects which the trainee is confronted with in real
life demand long and expensive preparations and are therefore rarely used in
current lectures. CCI GmbH and the Bundesamt für Wehrtechnik und Beschaffung
develop in close cooperation with the weapon diver battalion of the German
Navy a CBT program based on a combination of classical CBT techniques and VR
techniques. We use a stepwise explorative didactical approach. The program
uses several VR-Visualization techniques based on a database containing
3D-models of bombs and munitions. The simulation of environmental effects as
the reduced visibility under water and other influences are applied as well
as a scenario editor to be used by instructors. This paper presents the
current state of development.
Mark R. Perusse
Room Interactive (BRI) is a web based mission preparation, briefing, and
debriefing aircrew flying preparation system.
Implementing the latest technologies, BRI is a powerful tool that
consolidates many traditional briefing room resources and offers a variety of
new ones. The F-117A BRI is a
complementary training and briefing resource that replaces the simple,
onscreen briefing guide of the 20th century.
The result is a multimedia briefing system that is easy to use,
portable, deployable, and end-user maintained.
The BRI incorporates the Air Combat Command’s software standards
with existing Web site multimedia standards to produce a BRI Web site that is
a suite of interactive briefing room utilities with user-friendly
directories, file naming conventions, and customizable PowerPoint briefings.
The BRI system is designed using the HTML frames approach and VGA
content for easy delivery of compressed multimedia files to the Web site.
It electronically encapsulates home station pullout boards, including
fingertip access for aircrew briefing flexibility and ease in presenting
elements common to every briefing. Web
page links offer the briefer instant access to aircrew publications in an
intuitive electronic format, to online weather sites, NOTAMS, imagery, and
other required mission planning products viewed "just in time" and
"just for me." In
addition, BRI provides realistic graphics to enhance briefing room realism,
accuracy and eliminates redundant preflight drawings. The goal being
increased standardization and enhanced aircrew understanding and retention.
The key to BRI is the use of high quality diagrams, animations, and
conducting actual F-117A flight training accomplished BRI assessment using a
survey of both instructors and students.
The BRI system includes the development of three new and the revision
of 12 lessons per fiscal year requiring a work effort of 1918 contractor
"man" hours. BRI
transforms the aircrew-briefing environment into the 21st century by putting
multimedia technology at the aircrews’ fingertips to produce accurate
briefings that increase aircrews’ learning and understanding.
Gregory F. Knapp
this hypothetical scenario. Another major training exercise is beginning at
the Joint Warfighting Center. This simulation-based exercise is designed to
prepare a European-based Joint Task Force commander and his staff in
warfighting operations within the combustible European theater. Over five
hundred participants have been brought to Suffolk, Virginia to participate.
Component staff response cells have been established as far as Fort Hood,
Texas to the west and Ramstein AFB to the east. The exercise will result in
participants being out of their operational area for over three weeks over a
two-month period while planning the operation and executing the exercise. By
all accounts this is a very cost effective way to train JTF commanders, but
is it the most cost effective? As this exercise is unfolding political unrest
in a nation in the US Central Command s Area of Responsibility has caused
CENTCOM to go into an alert status. Although intelligence studies have
provided the CINC a thumbnail sketch of what he will face should he have to
move his troops in country, there is no way for him to model and rehearse
potential courses of action in the days prior to deploying his forces.
In-theater training and exercises coupled with a responsive mission rehearsal
capability are just two of the major operational capabilities being addressed
by the Advanced Distributed Learning Network (ADLN). Joint Vision 2010
clearly states the need for such a capability: Simulations must be
interconnected globally – creating a near-real-time interactive simulation
superhighway between our forces in every theater. Each CINC must be able to
tap into this global network and connect forces worldwide that would be
available for theater operations. The ADLN vision is to create a global
architecture that integrates and shapes related DOD initiatives, programs,
and operational requirements providing the capability for worldwide
participation in advanced distributed learning on demand. Advanced
Distributed Learning, with joint training applications and content riding on
a high speed, robust network promises to be such a boon to cost effective
training it is currently being investigated by every Service and a multitude
of government agencies. To date, the result has been the creation of many
stand alone and non-interoperable networks, services, and tools. This has led
to duplication of effort and a waste of resources. The ADLN program will
provide a comprehensive, cohesive, and requirements-based joint training and
education capability for the CINCs, Services, and defense agencies. It will
leverage existing stove-piped networks and ensure interoperability and
seamless transfer of information in the joint battlespace. This paper will
describe the overarching concepts of this global Advanced Distributed
Learning Network and how it will be implemented for use by US forces and
agencies to increase joint training readiness.
Palmer & Domenic DeStefano
J. Daly, Ph.D.
budget and trends toward case management, team focus, and customer service,
it is common for two or more jobs to be combined into one consolidated job.
Consolidated jobs require extensive cross-training for the additional
tasks, which are often comprised of diverse knowledge, skills, and
perspectives not associated with the previous, unconsolidated jobs.
For instance, an organization may combine one customer inter-face-type
job with an analysis-type job. This
results in a considerable training challenge, as the knowledge and skills
required are quite different. Often,
the need for client service and immediate work activities continues through
the reorganization, limiting training time.
These needs are exacerbated when new employees are hired along with
the requirement for cross-training of current employees.
When this type of job merger occurs, there usually is not sufficient
time for the structured analysis and design required for training
development. This situation arose in the Veterans Benefits Administration's
need for Veterans Service Representative (VSR) training. There was an
immediate need to cross train approximately 4,000 employees at 58 regional
offices in the knowledge and skills required for the consolidated VSR job.
Also, new employees were to be immediately hired.
A short-term approach, using selected ISD principles was taken to
support immediate training for the VSR while a structured ISD approach is
being taken for the long-term. Web-based training was selected as the
delivery medium for the short-term solution. This paper will address the
lessons learned in the development of the short-term approach: The VSR Field
Guide Web site. Over 1,000
learning outcomes were identified and organized into a taxonomy, curriculum
outline, lesson plans, and resource library. This approach allowed for rapid
deployment of a solution for the VSR training problem.
Initial reaction to the Field Guide has been positive.
We believe that the development process and the "lessons
learned" from this project can be beneficial to others in both
government and commercial industries, whenever training analysis has to be
U.S. Navy's Surface Warfare Officers School (SWOS) in Rhode Island is
pioneering the use of a low-cost simulation-based intelligent tutoring system
(ITS) as part of its Tactical Action Officer (TAO) training program to train
Navy officers in high-level tactical skills. This software was designed and
built for SWOS for use on standard PCs, was introduced to the School in early
1999, and the Navy has a royalty-free license to use it. The software can be used both as a classroom aid and by
individual students. A key objective of the software is to increase the
active training that officers receive to improve their ability to apply their
conceptual knowledge of tactics. Early results from its use with two classes
are encouraging and indicate that the software will succeed in this goal by
enabling as much as a ten-fold increase in hands-on training.
software has three parts. First, there is a scenario generator, with which
instructors, with limited assistance from a programmer, can create any number
of simulated scenarios. These can be set in any part of the world, and
populated with different surface and air platforms. Each individual platform
is implemented as an "intelligent agent" and can be given its own
performance characteristics and behaviors so it will act realistically. For
example, a hostile plane will have its own mission (which the student can
only surmise) but will react to challenges from the student's friendly
platforms. Second, there is the intelligent tutoring system, which presents
selected scenarios to the student to practice different tactical concepts.
The software will adaptively select scenarios for individual students, that
practice concepts he or she hasn't yet practiced or has recently failed, or
enable a student to pick any scenario. As well as the intrinsic feedback that
free-play simulations naturally provide a student, the TAO ITS provides
detailed, useful extrinsic feedback to the student once a scenario is
finished, which reviews all the concepts attempted and whether they were
passed or failed. At this point, the student can review multimedia material
about any concept, or see a replay of the scenario to review errors. The
third part of the software is an instructor interface tool for instructor to
review all the students' work with the tutoring system to assess their
progress in detail. This paper describes the Tactical Action Officer
Intelligent Tutoring System as an example of what ITSs can do and the
benefits they can provide. It
also includes an explanation of why the case-based reasoning technique was
used in the software to reduce three problems commonly associated with
intelligent tutoring systems: effective incorporation of subject expert
knowledge in the software, cost, and development time. It also reviews SWOS's
experience with the software since its introduction, students' opinions of
the software, and suggests ways in which future simulation-based intelligent
tutoring systems might be improved based on SWOS's experience.
uncertainty of unconventional threats confounds the Military Intelligence
community. Changing operational requirements and constraints exacerbate the
capability to prepare soldiers for unexpected situations.
Thus, complexity of a training requirement increases while conditions
truncate the means to provide training. Training must also prepare a soldier
to accept the challenge of the unknown rather than become overwhelmed. One
way to use limited resources to develop a competency is to combine distance
learning (DL) techniques with adaptive learning strategies. This paper will
describe one approach to optimizing the use of DL techniques with
Constructivist learning theory to train complex domains. We present a
courseware system that trains students in the area of "Intelligence for
Combating Terrorism" (ICT), and an associated authoring tool. This
authoring tool supports course development both at the subject matter level
and at the pedagogical level, allowing the author to create and update the
course material and to develop and refine an instructional process that
adapts to the learning styles of each individual student.
We conclude the paper with a description of our generic programming
framework for creating customized tutor authoring tools.
W. Lussier, Ph.D.
G. Ross, Ph.D
Adaptive Thinking Training Methodology was developed in a cooperative effort
between the U.S. Army Research Institute (ARI) and the U.S. Army Research
Laboratory (ARL) as part of the Army Experiment 6 program.
It was successfully tested in 1999 in an experimental program of
instruction as part of the Advanced Tactics Elective at the Command and
General Staff College (CGSC) at Fort Leavenworth.
The following year the methodology was applied in the Medium Brigade
Course at CGSC under the auspices of the Training and Doctrine Command’s (TRADOC)
Army Transformation program. The
methodology was also used in the Staff Leader Course provided by TRADOC to
key personnel in the Initial Brigade Combat Team.
The term Adaptive Thinking is used in both courses to describe the
cognitive behavior of an officer who is confronted by unanticipated
circumstances during the execution of a planned military operation.
The training methodology involves performance-oriented, case-based
training designed to promote the development of expert habits of thought,
i.e., teaching the students "how to think like experts." Repetitive performance under varying conditions is used along
with carefully designed probes, which are inserted to set the conditions for
student performance and to facilitate observation and measurement.
A key element of the training program employs theme-based coaching, in
which the coaches, alert for evidence of the student’s adherence to the
course themes, provide just enough guidance to facilitate student development
while still leaving the performance requirement to the students.
This aspect of coaching is termed scaffolding.
ARI and ARL scientists combined to present training sessions for the
military experts who served as coaches.
Their approach to coaching presented a challenge to several traditions
of Army training, especially for those who had served as observer/controllers
(O/Cs) at a combat training center (CTC).
The scaffolding process was in distinct contrast to hands-off
observation style characteristic of CTC O/Cs.
The Army maxim "Tell them what you’re going to tell them, tell
them, tell them what you’ve told them" is contrary to the
constructivist spirit of the coaching in which students must learn to guide
their own activities with the least possible prompting.
"Train as you fight" is another Army philosophy that is not
strictly adhered to as the methodology is based on deliberate practice
concepts with focus on normally unconscious elements of performance and
frequent repetition. The
culmination of the effort to identify coaching techniques is documented in
the Army Transformation product, Leader's Guide for Mentoring Adaptive
Thinking that was disseminated 2000 Convention of the Association of United
advances in training, performance measurement, and feedback have emerged from
scientific developments in understanding situation awareness, problem
solving, and decision making. Using
a case study from a naval aviation command, we describe strategies, methods,
issues, and lessons learned in integrating multiple cognitive initiatives
into an existing procedures-based training system.
These initiatives originated from organizational goals to reduce the
aviation mishap rate and to improve mission effectiveness by integrating crew
resource management (CRM) as a core competency throughout the training
curriculum. These initiatives
include: cognitive task analyses to identify critical cognitive skills,
incorporation of cognitive skills into training objectives and training
content, the use of event-based scenarios for classroom discussion and
simulator exercises, assessment of cognitive skills, the use of cockpit video
and automated analyses of flight skills in simulators to diagnose and debrief
performance. These initiatives
are compared to previous methodology and to a vision of a state-of-the-art
training system that incorporates scenario-based, cognitive training methods.
Implementation issues are discussed extensively.
current trends for infusing technology often leave the potential users
feeling as if they are in the midst of a "technology frenzy" that
does not take into consideration their critical operational, organizational,
or special learning needs. Those who are spearheading the technology infusion
initiatives cannot understand why the potential users do not embrace their
visions acknowledging and expressing gratitude for all the potential being
offered. The military training environments and supporting documentation are
built upon a behavioral learning model that is subject matter expert (SME)
and instructor-centered and is based on engineering principles. The optimal
use of technology for learning is more eclectic, is dependent upon the use of
many learning models (including cognitive models), is instructional designer
and learner-centered, and is based on both engineering and scientific
principles. These factors alone suggest very significant shifts in how
business is conducted. Yet, every environment has its own traditions,
history, and unique needs to complicate the issue. Significant investments in
technology to improve learning and performance can easily be lost if the
environment is not prepared to embrace the potential. Preparation, in this
case, means using smart change management principles. While we all know this
intellectually, it can be very difficult to achieve. Several conditions exist
that make practical change management concepts critical to the success of
technology infusion initiatives. A model is presented for consideration to
aid in identifying the differences in the leadership and users’
perspectives so acceptance can be predicted. The user will go through key
phases (from entry level to transformation) as they adopt technology to
understand the user environment and plan the infusion process. Once these
factors are understood, strategies can be applied for assisting the users
through these phases.
Susan L. Coleman
technology into a curriculum can increase the efficiency and effectiveness of
the curriculum; however, technology integration represents a formidable
instructional problem. A deliberate analysis must precede integration efforts
to understand this problem and determine how to optimize the potential
learning gains of technology integration. This analysis should examine how
the learning system will affect the integrated technology and how the
technology will affect the system. This paper describes an approach called
Technology Integration Analysis (TIA). The TIA is an approach for analyzing a
learning system to identify the most effective and efficient way to integrate
technology. The TIA represents a different way of thinking about integrating
technology into a curriculum. The TIA treats technology integration as more
than overlaying hardware and courseware onto existing course structures.
Successful technology integration requires a complex analysis of the
interrelated components of the learning system leading to purposeful
recommendations for effective and efficient technology integration to
maximize the learning system. Basing the TIA approach on a research model
allows flexibility to customize the analysis for every environment rather
than prescribe a lockstep procedure that may not work well in all situations.
The TIA is an inductive, empirically based research approach for conducting
an analysis. This approach ensures the critical variables that impact the
effectiveness of technology integration are explored. This paper will
describe the TIA approach including the principles guiding the analysis, the
research goal, and some of the research questions used to meet that goal. The
learning system examined during the analysis will also be defined and
applications of the TIA in military environments will be described.
This paper concludes with a summary of the advantages of using a
research-based approach for conducting an analysis in preparation for
and learning theories that support Aptitude Treatment Interaction (ATI),
Locus of Control, and self-efficacy suggest that a student's individual
motivation, abilities, and self-efficacy are significant design
considerations of instructional strategy.
Specifically, the learning process would be optimized by dynamically
evaluating the student's individual learning state during the training
session, then adjusting the instructional intervention to increase the
student's confidence and decrease anxiety.
A model for dynamically tailoring instructional intervention in
real-time based upon his/her individual learning characteristics and
affective responses is proposed. This
model describes the use of an affective component for such factors as
anxiety, to be monitored and adjusted throughout the training session.
The affective component interfaces with the instructor model to
optimize the student-instructor interaction process (i.e. frequency of
feedback, directive/reflective feedback, tone of voice).
Data collection and evaluation is planned for the Conning Officer
Virtual Environment (COVE), a prototypical shiphandling VE training simulator
located at the Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division.
COVE's Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) would benefit from the
capability to provide real-time, tailored instructional intervention to the
student for a variety of shiphandling tasks, students ranging from initial
training for novice Ensigns to skill refreshment and mission rehearsal for
expert shiphandlers, such as Commanding Officers (COs), Department Head
Officers, and Division Officers. In addition, the model will be tested for the interaction of
the CO with the junior officer for possible use as an affect feedback
generator to the CO.
Dutch c, Dale Jewell and Frank Luongo
Intelligent Tutoring System for Tactical Aircraft (ITS-AIR) is designed to
enhance pilot learning while reducing lifecycle costs associated with on-site
simulation operators and instructors. ITS-AIR
is envisioned as an add-on system for future, existing and legacy simulators.
SDS’s rationale in producing the ITS-AIR system is based upon a
divide and conquer methodology utilizing COTS & GOTS DIS/HLA resources
coupled with simple small cooperative intelligent agents.
The prototype ITS-AIR system presented in this paper can be logically
viewed as two cooperative main modules.
SAM the Systems Automation Module
that replaces the on-site simulation operators and HIT
the Hierarchical Intelligent Tutor module
that reduces the on-site instructor requirements.
is an intelligent agent that provides the pilots with a simple Graphical User
Interface (GUI) that starts and synchronizes all the ITS-AIR System
components. For example, in the
NAWC/TSD funded SDS, BMH and SOAR ITS-AIR Testbed (See Figure 2) SAM
currently starts two LiteFliteTM
Simulators, JSAF, SOAR, SOAR-Speak, ModIOSTM,
and HIT. SAM also freezes,
restarts and stops the components in a synchronous manner.
Additionally, SAM is used by HIT to load and control lessons.
SAM also contains TCIA the Temporal Control
Intelligent Agent the
controls the flow of simulated time throughout the distributed simulation
architecture. TCIA services
provide the HIT with the capacity to slow the pace of events for early skill
acquisition phases, or present learning events in “slow motion”
emphasizing the details that may not be easily perceived at normal real-time
rates. TCIA services also
provide the HIT with Above Real-Time Training (ARTT) Capabilities.
ARTT has demonstrated to produce large training benefits (Guckenberger,
Lane, Stanney 1992; Guckenberger and Crane 1997) and is envisioned to have
even higher performance benefits when used in conjunction with HIT.
provides the pilots with a simple GUI to log-in, select curriculum lessons,
free-play or mission rehearsal modes.
SAM and HIT allow the pilots to train in a user-friendly,
non-threatening environment in which the student can be guided through
training scenarios based on instructor defaults or dynamic configuration by
the student. Performance data
can be recorded into the students’ HIT database records via XML based on
the preferences of the instructor and / or student. HIT supports:
Review - Presentation of experts doing tasks, monitor differences between
current pilot performance and different levels of experts corresponding
tutoring options based upon pilot performance and pilot questions
is actually composed of multiple components and simple cooperative
intelligent agents utilizing XML resources.
Tutoring Systems (ITSs) complement training simulators by providing automated
instruction when it is not economical or feasible to dedicate an instructor
to each student during training simulations. To lower the cost and difficulty
of creating scenario-based intelligent tutoring systems for procedural task
training, we developed the Task Tutor Toolkit (T 3 ), a generic tutoring
system shell and scenario authoring tool. The Task Tutor Toolkit employs a
case-based reasoning approach where the instructor creates a procedure
template that specifies the range of student actions that are
"correct" within each scenario. The system enables a non-programmer
to specify task knowledge quickly and easily by via graphical user interface,
using a "demonstrate, generalize, and annotate" paradigm, that
recognizes the range of possible valid actions and infers general principles
that are understood (or misunderstood) by the student when those actions are
carried out. The annotated procedure template also enables the Task Tutor
Toolkit to provide hints requested by the student during scenarios, such as
What do I do now? And Why do I do that? At the end of each scenario, RPOT
displays the principles correctly or incorrectly demonstrated by the student,
along with explanations and background information. The Task Tutor Toolkit
was designed to be modular and general so that it can be interfaced with a
wide range of training simulators and support a variety of training domains.
We used the Task Tutor Toolkit to create the Remote Payload Operations Tutor
(RPOT), a tutoring system application which lets scientists who are new to
space mission operations learn to monitor and control their experiments
aboard the International Space Station according to NASA payload regulations,
guidelines, and procedures. NASA is currently evaluating the effectiveness of
RPOT and the Task Tutor Toolkit and is exploring other potential training
applications for the Task Tutor Toolkit.
Department of Defense (DoD) established the Joint Advanced Distributed
Learning (ADL) Co-Laboratory to support the implementation of ADL within DoD.
As part of this initiative, the Joint Co-Laboratory is to provide
technical assistance to program managers responsible for the development and
fielding of ADL systems. This paper describes one of the efforts under this
initiative. The goal of this project is to establish documented guidelines
for the design and evaluation of Internet-based training and performance
aiding. These guidelines are being developed for the Joint ADL Co-Laboratory
by the University of Central Florida's Institute for Simulation and Training.
The guidelines are being identified by reviewing the literature on
development of web-based instructional environments, web-site development and
computer-based training, including issues relating to content, format,
instructional support features, standards compliance, learning management,
tutoring, usability, hardware, and instructor and trainee skill requirements.
Procedures for evaluation of ADL materials are discussed, and a sample
of the preliminary guidelines is provided.
Michael W. Freeman, EdD
of the training requirements for fielding and sustaining digital capabilities
in military units demand real time interaction and coaching by subject matter
experts or instructors. The
preferred method of training users in a face-to-face computer classroom is
prohibitively slow and costly due to the wide geographic dispersion of the
student load. Current military
distance learning programs do not provide the capability to distribute
hands-on interactive, real time, instructor coached digital training.
In the present experiment using T.120 standard data collaboration
tools over packet switched Internet connections, the primary instructor's
screen was replicated to each distributed classroom and student's screens
were replicated back to the coaches station.
Audio communications were provided through conference telephones and a
multipoint bridge. Video cues of
the instructor, coaches and students were provided through point-to-point
videophones using the H.324 standard. In
addition to the shared audio, computer graphics and motion video,
instructors, coaches and students were able to interact on demand using an
instant messaging application. This
paper explores the need for Distributed Digital Skills Laboratories and
describes a study comparing the performance of groups of soldiers and marines
taking an introductory course on the Common Message Processor face-to-face in
a traditional computer classroom and via the Distributed Digital Skills
Laboratory. The study results
suggest there is no difference in student learning performance between the
Distributed Digital Skills Laboratory mode of instruction and the traditional
classroom for the hands on Common Message Processor course.
The results also suggest that student satisfaction with the technical
aspects of the Distributed Digital Skills Laboratory is higher than for most
other modes of synchronous distance learning as evidenced by baseline studies
of the Army Research Institute.
Queen Hoffman, Ph.D.
College of Continuing Education
J. Stukel (1997), president of the University of Illinois, has credited the
technology revolution of the 21st Century with extending access to education
beyond the limits of time and place. Even the most skeptical among us has to
admit that distributed learning, long considered by many to be a "poor
excuse for the real thing," (McIsaac, 1998) is assuming an increasingly
respected place within the education arena. Distributed learning and its
associated Web applications will continue to evolve more rapidly and
dynamically than most of us can even imagine, and much of the credit for this
expansion is due to the ever-increasing capabilities of technology.
Historically, the purpose of distance education has been to provide greater
access to education rather than to enhance educational outcomes (Gay, 1997).
However, to ignore the potential of Web-supported/Web-based instruction to
improve educational outcomes would be to miss a significant opportunity to
foster improved performance and achievement of online learners. As Dodge
(1996) says, it was not until the Web that truly ground-breaking changes in
teaching, training, and self-directed learning began to occur. Nonetheless,
an aura of suspicion regarding how well distributed education courses can
approximate their on-site counterparts lingers. Even the most strident
detractors of distributed learning must concede that what may have begun as a
questionable and sometimes experimental exercise has quickly become a readily
accepted practice. That equivalent learning outcomes can be achieved for both
scenarios through the application of appropriate instructional strategies and
technology is the argument put forth in this paper. The paper is based on a
project on which the Naval War College and private industry collaborated to
produce an online, Web-supported version of a correspondence course based on
a residence course given at the Naval War College. It will focus on the
measures taken to ensure the integrity of both the content and the learning
experience and is grounded in Simonson, Schlosser, and Hanson’s (1999)
Theory of Equivalency. Equivalency Theory aligns the learning experiences of
online learners with those of on-site learners and maintains that the
learning that takes place under either scenario should yield the same
learning outcomes. The responsibility for creating equivalent learning
environments for online learners lies with the instructional designer and is
in no way the responsibility of the student.
Simonson et al. (1999)
predict that distance learning will become mainstream in the U.S. if those
involved in the educational process perceive the value derived from on-site
and online learning to be the same. The application of technology-driven
interactive telecommunications can minimize any differences in learning
outcomes between on-site and online learning scenarios. This paper provides
background information to illustrate how that can be accomplished.
the previous decade, US military experiences in places as diverse as Kosovo,
Bosnia, East Timor, Haiti, Rwanda, Somalia and Iraq have repeatedly
reaffirmed that interoperability with Allies and coalition partners is an
area for improvement. In a post-Cold War era characterized by the emergence
of complex contingencies, the requirement for effective multinational and
civil-military cooperation has become increasingly apparent. It is equally
clear that the inability of coalition partners to rapidly plan and coordinate
with each other results in a default situation whereby the United States must
very often become the lead responder in order to ensure success. This
situation places a heavy operational burden upon resources and US military
personnel. But what is the remedy?
approach in helping to reduce the burden on US forces, while also promoting
regional security Cooperation among nations, is the development of
distributed learning approaches in support of coalition-based education and
training. Finding effective tools to this end has become a top priority
within the Department of Defense. In support, the US Joint Forces Command is
investigating the feasibility of establishing a global distributed learning,
data services network. Among its purposes would be to enhance ongoing
theater-level strategies of engagement that serve to "shape" the
strategic environment and prevent conflict. The effort is focused on three
primary initiatives that are in various stages of development in each of the
major geographic regions: coalition-based information networks; simulation
networks; and advanced distributed learning tools and services.
global effort is building upon initial successes in the European region,
where some promising Preliminary efforts are underway, primarily under the
auspices of US participation in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) program (PfP
is a NATO initiative to develop constructive ties with the armed forces and
civilian defense Communities of the former Warsaw Pact countries and as well
with as European nations that have traditionally been non-aligned).
Proceeding from the European model as an initial template, it is believed
that these concepts can be tailored and adapted to the other regions of the
world. This paper will examine the strategic context behind this new approach
to the employment of information technology, inform the reader about recent
developments in establishing new programmatic authorities, and review on a
region-by-region basis some of the most promising near-term possibilities.
small and medium-sized enterprises manufacture highly complex and
customer-specific products. Due to increasing competition and declining
profit margins, a lot of enterprises depend on revenues from the after-sales
service. The education of customers becomes increasingly more important.
Traditionally established methods of training show significant disadvantages
not only for the manufacturer but also for the customer. One of the major
disadvantages of traditional training classes being held in a training center
at the manufacturer's site is often the unavailability of the customer
specific configuration of the product. On the one side, this even complicates
the training of the customer and on the other side it is also very expensive
for the manufacturer since the equipment used in training centers ties up
money. An alternative would be to perform the training at the customer's
site. This would, however, cause an interruption of the running production
process due to machines needed for training purposes or workers being
trained. Both alternatives are undesirable. Thus, major improvements can be
achieved with a system that provides machine- and customer-specific training
online. Classes are generated automatically from a database-managed set of
documents. This approach saves time for the development of training material
and, at the same time, increases the quality of education since classes are
adapted to the customer's needs. In addition, it does not tie up money for
training equipment and the training material can be easily reused. The
article presents aims and solutions of a system which limits costs since it
can be implemented using standard PC components. The architecture of the
system was developed regarding various requirements from the fields of
education, training, engineering, and computer science. Specifically, the
following requirements were taken into account:
article will demonstrate how manufactures of complex equipment can benefit
from the system to significantly cut training costs and achieve a customer-
and product-specific training.
America, demands to reduce training costs have led many corporations,
government agencies, and educational institutions to invest in interactive
distance learning technology. Traditional classroom courses are rapidly
giving way to online learning over the Internet, arguably the largest and
most diverse information resource in the world today. It is now possible to
incorporate the wealth of information available on the "net" into
online courses. Students can be linked around the world in interactive
exercises and instructional materials can be accessed via web browsers on any
platform. There is no longer a need to author a program specifically for a
particular platform. Web browser software and Internet connections are widely
available; worldwide distribution is inexpensive; content can be instantly
updated; and there is no need to bring remote employees to a centralized
location. In addition, online courses can provide course takers with feedback
that traditional computer-based training cannot. For example, statistics can
be derived from practice exercises and tests, providing course takers with a
better feel of their understanding in relation to how others have perceived
the course. Online learning is convenient for students, as they can proceed
at their own pace and at their own place. Facilitated online learning
strategies can reduce dropout rates normally encountered with traditional
correspondence courses. In evaluating online courses, Harasim (1997) found
that learners identified the following aspects of online education as
beneficial: increased interaction in terms of both quantity and intensity;
better access to group knowledge and support; a more democratic learning
environment; convenience of access; and increased motivation. Challenges
include overcoming slow connection speeds and long download times due to
paper presents guidelines for designing online learning courses. Emerging
technologies, tools, processes and instructional strategies are addressed.
Specific interactive design strategies unique to online learning are
increasing computing power and low-cost rendering power in the commercial
video game market has led to some very sophisticated PC-based video games.
Over the last few years, the military has begun to adapt these games,
or develop similar products, in an effort to reduce the cost of virtual
training. This paper presents:
A Tactical Decision Game (TDG) overview
An overview of Marine Corps PC-based TDG efforts
Discusses advantages of using
Commercial Game Technology for web based distance learning, and
Identifies interoperability among DOD TDGs using HLA.
of experience in the development of structured simulation-based training
methods and prototype training support packages have led to the
identification of needs for user-oriented support tools. These tools should
provide access to available training support packages, as well as to methods
for modifying them and developing similar ones. Leaders of training units
will then be able to access and tailor simulation-based training packages to
meet their needs. The Commanders' Integrated Training Tool (CITT) for the
Close Combat Tactical Trainer (CCTT) is a prototype of trainers' tools needed
for future simulations. The CITT is a user-focused software application that
is currently available in standalone and distributed forms. It is scheduled
to be incorporated into the CCTT baseline system sustained by the Project
Manager for the Combined Arms Tactical Trainer in the very near future. This
paper provides key findings relating to users' needs for structured
simulation-based training tools, followed by an overview of the development
and key components of the CITT. Future directions and key issues in the
application of CITT-like tools to various simulation environments are then
distance learning courseware must address the diverse needs of adult
learners, to include those of Generation X and Y learners as well as distance
learners. Their needs include
the requirements to: 1) know why
learning the knowledge or skill is necessary, 2)
direct their own learning, 3) contribute their experiences to the
learning situation 4) apply what they have learned in solving real world
problems, and 5) feel competent and experience success throughout the
training program. In addition to
needs of adult learners, trainers must also consider characteristics of
Generations X and Y such as the following: their inclination for independent
learning experiences that incorporate fast-paced and visually intensive
instruction, their need for frequent interactions with corresponding
feedback, and their strong
desire to experience a sense of accomplishment. Trainers must address
barriers inherent in distance learning by incorporating the following into
at-distance instruction: increased student-to-instructor feedback, more
interactivity, highly structured learning activities to ensure distance
learners do not lose track of where they are, and highly visual
presentations. Army research has
demonstrated that soldiers perform statistically significantly better when
trainers incorporate these four features into instruction, an activity that
is imperative in light of today’s trend toward proliferation of reusable
courseware. Army distance
learning courseware designers must be trained in instructional design
techniques that address these needs. The paper goes on to discuss special
challenges for multimedia delivered through CD-ROM and via the Internet.
present study investigates the effect of network parameters on the
representation of networked entities. An accurate representation of such
entities is important for the perceptual validity of networked simulations.
Due to network delay and dead reckoning, networked entities can exhibit
erroneous behavior (e.g. jittery movements, overshoots). The central question
in this study is when this erroneous behavior affects the perceptual validity
of the simulation. We will determine the network properties that are required
for acceptable presentation of networked entities. In the TNO-Human Factors
low-cost driving simulator, the driving behavior of traffic participants was
judged. The traffic data was subject to network delay and dead reckoning
before it was presented in the computer generated image of the driving
simulator. The results show that drivers are very sensitive to errors due to
a too large dead reckoning threshold, and less sensitive to errors due to a
large network delay. When the dead reckoning threshold exceeds 3-4 cm, the
movements of the traffic participants become jittery. Such unnatural jittery
movements are highly detrimental for the perceptual validity of the traffic
simulation. The effect of delay, i.e., an overshoot in the trajectory of a
vehicle, can be observed in normal traffic (at least in theory) and were
found to be less detrimental for the perceptual validity. It is concluded
that the perceptual validity of vehicles in traffic is very sensitive to
errors due to network communication, but it is possible to present such
traffic with a high perceptual validity, provided that the dead reckoning
threshold is set at a low value.
Jim Patrey, Ph.D.
current objective of Information Visualization (IV) research is to transform
vast amounts of information into decision-supportable knowledge structures
and patterns that capitalize on the way humans process information through
perception and action. In
general, the aim is to assist users in finding appropriate task information
by presenting this information in a comprehensible manner through interactive
computer graphics displays that present underlying relationships of concrete
and/or abstract information in easily identifiable perceptual forms. New trends in IV are emerging, likely driven by the explosive
growth of the internet, the computerization of business and defense sectors,
the deployment of data warehouses, and use of virtual environment (VE) and
advanced distributed learning (ADL) technology for entertainment,
educational, and training applications.
many commercial tools are now available for creating visualizations for both
concrete and abstract information, there are few, if any, theoretically-based
or empirically-validated guidelines provided to developers or users regarding
which technique(s) is most appropriate for a given domain context, user, or
task. The objective of the
present research is to identify the need to develop effective visualization
design guidelines from the perspective of human information processing,
visual display, and problem solving theories.
Information processing theories suggest that to achieve comprehension
of visual displays they must be developed such that they are readily
perceived, interpreted, and acted upon.
Visual display theories suggest that information should be organized
and displayed in such a way that it is congruent with the methods in which
one scans the environment. Research
on integrating such theories with how people solve problems can be used to
build principle-driven design guidelines that may assist visualization
designers in successfully transforming information into the appropriate
perceptual form for their users' domain task/goal(s).
As a future objective of this research, critical issues to be
addressed include determining: how to best characterize the existing
knowledge of human perception and presentation design to develop
theoretically-based visualization design guidelines; how to categorize and
classify domain contexts, users, and tasks/goals; how to extend and augment
principles developed for 2D visualizations to 3D; how immersion may enhance
visualizations; and whether design principles will be generalizable or
domain/task specific. Empirical
testing and validation of future proposed design guidelines will be conducted
in the shiphandling testbed of the Virtual Environment Training Technology (VETT)
project, located at the Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (NAWCTSD).
In this paper, the results of a preliminary study provide empirical
evidence for the utility of visualizations in communicating human performance
of an underway replenishment (UNREP) task.
D. Kosnik, PhD
visual systems incorporated with flight simulators and weapon system trainers
being used for training by fighter aircrews today must be improved to allow
the aircrews to participate in the Distributed Mission Training (DMT)
environment. DMT will require visual systems that display all the visual cues
used by pilots and weapon system officers (WSOs) to perform every task
necessary to accomplish their missions. These visual cues must be presented
exactly as the pilots and WSOs see them when performing the same tasks in the
aircraft. As examples, terrain features must have the same texture, man-made
features must have the same levels of contrast and targets must come into
view at realistic ranges. Further, the visual cues used by all the aircrews
networked together for a DMT mission should be presented at the same level of
fidelity and resolution to each aircrew.
The characteristics of all the features and objects the pilots and
WSOs can see outside the cockpit must be the identical. For the DMT training
to be truly effective, the aircrews must believe that the time they are
spending in the flight simulators is worthwhile.
Providing the pilots and WSOs with high-quality, high-fidelity visual
systems that replicate the same visual cues they use when flying their
aircraft will be extremely important in the effectiveness of training in the
DMT environment. This team collected data from fighter pilots and WSOs to
determine what visual cues they use to perform the tasks required to
accomplish their missions. After compiling the data into a database, they
analyzed the data to determine how the aircrews used the visual cues to
accomplish their tasks. This project is part of an ongoing effort initiated
in 1992 by ASC/YW to conduct operationally oriented evaluations of
state-of–the-art visual systems with the goal of providing Air Combat
Command with improved training capabilities. This program known as Vis-Eval has expanded to include the
collection of data from aircrews and reported in pilot terms, not engineering
or technical terms. Vis-Eval evaluated various visual display systems and
technology to determine what fighter
visual tasks used in multi-role fighters could be supported by technologies
used and/or that specific system. The F-15C VIDS Vis-Eval was limited in
scope to evaluate what visual training tasks used in the FTU environment
could be supported by that system. The concept of this program is to conduct
data collection and analyses for the purpose of creating databases that
include as much information as possible about the visual cues used by fighter
aircrews. These databases can be made available to industry, government and
academia. The initial effort in this latest phase of Vis-Eval was to collect
data and develop a database for F-15C air-to-air tasks.
In this second effort, the emphasis was placed on air-to-ground
missions. Data was collected from over 100 pilots and WSOs representing four
different fighter aircraft. Emphasis was place on outside the cockpit visual
cues used in air-to-ground missions. The
data was analyzed and placed in a database that lists tasks the aircrews are
required to perform, and the visual cues they need to perform those tasks.
The database also displays the visual cues the aircrews use to perform their
tasks in order of their relative importance. Analysis of the data also
revealed several findings of significant importance. The results of the
interviews and questionnaires showed that the effects of weather and shadows
are extremely important to how fighter aircrews acquire and use visual cues.
The effects of bright lights and explosions at night produced
additional valuable information. One area that had never been addressed
before this project was the visual cues used by WSOs. This study showed that
WSOs use basically the same visual cues that pilots use. The importance of
peripheral vision, especially from experienced aircrews, emerged as one of
the most vital sets of visual cues needed in the overall performance of their
missions. Ranges at which aircrews predicted they could detect various
targets under differing conditions were also determined. Visual cues used by
fighter pilots and WSOs in performing their tasks show a degree of
commonality. Differences in the visual cues used are apparent in the
different missions assigned to each weapon system, the avionics capabilities
of each weapon system and the experience levels and background of the
commander of the Royal Netherlands Airbase Volkel has commissioned a study to
obtain a clear insight into the process of command and control (C2), with the
objective of assuring the quality of the output of C2. To enable this goal,
TNO HF developed a generic assessment tool for evaluating the performance of
C2 teams: the Command & Control Process Measurement Tool (C2PMT). The
C2PMT comprises concrete and clearly observable performance indicators on the
basis of which the process of C2 teams can be assessed. These specific
performance indicators are based on interviews with key commanders of Airbase
Volkel, and on a review of the relevant literature. A prototype of the C2PMT
was successfully tested during a three-day exercise. In this paper, the
development of the C2PMT will be described. First, the problems and questions
of the Airbase will be presented. Secondly, team performance and performance
indicators, as identified by the literature and field studies that have been
conducted, will be commented upon. Thirdly, the development and prototyping
of the C2PMT will be discussed. The final section concludes with future
research and development issues.
at the Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (NAWCTSD) have
developed multiple instructor aides for performance measurement hosted on
hand-held computers. The initial prototype, Shipboard Mobile Aide for
Training and Evaluation (ShipMATE), provides instructors with an automated
tool for presenting pre-brief information, collecting data and conducting a
debrief utilizing the Team Dimensional Training strategy. This tool was
originally presented in 1997. Since then, additional training and evaluation
software applications have been developed for Air, Surface, Ground, and
Sub-Surface domains in both classroom and operational settings. We refer to
the set of available performance measurement tools, which can be loaded onto
a hand-held device in any combination, as MATE. The applications on MATE have
been tailored to accommodate various performance measurement methodologies,
including outcome and process measures, aimed at capturing individual and
team performance. Examples of screen designs will illustrate how each
software tool is a unique combination of tools such as embedded checklists, a
scrolling scenario script window, data tagging buttons, organizational tabs,
voice recording, digital handwriting, instructor cueing, links to embedded
systems and networking of multiple hand-held devices.
paper will review the multiple tools that have been developed and present
suggested utilization of the optional screen functions. The value added by
each function will be discussed as well as the viability of this technology
in various operational settings including sea trials aboard AEGIS ships and
field operations during Army exercises. Finally, guidelines for developing
hand-held instructor aides for future training systems will be summarized.
the entire design process of any future military system, from function
analysis through system operation testing, a key human factors question will
be, "Will warfighters meet required performance criteria on demanding
operational scenarios?" Although experimentation with real warfighters
is essential, it may be too expensive to for all possible equipment and team
design options. The Integrated Performance Modeling Environment (IPME)
focuses on simulation of humans in complex environments and allows us to
evaluate system concepts, designs, and team structures with simulation at a
far lower cost than with real humans. For the Office of Naval Research
Science & Technology Manning Affordability Initiative, the IPME was used
to model human processes and human interactions with current consoles, as
well as internal and external communications networks. The model is based on
a demanding air defense warfare scenario containing in excess of 80 air
tracks, 1160 scenario events and 150 human tasks. Modeled processes include
air track detection and identification, escort, queries, warnings, and threat
evaluation and mitigation. Some measures that can be provided by the model
include the time to first identification, wait time associated with various
tasks, and crewmember workload parameters. In parallel with model
development, experimental data were collected aboard ship from eight intact
crews using the same demanding operational scenario. This paper describes a
multiple-step process in which the model is validated and calibrated, and
discusses progress to date in this area. Then, the paper discusses how the
project will modify the timing and function allocation rules in the model to
allow experimentation with alternate team designs, automation and alternate
human machine interfaces. This cycle of model validation and model-based
design evaluation provides a powerful way to integrate human factors
engineering into the design of future systems.
AN/WLD (v) 1 represents the future of mine warfare technology. This remotely
operated vehicle holds the promise of increased capability in detecting and
classifying mines in ocean waters. The AN/WLD is a complex set of sensors
mounted in a semi-submersible vehicle designed to sweep littoral waters in
support of mine
The advantages of this type of uninhabited long range sensing capability are
vast and innumerable. But, these impressive capabilities are accompanied by
equally impressive implications for maintenance and upkeep of the system.
With deployment of the vehicle not scheduled until 2004 the question arises
as to how to plan for these maintenance needs in a system that does not yet
exist. The answer to this question in part lies in the maintenance modeling
effort that accompanies the design of the vehicle. Using the Improved
Performance Research integration Tool, IMPRINT, component level data were
compiled and run through two scenarios to simulate actual usage of the AN/WLD
system. The preliminary analysis covered only certain subsystems of the
indicate that this impressive new technology can be deployed with only
minimal impacts on maintenance manpower requirements. In fact, the five
subsystems modeled in the initial effort indicate only 333.49 maintenance
man-hours per year would be necessary to deploy this vehicle. This prophetic
look into the manning impacts of the vehicle makes its costs justifiable and
will allow for adequate planning prior to deployment. This paper outlines the
maintenance modeling process along with the IMPRINT tool and other possible
applications of maintenance simulation.
tactical teams are essential for mission success. Distributed mission
training (DMT) has significant potential for improving this coordination. A
parallel team training approach, cockpit resource management (CRM) training
can provide valuable lessons learned regarding interactive crew processes
that promote this coordination. Although, by definition, single-seat fighters
do not have crews, pilots in a four-ship of F-16s, together with their
weapons director, do form a tactical team, making CRM processes relevant. DMT
provides scenario control that is not available in aircraft training. This
control provides the capability to identify key behaviors exhibited by the
most (and least) effective tactical teams. These behaviors can be translated
into well-defined training objectives and associated measures of training
effectiveness, which in turn will enable comparisons among alternative DMT
training practices. Characteristics of effective CRM training across the
services are summarized, including the need for concrete training objectives,
a high degree of operational relevance, and instruction that is tailored to
the needs of the participants. The key behaviors that are most consistently
linked with effective crews in CRM research are compared and contrasted with
behaviors that appear to affect mission effectiveness in DMT air-to-air, 4 v
X scenarios. The latter behaviors were derived from observations made over
the past 18 months as F-16 pilots received flight leader upgrade training at
our Mesa Arizona DMT facility. Electronic Combat (EC) training was found to
be a particularly fertile domain in earlier CRM research. The same holds true
for DMT. Tactical behaviors for EC are also identified. Military researchers
have made substantial progress over the past few years toward developing
reliable measures of CRM. We conclude with a research plan to systematically
capture more detailed quantitative and qualitative CRM data from DMT
scenarios. The initial goal is to identify the CRM behaviors exhibited by the
most (and least) effective fighter teams. Ultimately, these behaviors will be
translated into well-defined training objectives from which process and
outcome measures can be developed to enable comparisons among alternative DMT
Navy’s IT-21 program (Information Technology for the 21st Century) will
modernize fleet operations by integrating advanced information technology
capabilities into ships, battle groups, and shore facilities.
A primary goal of IT-21 is to provide a smooth flow of information
between operational units, allowing warfighters to instantly exchange
tactical or non-tactical information, thereby improving warfighting
capability, combat support, and quality of life. IT-21 presents a
considerable training challenge in preparing the shipboard Network
Administrators who will be responsible for maintaining smooth network
operations and preventing system failures. Currently, training is not
standardized and is not consistently available. Even when training has been
provided, the IT personnel on these newly outfitted ships have been
overwhelmed by the sheer volume of what they need to know in order to do. As
knowledge decay statistics show, the rate at which we forget means that only
10 to 15 percent of what sailors are taught in preparatory training is
retained as they transition to performing their jobs (Lippincott, 1997). To
counter this problem, the Navy is moving to modernize its training approach
along with its IT infrastructure. Future training design and delivery efforts
will be directed toward the goal of performing rather than learning how to
perform. To demonstrate an implementation of this approach, a prototype
electronic performance support system (EPSS) has been developed for the
DDG-51 ship platform. This EPSS provides an intuitive, task- and goal-based
user interface to focus and filter access to a knowledge base. The DDG EPSS
supports troubleshooting and analytical decision making, displays and
explains networking configurations, houses critical policies and guidance,
allows platform-specific customization, and provides "just in time"
learning for networking concepts and procedures. The fully developed EPSS
will provide a continuum of support, being used initially to facilitate and
enhance instructor-led training, and then becoming available to
administrators as part of the standard shipboard software load. This paper
will present an overview of electronic performance support, how it can be
applied to complex work processes, and the benefits that can be achieved
through this approach. The paper will also discuss the specifics of the DDG
EPSS project, and will discuss how the prototype will be leveraged across
remaining ship classes to reduce subsequent EPSS development costs and
shorten its implementation.
the characteristics of the knowledge representation influence both the
instructional design and knowledge elicitation processes, its selection is
the core of the training system design process.
To assist the selection, this investigation considers the interaction
of three system development components, knowledge elicitation, knowledge
representation, and learning environments, within the context of the domain
characteristics and the overarching theoretical framework.
Following our description of these interactions, we apply the model to
tactical land navigation, a domain representative of one class of skilled
military performance. This
application then leads to a description of our selection criteria and a brief
evaluation of two candidate knowledge representations.
Vision 2010 and Joint Vision 2020 suggest that future military success will
largely be a function of the military's capability to respond to dynamic
changes in the environment. The
capability is not likely to happen by chance; it must be trained.
One approach is to provide practice opportunities in large-scale
simulations where the training audience is presented with situations that
require adaptation based on changing environmental conditions.
While this type of training places challenging demands on the training
audience, it also places demands on the training system.
That is, the training system itself will have to be adaptive in
response to the training audience. Advancements in modeling and simulation
(M&S) have provided an ever increasing capability to conduct distributed,
large-scale exercises in synthetic environments, however, there has not been
a commensurate level of effort to develop technologies to support real-time
modification of these exercises when changes are required.
Currently, exercise modification is largely unaided and resource
intensive. Exercise controllers must manually determine when changes are
required during a scenario, assess the impact of those changes on the
exercise, and then implement those changes.
Without the capability to rapidly modify the scenario in response to
these situations, important training opportunities may be missed, critical
training objectives may not be achieved, and valuable training resources may
be wasted. As pressures to reduce training resource requirements and maintain
training effectiveness continue, the need for methods and technologies to
support learning will become even more acute.
Fortunately, recent developments in learning methods and technologies
have considerable potential for enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of
M&S exercises. This paper will describe an effort that is exploiting
advances in emerging training methods and technology to support real-time
modification of M&S exercises based on trainee performance.
The project goals are to demonstrate: (1) enhanced achievement of
training objectives, (2) improved effectiveness of training by tailoring to
the training audience's needs, and (3) reduced human resources to support
exercise execution. This paper
will describe: (1) the operational need, (2) current training requirements
and issues, (3) promising component methods and technologies, and (4) the
advanced development research effort.
United States Navy views the future in terms of asymmetric threats, which can
impede its access to the littorals. To
counter these threats, the Navy seeks to exploit modern digital information
technology to establish knowledge superiority over potential adversaries thus
maintaining the tactical advantage. To
date, there has been little discussion about the role of human operators and
decision makers in these strategic and operational constructs aside form
vague references to the "knowledgeable warfighter" and "reach
back" knowledge centers that augment the on-scene tactical view.
Moreover, the standard practice of combat systems and training systems
design – thinking about the human last – almost inevitably results in
sub-optimal performance, and can potentially lead to disaster during crisis
or conflicts (particularly given the complexity just described).This paper
describes how the current vision for future naval warfare translates into
specific human performance requirements.
We then describe several emerging training technologies that will be
useful in meeting the unprecedented demands that our warfighters will
confront. We conclude with
recommendations for science and technology investments in training and human
performance that we believe are crucial for success in the 21st century.
human performance models have often been criticized for failing to represent
and predict goal-oriented behaviors, and for failing to predict measures that
are meaningful to other training and equipment simulations. To address this
criticism, in 1999 the Air Force Human Research Laboratory began an effort to
develop a human performance modeling environment that could interact with
other simulations using an HLA-compatible protocol. One element of that
environment is a model development tool that enables users to create a
detailed simulation of a goal-oriented human agent, operating in a complex
environment. In this context, the simulation predicts what the human is
likely to do next based on the currently relevant goals, and on the status of
other parallel simulations. A practical example is a combat pilot who has a
primary mission to conduct reconnaissance of a target area. Therefore, the
pilot’s original goal is to fly a well-defined path and to use a variety of
sensors to collect data. However, if during that flight the pilot identifies
an incoming threat (from a parallel radar simulation), the goal will change
immediately to "evade and survive." This dictates a change in tasks
as the pilot suspends his execution of the pre-planned flight path and begins
new tasks to dump chaff and to conduct high-speed maneuvers. This is an
extremely dynamic and demanding modeling challenge, because goal states
change based on events in the scenario as well as on occurrences experienced
by agents in other linked simulations. For this reason, they cannot be
scripted. The problem is also complicated by the interaction between goals,
in which a high priority goal can suspend, halt, or restart a lower priority
goal. This must be accomplished with as little burden on the user as possible
through the automatic exchange of data and the implementation of
sophisticated algorithms to mediate competition between active goals.
Archer and Brett Walters
Shively and Lynne Martin
Army Aviation and Missile Command
A number of studies by various helicopter safety organizations have concluded that pilot error in decision-making is a root cause in a significant percentage of helicopter accidents. The studies have also indicated that instruction and practice in critical decision-making is not a part of many helicopter pilot training programs. To address this problem, a project to develop a low-cost simulator for pilot decision training was initiated. The decision training tool is a combination of computer-based simulation, full motion video, still photography, audio, and feedback. For the purpose of developing robust and realistic mission scenarios for the simulation tool, 17 emergency medical service pilots participated in interviews to identify events that require critical decision-making. This paper describes the development of the first mission scenario, formative evaluation, and implementation plans for fielding the decision trainer.
Nowadays, many individual and team training trajectories include multiple simulators and training environments that differ in functionality, appearance and interface from each other and from the working environment. The use of different training environments within one training trajectory requires from students the transfer of knowledge and skills learned from one learning situation to a ‘new’ (learning or working) situation. This paper discusses a research study aimed at identifying transfer problems between generic and type-specific simulators for the RNLN Operational School. Using a combination of qualitative and experimental research methods, this study shows that there are many factors contributing to the large relapse students experience when moving from generic to type-specific simulators. Recommendations include, amongst others, a change in training strategy and a different design and organization of the training trajectory.
researchers and educators suggest learning may be enhanced if the specific
learning style of a person is known and then matched to a complementary
instructional style. The assumption is that, due to such stylistic
differences, each person may require instructional techniques matched to his
particular style. Past studies
are mixed in their support of this assumption. This study investigates the
effect of matching modality preference with presentation modality (auditory
vs. visual in both cases) upon memory. In the author’s recent
investigation, both auditory and visual participants were presented with
simultaneous visual and auditory stimuli, followed at random by an auditory
suffix. The relation of the preferred modality to the presented modality did
not affect recall. Instead, performance was most affected by the interfering
effects of the suffix. Moreover, different measures of modality preference
failed to agree with one another. Fifteen auditory and 15 visual participants
were defined on the basis of the Productivity Environmental Preference Survey
(PEPS, Dunn, Dunn, & Price, 1982). However, only one participant
preferred the visual modality according to Broadbent’s (1956) bisensory
digit-span criterion, and only one subject preferred the auditory modality
when asked for a preference directly. The inconsistency of defining preferred
modality suggests that future research should not continue to emphasize the
learning style and teaching style interactions. Instead, insight is needed on
the different variables and the different methods of assessing these
variables. If learning styles do not exist, or if they exist but we have no
reliable measurement of style, the question of matching learning and teaching
styles is irrelevant.
Advanced Technology Crew Station (ATCS) methodology outlines a crew-centered
approach to the design of modern tactical aircraft crew stations.
It was completed under the ATCS program, a Navy sponsored program
funded through the Crew System Science and Technology Program Office.
Currently, there is an inconsistency of crew station design philosophy
across the services, a lack of a formalized approach to incorporate and
integrate state-of-the-art technologies into crew station designs.
The goal of the ATCS design methodology application is to design a
crew station that will optimize the performance of the crew and enhance their
mission effectiveness. The ATCS
design methodology will also identify potential near term transition of
subsystem designs to platforms. This methodology can be described as a
"crew-centered system design" where the emphasis is on the needs of
the aircrew in order to enhance the performance of the entire weapons system. Specifically, the ATCS design methodology consists of three
major tasks: 1) requirements analysis, 2) concept generation and evaluation,
and 3) configuration development and evaluation.
Requirements analysis starts with a concept of operations development.
Next mission scenarios, threat assessments, and mission descriptions
are developed in sequence. Development
of function and task timelines, task analysis, and information requirements
complete the task. The second
major task of the ATCS methodology is concept generation and evaluation. This task includes technology concept development and
assessment, technology concept development, subsystem and system concept
development, engineering analysis, and qualitative and quantitative
evaluation. The last major task
is configuration development and evaluation.
Here, one or more concepts are selected and a preliminary
configuration is developed. This
task includes pilot/vehicle interface definition, detailed configuration
design and evaluation. Tools
such as Quality Function Deployment (QFD) are used as part of the ATCS
methodology. The ATCS design methodology has already been transitioned to
industry and the government. This
paper will include a detailed description of the ATCS methodology and its
application. An example will be
given. Transitions and future
work will also be discussed.
environmental data model (EDM) explicitly captures the phenomena (e.g.,
features) in the natural environment, the qualifying attributes of those
phenomena, and the implicit relationships among phenomena. As such, the
environmental data model is a key element of a simulation system – at the
program specific level, it describes the geospatial environment in which the
simulation takes place and with which all entities interact. These
interactions serve as a compelling reason to establish the program
environmental data model early in the development process, i.e., during
system requirements analysis. In practice, it is best to define the data
model as one of the first requirements analysis activities due to its broad
impact throughout the overall system. Important system elements affected are
the behavioral and dynamic models and hence the overall effectiveness of the
system in providing the required capabilities, be they training, analysis, or
acquisition based. Historically, requirements analysis has involved analysis
of a system's intended operational use and the entities to be modeled.
Complex systems might characterize hundreds of unique entity types. Ideally,
all entities to be modeled will have a consistent representation of the
world. The ability to achieve this is facilitated by the EDM. Additionally,
system development efforts will be better focused if the program EDM is
developed early in the system lifecycle.
recently, environmental data modeling has been ad hoc, with the data models
captured only in implicit fashions such as in source code or data files, if
at all. The Army Warfighter Simulation (WARSIM) 2000, a component of the
Joint Simulation System (JSIMS), defined a Terrain Common Data Model (TCDM)
for use throughout the JSIMS Alliance. The Army Synthetic Natural Environment
(SNE) Science and Technology Objective (STO) has developed a Common Data
Model Framework (CDMF) to promote the comparison of program specific EDMs and
support the higher resolution requirements of the OneSAF Test Bed and the
Close Combat Tactical Trainer (CCTT). The Reference EDM which will ultimately
result from the unification of these program-specific EDMs will provide an
important infrastructure for achieving environmental interoperability within
the community of land combat simulations. Additionally, the SNE STO is
addressing critical system-of-systems interoperability issues by developing
explicit data modeling technology to support the concept of representing
environmental phenomena at multiple levels of resolution. In a related
activity, the Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO) is extending the
CDMF concept from terrain to the ocean and atmosphere domains. Creating these
EDMs for Ocean and for Atmosphere supports the overall goal of establishing a
general Environmental Data Model composed of environmental sub-domain EDMs
(terrain, ocean, atmosphere and space) from which user community Reference
EDMs and program specific EDMs would be generated as profiles.
paper provides an overview of the environmental data models developed to
date, focusing on the importance of developing such a model early in the
simulation system development process. The general process for developing
such a data model is also described.
current training simulation systems employ custom generated, ad hoc
approaches to building terrain models. Recently,
the DARPA STOW Worldwide Terrain Database generation effort, the Joint
Simulation System (JSIMS) Synthetic Natural Environment (SNE), and the Joint
Warfighting Simulation (JWARS) SNE have cooperatively defined a Terrain
Common Data Model (TCDM) for low and medium resolution simulations.
The U.S. Army STRICOM Synthetic Natural Environment Science and
Technology Objective (SNE STO) seeks to extend the TCDM to other important
classes of simulations, thus improving overall interoperability between
networked simulation, as well as defining the basis for terrain data
production requirements, terrain integration constraints and expectations,
SEDRIS transmittal contents, and runtime terrain data use.
At IST, our efforts are concentrated on extending the TCDM to low-cost
visual systems. Our approach is
to develop a detailed specification of terrain database requirements based on
tasks commonly performed using low-cost visual systems.
In this paper, we chart a course for accomplishing this goal,
including describing the development of a structured database of design
elements, the definition of a multi-systems view to include multiple
resolutions and sensors, a plan for being consistent with initiatives by
others working on the TCDM, and our plans for future work in this area.
of the key elements of an acoustic trainer is the wave propagation model(s)
used to model the propagation of a signal through the environment to the
receiving system. The type of model implemented has a significant impact on
the trainer design from many aspects including hardware and software needs,
fidelity, computational speed, database structure, run time and off line
calculations, and complexity. This paper will provide an overview of the most
common wave propagation models used in current acoustic training devices. The
differences between models, their strengths and weaknesses will be described
and the impact on the trainer design will be discussed. It will be shown that
no existing, single models, satisfies all the needs of the acoustic trainer
and attempts to cobble together models to meet the needs have been
unsuccessful. The difficulties in developing hybrid models will be described.
As part of the discussion we will describe the different approximations and
software architecture design strategies that are necessary to satisfy
application specific needs. Today there is a major emphasis on federating
trainers together into federations. The impact of differing propagation
models used by different trainers will be discussed from the standpoint of
interoperability and consistency.
effectiveness requires coordination, and the most critical component of
coordination is communication. This paper describes methods for communication
with and among intelligent constructive forces (IFORs). It explores a number
of different approaches to communication and their implementation in the
TacAir-Soar behavior system. Because TacAir-Soar entities are intended to be
indistinguishable from human combatants within the simulation environment,
communication may occur between IFORs, between humans and IFORs, and between
IFORs and other constructive forces. This places a number of constraints on
the possible forms of communication. They must be natural for human
interaction, yet well structured for communication with other constructive
forces. TacAir-Soar s approach to communication is to model mechanisms used
in the real world rather than to create simulation-specific versions. For
example, radio messages are text representations of the same, doctrinally
correct, English utterances spoken by human pilots and controllers. The
resultant system makes it comparably easy to interchange roles between humans
and IFORs. This approach also facilitates interaction with other constructive
forces because of well-defined communication templates and optional
translation to the Command and Control Simulation Interface Language (CCSIL)
[Salisbury, 1995]. TacAir-Soar includes a range of communication methods,
including explicit and implicit forms of communication. The methods presented
here include natural language communication over simulated radios; a
communication panel and radio log for graphically driven communication;
SoarSpeak, for real-time speech recognition and generation; distributed goal
and status reports for communication with controllers; data links; non-verbal
communication; and translation methods for CCSIL. This paper examines how
these various modes are implemented, and their benefits and drawbacks.
Specifically, it shows how the implementations enable humans to easily
immerse themselves into a simulation involving IFORs. It also includes
several examples drawn from technology demonstrations and operational
exercises where human communicated with IFORs serving as command and control
entities, friendly forces, and wingmen.
S. Kolasheski, Major
of Command and Control (C2) training for commanders and staffs of United
States Army battalions often relies on simulation. Within one simulation
paradigm, company commanders play an important role during the conduct of a
simulation training exercise by interacting and maneuvering the battalion's
elements based on guidance given to them by the battalion commander and
staff. This approach is clearly beneficial to training the units’ leaders
and staff, but may be biased due to unrealistic artificialities present in
the simulation framework. One such artificiality rests in the actual use of
the company commanders. Specifically during simulation play company
commanders often find themselves performing the functions that in actual
tactical situations subordinates would perform. Having it occur in the
simulation may bias the results toward success since the company commander is
able to directly control the behavior of his subordinate elements based on
the greater information and experience he/she possesses. One approach to
resolving this situation is to utilize Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the
simulation to model the behavior of the company commander's subordinates.
This research considers the analysis and design of a polymorphic re-planning
model for an Armor platoon that leverages both Command Agent (CA) and Combat
Instruction Set (CIS) technology. The outline of this design is provided
along with conclusions and recommended future research.
the growth of a more digitized battlefield emerges, it necessitates the need
of existing training simulation systems to communicate with newly developed
digital devices. The Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below (FBCB2)
information system is a key component of the Army Battle Command System.
FBCB2 enhances force effectiveness by providing automated tools to
facilitate the battle command process. Force
XXI’s goal is to provide a training battlefield that can be used to train
or conduct mission rehearsals for the battlefields of tomorrow.
Our objective is to integrate digital communication training into the
Close Combat Tactical Trainer (CCTT). The CCTT Semi-Automated Forces (SAF)
Workstation provides the capability to supplement manned modules with
sufficient friendly and enemy forces to complete a simulated battlefield that
contributes to a realistic training environment.
The Computer Generated Forces (CGF) units, directed by the SAF
operators, interact in a physically and tactically realistic manner with the
manned modules on a simulated battlefield.
When CCTT is integrated with FBCB2, the CGF units will generate
Situational Awareness (SA) information to the FBCB2, as well as, Command and
Control (C2) messages and orders as actual troops in the field. The soldier
will receive the information on the FBCB2 in the manned module. The CGF units
will also react to SA and C2 messages received from soldiers via FBCB2.
This is the first step in digital device training of the Army Battle
paper reports on the motivation, architecture, and design approach of the
integration of the FBCB2 into CCTT SAF.
It details how the architectural design of CCTT SAF allowed for ease
of addition of FBCB2 messaging. In addition, it discusses the method of
communication with external digital devices.
The resulting simulation is an enhanced system with greater usability
and functionality, which allows digital device training before actual
deployment in the field.
High Level Architecture (HLA) for distributed simulations was proposed by the
Defense Modeling and Simulation Office of the Department of Defense (DOD) in
order to support interoperability among simulations as well as reuse of
simulation models. One aspect of
reusability is the ability to collect and analyze data from simulation
executions, including a record of events that occur during the execution, and
the states of the simulation objects. HLA
presents an interesting new paradigm within which to design effective data
collection and analysis techniques. The capabilities of the Run-Time
Infrastructure (RTI) can be exploited to design efficient and flexible data
collection tools. Moreover,
recent research on the efficient log-based implementations of temporal
databases may enable more efficient collection and analysis of data from
simulation executions. Using a distributed real-time temporal database
approach, we may be able to expand run-time analysis opportunities. In this
paper we propose log-based event databases as a means of efficiently storing
and retrieving data from distributed interactive simulations. In particular
we focus on operations on event-logs, including querying, merging/splitting
and VCR-like features, as a means for supporting reusability of simulation
results. Such a database-centric
perspective can be useful in designing efficient, on-line real-time analysis
mechanisms that are not feasible with current logging techniques.
This paper presents work-in-progress towards
article describes an innovative approach for implementing tactical
decision-making for Computer Generated Forces (CGF). It is called the competing context concept, and it is
associated with the Context-Based Reasoning (CxBR) Paradigm. CxBR is uniquely
suited to represent tactical decision-making.
It facilitates the simple and effective representation of human
tactical behavior by using an intuitive identifier called a Context. In CxBR,
there are three kinds of Contexts that are hierarchically defined: (1)
Mission Context, (2) Main Context and (3) Sub-Context. The Main Contexts and
Sub-Contexts provide intelligent control functions for an Autonomous
Intelligent Platform (AIP) in a simulation, and address all conditions in
current situation. When the situation changes, this Main Context searches for a
possible next Main Context that addresses all conditions in the new
situation. Upon finding such a
new Main Context, it deactivates itself and activates this newly found one.
No matter how the situation changes, an AIP can be controlled intelligently
through a sequence of transitions among various Contexts, from the current
Context to another appropriate Context.
In many cases, it can be easy as well as appropriate to predefine the
Context transitions based on one event.
However, it can be difficult to predefine (i.e., "hardcode")
these transitions in more complex tactical situations such as those typically
involving military tactics as they depend on several variables.
Therefore, there may be more than one viable context to which the
control of the AIP can transition. This
can be difficult to predefine without a multitude of rules.
In such cases, it is beneficial to define the current situation as set
of needs to be addressed by the AIP in order to accomplish its mission and/or
survive. Likewise, the Contexts to which the control of the AIP can
potentially transition are designed to address some or all of these needs.
The contexts then can be said to compete for the right to become the next
activated Context to control the AIP. The successful Context would ideally be
the one that best addresses the identified needs of the situation currently
faced by the AIP. To implement
the competing context concept, we have proposed a constraint-based approach.
This approach consists of four processes: (1) Situation interpretation
metrics generation, (2) Relevant context group selection, (3) Context
attribute matching and (4) Time-warp simulation.
This article describes our continuing effort to realize the situation
interpretation and soft-coding function in order to generalize the competing
context concept. Experimental
data, which supports the revised prototype’s performance, are described.
is well known that there is no single optimal, universal user interface (UI)
paradigm that can accommodate all the tasks a computer generated forces (CGF)
user might be expected to perform. Plan view displays and buttons on two
dimensional graphical user interfaces are common UIs for many CGF systems.
However, other CGF users may require more diverse UIs such as three
dimensional views, text message sending and receipt capabilities, and verbal
interactions with the system. An abstract UI model can be used to provide
flexible multi-modal support for various UI paradigms. It also isolates the
interaction mode from the remainder of the system and thus contributes to
system modularity and composability. Both of these abstract UI features are
needed for future CGF systems that must satisfy multiple user needs. The
authors have investigated the usefulness of the abstract UI concept by
developing an entity-based CGF system that uses an abstract UI to support a
combination of graphical, textual and voice/speech synthesis UIs
concurrently. Through the abstract UI, the most appropriate of the three UI
paradigms for any given task can be selected. The abstraction was achieved by
the use of a UI framework that supports all the user interactions within the
CGF infrastructure. Specific UI classes were derived from the base abstract
UI class using inheritance. Methods of the appropriate derived UI classes
were invoked through polymorphism. Through the use of inheritance and
polymorphism, the CGF infrastructure has a consistent view of the abstract UI
component. To further abstract the UI component, all user interface
communications were carried out via a series of messages. Using this
implementation of the Command Pattern, we were able to extend the
functionality of one of the interface paradigms without affecting the
implementation of the others. This
allows for added flexibility of the user interactions and the construction of
paradigm specific interactions. This paper covers the development of the
abstract UI. It discusses the base and derived UI classes and describes the
use of messages. The benefits and limitations of this approach are presented
as a foundation for future work.
discuss the complexity of making a synthetic environment (i.e., a database)
suitable for man-in-the-loop visual simulation systems.
Performance of a training simulation is often discussed from a
hardware or a display point-of-view, e.g., the number of polygons rendered
per frame, the number of pixels displayed, etc.
Far less talked about is the complexity of making the content to be
displayed by the simulator and interacted with by the user.
There are very few metrics for the complexity of constructing a
simulation database (the most common one – "How fast can you make a
geocell?" – is completely useless!). Not having good metrics for
quantifying the complexity of our databases may make us, as an industry, miss
the key issues to accomplishing effective content creation for our training
systems. With the tremendous growth in graphics hardware performance in
recent years, this may yield a troubling imbalance in our overall technology,
with the technology for content creation lagging significantly behind.
help clarify the issues, we first attempt to "de-mystify" synthetic
environment construction complexity, and enumerate the key steps involved in
such content creation. Second,
we will abstract out the essential complexity of this process. Third, we will
attempt to distill this information into a set of metrics that can be used to
measure the complexity of a synthetic environment database before it is made,
based on its requirements and general characteristics.
critical overall points we hope the reader will obtain from this paper are
geographic size and other traditional source data complexity metrics do not
accurately predict the complexity of making a visual simulation database, and
linear increases in graphics hardware rendering performance implies a
greater-than-linear increase in the complexity of making a simulation
database to run on such hardware.
conclude by discussing the impact of these two points as well as other
related open issues facing the simulation modeling community.
GENERATION OF PSEUDO-RANDOM CULTURAL FEATURE ENTITIES
GENERATION OF PSEUDO-RANDOM CULTURAL FEATURE ENTITIES
S Army Aviation & Missile Command Research
Department of Defense (DoD) has identified the need for simulation
representations of urban sprawl, and has open actions reviewing urban sprawl
simulation capabilities. The
essence of the problem is the large terrain database development and
subsequent terrain complexity that is required for representation of large
urban and suburban areas. A
further complexity is the need to simulate the interior structure of a large
number of buildings for dismounted combat.
This need for suburban representations impacts directly upon the
ability of the Department to simulate urban combat and unconventional
warfare. One approach to creating generic suburban terrain is to generate, in
real-time, a feature set representing realistic suburban cultural entities in
the immediate vicinity of player entities in a distributed simulation.
A server could distribute these features as objects to client machines
across High Level Architecture (HLA) or Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS)
interfaces. These features would
include an assortment of houses, fences, utility buildings, pavement, trees,
and other vegetation, objects, and structures combined to form an
if-you’ve-seen-one-you’ve-seen-them-all-type subdivision of
mathematically infinite dimensions. This same approach can also instantiate
the internal structure of buildings when player entities come within
immediate range, to allow entry and interaction between the interested
entities and the internal features. The
internal building layouts, exterior features, and variation in color and
structure of these features could be large enough to be realistic but small
enough to load the individual model representations onto legacy image
generators. The entities
themselves could be generated using an approach that ensures that
instantiation of features will be totally repeatable but variable. AMRDEC is
developing the Pseudo-Random Urban Feature Entity Server (PRUFES) to
demonstrate this approach. PRUFES uses a model set and rule set which together generate
a generic suburbs known as "Protoville", an infinitely large suburb
which contains a pseudo-randomly generated and complex network of streets,
signs, lots, houses, vegetation, fences, parked vehicles, and other outdoor
objects, as well as interior walls generated as needed for every house.
PRUFES can supply suburban cultural entities across a DIS network for
legacy terrain databases. This paper discusses the use of cultural entities
for suburban representation, PRUFES design, and interoperability issues
between cultural entities and legacy manned simulators and Semi-Automated
Mission Training (DMT) F-15C Program has been underway to augment existing
USAF joint training capabilities. Each DMT F-15C site consists of four
full-field-of-view Visual Integrated Display Systems (VIDS’s) driven by
high-end ESIG-4530GT image generators (Igs). Also parts of each DMT F-15C
site are desktop PC-based IGs networked with the ESIGs. The challenge is to
achieve visual correlation using IGs and databases (DBs) of such widely
differing performance levels and architectures. This paper describes a DB
conversion process jointly developed by Boeing, Westar, Evans and Sutherland
(E&S), and Terrain Experts. One of several challenges was polygon
co-planarity, however, cutting co-planar polygons into the underlying layers
by an Automated Database Generation and Reconstruction Tool solved the
problem. Excellent degree of correlation, accuracy, and PC-based IG update
rates have been achieved for the Eglin, Nellis, Langley, and Southwest Asia
databases, indicating a significant potential for cost-saving re-use of
existing databases by PC-based image generators.
goal of military training simulators is to portray the realities of combat
situations as closely as possible. During combat situations, the performance
of military vehicles can sustain progressive degradation induced by a variety
of factors that range from enemy fire to crew fatigue. Training simulators
should model these degraded states in order to provide military personnel
with realistic training environments. Unfortunately, current simulators use
less than optimal techniques to model platform degradation. The current
techniques are mostly based on a probability of kill (PK). As an example, the
performance degradation of a tank is modeled by three states: mobility kill,
firepower kill, and catastrophic kill. This model does not leave room for the
myriad of degradation conditions that lie somewhere in between these three
states, as well as not taking into account other system components, such as
communication equipment, nor the degraded performance that can result from
human factors unrelated to the state of the equipment such as crew stress and
fatigue. Researchers at the Army Materiel Systems Analysis Activity (AMSAA)
have developed a new model that proposes a vulnerability and lethality
taxonomy (V/LT). This taxonomy serves as a much more realistically metric to
describe platform degradation and its resulting consequences. Other
researchers, principally Industrial/Organizational (I/O) psychologists, have
been employed by the military to determine the influence of human factors in
degraded platform behavior.
purpose of this paper is to examine how to modify the behavior of autonomous
intelligent agents (AIPs) given their current degraded state. The proposed
method uses the Context-Based Reasoning (CxBR) paradigm to model AIP
behavior. The AMSAA V/L taxonomy is incorporated into the model, and
performance- degrading human factors are taken into account. To incorporate
degraded state behavior into the CxBR paradigm, the current CxBR
implementation was modified to incorporate the AIP’s degraded state into
its reasoning. The modifications changed the CxBR structure by including
degraded state knowledge in the AIP fact database, and by altering the
reasoning that CxBR uses to choose the appropriate next context. This
reasoning is modified by adding weights to each context and functions that
calculate these weights. The current context in the proposed implementation
is chosen as the context that has received the highest weight. The proposed
approach was tested using a small-scale tank warfare scenario with
satisfactory results. Future work should implement the concepts presented in
this thesis on a larger-scale scenario, and refine implementation details,
such as finding optimal functions to calculate the context weights.
Mark B. Tanner
the 1970s, rate-based attrition algorithms have driven the realism, or
analytical accuracy, of most DOD simulation models. Current rate-based attrition algorithms have accurately and
successfully modeled the physics, ballistics and stochastic line of sight
components of military conflict. In
the past, simulations systems analyzed a problem using a set of canned random
behaviors through a thousand runs. After
statistically plotting the results, a study of the outliers yields a better
understanding of a course of action's great success or mortal failure.
processor speeds will be the impetus for the development of a new paradigm of
agent-based simulations. This new paradigm will allow military leaders and
planners to incorporate into play many of the intangible and uncertain
attributes of military conflict that are not wholly captured in contemporary
models. In order to speed the development of the next generation of flexible,
modular, and insightful analytical tools, rate-based attrition paradigms must
be shifted into a system that can integrate the uncertainties of real life.
How does one model leadership? How
does one model fear? How does
one model the psychological aspects of the battlefield? How does one address
the myriad issues of unit sustainability, such as individual health or sleep
deprivation? If one does design
a way to model these nebulous concepts, how far should it go?
The synthesis of these paradigms will be the launch pad for the next
generation of both DOD and civilian simulation technologies. Agent-driven
systems will allow more insightful statistical analysis with a broader range
of uncertainty, taking advantage of scenarios that evolve into ways not yet
imagined. Agent-driven systems
will allow further exploration of adaptive behaviors, battlefield
synchronization and synergy, emerging doctrine, leadership and many more
intangible combat multipliers.
redesigned SAF workstation will provide significant cost savings by lowering
the operator hours required to create exercises and increase operator
effectiveness in commanding units during an exercise. Current SAF
workstations, such as Close Combat Tactical Trainer (CCTT) SAF and Modular
Semi Automated Forces (ModSAF), date back to a SIMulation NETwork (SIMNET)
design legacy of the late 1980’s and have had few improvements since then.
STRICOM has funded an effort, "CCTT PC Visualization", under the
"CCTT SAF Environments" contract, which starts the process of
redesign. This paper reviews many of the problems with current SAF
Workstation designs and past improvement efforts. The paper describes the
trade studies performed and selection criteria used to select a low cost
Image Generation (IG) system for the prototype that will provide the SAF
Operator a 3D view. To take advantage of a 3D view, it is important the
system allows the operator to move and place control measures in the 2D view
while monitoring the accuracy of the position in the 3D view. The paper
details the architecture of the system that will provide this link making a
very powerful planning and monitoring workstation for the SAF operator. Other
issues that affect the SAF operators are also discussed and possible
solutions are provided.
Michelletti, Simulation Engineer
M&S throughout the acquisition process improves warfighter satisfaction
by allowing end users to test and evaluate design solutions. By augmenting
flight testing with an integrated M&S solution, testers can effectively
obtain mission related data only available in a full-combat environment.
ACETEF support of V-22 operational testing is a prime example of M&S
enhancement of a final product by generating scenarios that are otherwise
impractical or unaffordable to test at an open air range (OAR). ACETEF
created an accredited HWIL and MIL test environment that placed end users in
a high threat simulated warfare environment demanding full use of pilot and
aircraft capabilities. The most critical aspects of this environment were the
stimulation of the electronic warfare system and the simulation of the
environment. The test generated data on survivability, human factors, and
crew coordination; as well as providing mission rehearsal and tactics. This
paper discusses the ACETEF-provided threat scenario, stimulation of the
aircraft electronic warfare sensors and systems, data acquisition, and
presentation of threat information to pilots in the loop in the full fidelity
simulation. Opportunities that this test demonstrates for combined testing
and training are discussed in terms of improved warfighter satisfaction, as
well as the STEP concepts involved in feeding OAR test results back into the
M&S environment, generating better products and services.
an effort to create a reusable Computer Generated Forces (CGF) model that
would be useful in supporting Simulated Based Acquisition (SBA) environments,
an opportunity was presented to modify interfaces to Suppressor in order for
it to operate in such an environment. Using
real-time modifications to Suppressor as a baseline, it was desired to
further create a CGF that would support the integration of multiple models
and simulations. The desired
outcome was to develop a model that would allow a combination of other models
and simulations to play together, sharing data and commands, to represent one
entity in Suppressor (i.e., an aggregate of the parts simulated in various
simulations and Command, Control, Communication, Computers, and Intelligence
(C4I) systems). At the same time, the infrastructure of this system had to be
flexible to the point that no specific external model and no specific number
of external models had to be present in the exercise in order for the entire
entity to exist. It was
determined that a flexible system such as this would be beneficial to those
pursuing SBA activities because it would provide a means of piecing together
a variety of systems until the user came up with a workable solution that was
capable of meeting all of their design goals. This paper will give a brief
overview of Suppressor and the underlying real-time infrastructure.
It will explain the different variations of subsystems that can now be
used to create a "configurable" entity within Suppressor, describe
how this type of approach could be beneficial in a dynamically changing SBA
environment, and present major lessons learned.
GOMS (Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection rules) methodology was
developed by Card, Moran, and Newell, (1983) as a means of representing human
sensory-motor and cognitive behavior in a systematic fashion.
A programming language, GOMSL, and the GOMS Language Evaluation and
Analysis (GLEAN) tool for using it (Kieras, 1998), support the application of
GOMS in simulations of human behavior for the purpose of interface design.
The resulting simulated user is based on a human reference architecture that
includes visual, auditory,
cognitive, and motor processes capable of interacting with a simulated
human-computer interface and generating sequences of timed actions and
decisions in response to events in a simulated task environment. Example
analyses are presented for an interface design that consists of a tactical
situation display, a close control read out window, a mouse, and variable
action buttons as would be found on a typical combat information center
watchstation. Simulated actions
are generated at a millisecond time grain, and statistics are taken for
series of events in a scenario that can be of several hours duration. This
paper presents examples of a design issue that was analyzed using GLEAN GOMS
National Missile Defense (NMD) Joint Program Office (JPO) is developing a
single flexible architecture to facilitate reuse of its various legacy models
and simulations and for guiding new simulation development. The need for this
architecture became apparent when the requirement arose to integrate and
inter-operate those models and simulations for conducting performance
analyses, design validations, wargames, tests and evaluations in support of
NMD acquisition events and decisions. No ready solution existed for
integrating legacy models and simulations having object models with differing
resolutions, attributes and data models into a coherent representation of the
NMD system and its mission space. This paper examines the requirements for a
meta-architecture for models and simulations, discusses the problems the NMD
program found with integrating the legacy models and simulations, and
discloses the implementation issues and benefits gained. The paper discusses
the concept and rationale NMD developed for obtaining a common set of object
models, attributes and interactions, and addresses solutions to the areas of
incompatibility across those object models, threat definitions, synthetic
natural environments and their data models. Also examined are the cultural
and policy issues NMD encountered and the benefits realized near term and
expected for the future.
Dutch Guckenberger, SDS International, Inc.
R. Oakes, BMH Associates, Inc.
More, and Die Less" Description of Distributed Mission Training benefits
from a current USAF F-16 Pilot. Distributed Mission Training (DMT) is one of
the key innovative modeling and simulation (M&S) systems focused on
increasing and maintaining warfighter skills in the combat airforces.
DMT is a rapidly evolving technology with many Air Force organizations
and contractors working to provide the best training obtainable.
However, to achieve Gen. Hawley's challenge for DMT Training to have a
"Fair Fight with Sweaty, Smiling Pilots emerging from the simulator
cockpits" some technological challenges still exist. This paper presents
a Distributed Ordnance Server potential solution for providing DMT "Fair
Fight" that overcomes the kill/miss errors induced by long-haul
physics/network latencies. Further,
the Distributed Ordnance Server solution also provides standards for
munitions performance that overcome the plethora of different fidelity
weapons models built into simulation hosts over many years by many different
engineers. AFRL demonstrated through the ROADRUNNER and COYOTE exercises the
benefits of a single common Ordnance Server and identified other problems yet
to be solved. The initial AFRL single Ordnance Server Solution solves all
of the munition standards technical problems as long as all the shooter and
targets are in the same temporal space.
However, when long-haul latencies become too large, disparities in the
spatial positioning adversely affect the accuracy of the kill/miss outcomes.
This paper's key hypothesis investigated is, "Fair Fight" can be
achieved insuring the weapon models, the target model and any countermeasure
models interact in the same temporal space.
The same temporal space is achieved by a "local" Distributed
Ordnance Server positioned at long-haul locations that exceed the acceptable
latency tolerances. The new phase "Temporal Triad" was coined to
describe these critical temporal interactions between target, weapon and
counter measures. This paper presents solutions to critical problems
associated with the DMT simulated "kill" inaccuracies that can
occur due to network latencies. McKee (1997/98) utilized a elegant series of
live fire experiments as a basis for DMT type testing with live and
constructive models and found latencies of greater than 70ms too great for
accurate weapon outcomes against a maneuvering target. The unique and
innovative portion of this paper is, by architecturally adding distributed
ordnance servers and transfer of ownership of weapons between Ordnance
Servers, latencies of greater than 70ms can still accurately model "fair
fight" outcomes. Details of the Experimental Design and the subsequent
Results are presented. Of particular use to the simulation and training
communities are graphics that illustrate Network Induced latency of greater
than 70ms weapon to target is too great for "fair fight". Further,
the successful results mitigating the long haul latencies via multiple
Distributed Ordnance Servers is presented. Conclusions and Future Research
Directions are presented with current and anticipated benefits for future
Fire & Forget, Directed Energy, Kinetic Energy, and GPS weapons.
S. Ware, Linwood D. Hudson, Robert S. Kerr
paper describes an architecture designed to integrate knowledge, user and
subject matter expert observations, and models and simulations to support
risk management and planning. The
Combating Terrorism Technology Support Office (CTTSO) has licensed this
software architecture for the Joint Vulnerability Assessment Tool (JVAT)
Program. The JVAT program will
be used by all DoD organizations and installations for anti-terrorism risk
assessment and planning, beginning February 2001.Managing the risks posed by
terrorists to US military installations is a challenging task.
In order to understand the relative risks posed by various
organizations, weapon systems, and tactics, a tremendous and dissimilar body
of information is needed. While
modeling and simulation are important tools for considering terrorist
threats, traditional simulation architectures were not designed to deal with
the incomplete, imprecise, and highly variable data available to decision
makers. The authors discuss the motivations and issues associated with
developing a single object model that supports all computational operations
in a complex decision support software application.
This model supports all user interface, 3D visualization, computation,
data storage, and reporting applications directly, simplifying application
development and maintenance.
T.C. Cowden, Dr. John J. Burns
of the challenges in developing an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) is the
understanding and representation of expert performance. This representation
is required to evaluate student performance and support remediation and
coaching of the student. The
traditional approach to gaining this understanding is through a top-down
process of knowledge engineering. In this process, a knowledge engineer
observes expert performance, conducts a task analysis, and interviews one or
more subject matter experts. However, this process is lengthy and error
prone, especially for complex tasks. A significant cost and time mitigation
step for the KE process is to create a virtual environment to support the
observation of SMEs performing the task.
An added benefit is the generation of detailed digital data
representing a wide range of output relative to the performance of the task
at hand. The Virtual Environment for Training Technologies (VETT) immersive
training simulation has been developed by NAWC-TSD, and has initially been
used to support the conning officer shiphandling task of underway
replenishment (UNREP). Utilizing students from the Surface Warfare Officer
School Command (SWOSCOLCOM), a database of UNREP performance has been
developed. Using traditional data mining techniques, it is possible to
develop an understanding of system (that is, student conning a ship)
performance from the data generated in the training environment. Data mining
is the process of discovering relationships within the data.
Depending on the approach, the data mining process itself can result
in the creation of a software model of the system.
By using a fuzzy logic-based approach, this process also results in a
semantic representation of that performance. An additional advantage of a
fuzzy logic approach is that the semantic representation can be reviewed by
the knowledge engineer and the SME, and easily understood, edited, and
re-tested. This allows for better understanding of system dynamics, as well
as a much quicker review, test, and validation process. Unlike black box
approaches to data mining such as neural nets, the fuzzy expert model is
eminently traceable. Not only does it report a degree of match between
observed and trained performance, it allows for traceability of system
operation. Implemented within an
intelligent tutoring system, this allows for the remediation process to not
only measure the degree to which the student deviates from expected behavior,
but also to know in what specific area that deviation occurs.
H. O’Brien, PH.D
primary objective of training systems is to train individuals or
organizations in performing specific tasks. In fact, training requirements
are often stated in terms of "missions or tasks to be trained."
Yet, simulation systems typically have little or no "knowledge" of
which tasks are being performed by the training audiences during the
execution of the simulation. The objective of this paper is to outline a
concept for developing "task-aware"
simulation systems that have such knowledge. Utilization of a task-aware
simulation would begin by specifying or selecting the mission(s) and tasks to
be trained during the training event. The tasks would be selected from a
common or pre-defined list of mission and tasks such as the Universal Joint
Task List (UJTL). The scenario generation system would "recognize"
the mission and tasks, and based on this recognition would produce templates
of scenario events [sometimes called Master Scenario Event Lists or (MSELS)],
scripted Computer-Generated Forces (CGF) behaviors, and mission/task
performance measures. Analysts at the simulation site would review and update
the templates to reflect the unique circumstances of a particular training
situation. During execution of the simulation, an automated data collection
management system would collect data on the mission/task performance
measures. These systems could be supplemented by assessments made by human
data collectors on more subjective measures. To guide the assessments, an
automated collection management plan would be generated for the mission/task
measures. Also during the simulation, the CGF system would have
"knowledge" of the tasks being performed during the simulation.
That is, the CGF system would know the attributes that signified the start
and end of target audience tasks and the measures that indicated how well the
tasks were being performed. The CGF could use this information to dynamically
adapt its behavior to the responses of the target audience. At the conclusion
of the training event, mission/task performance measures could be
automatically collated. Results would be presented in terms that are directly
relevant to trainers; namely, how well did the target audiences do in
performing the mission and/or tasks to be trained. A task-aware simulation
would provide several benefits including the: (1) automated generation of a
training scenario (scripted CGF behaviors and order of battle, master
scenario event lists, pre-selection of automated performance measures) based
on a set of tasks to be trained; (2) automated collection of appropriate task
performance measures during the simulation; (3) automated adjustment of CGF
behaviors to reflect training task goals; and (4) automated after action
review of mission/task performance.
L. Jones, Michael J. O’Connor
Defense Threat Reduction Agency s (DTRA) Counterproliferation Support and
Operations Directorate has been the principal member of a chemical and
biological (CB) modeling and simulation consortium. This consortium has
developed a broad capability based in high-fidelity physics to perform
real-time simulation of weapons effects. The DoD is using the suite to
support analysis, research and development, test and evaluation, and tactics,
techniques, and procedures (TTP) development, education and training,
realizing the DoD s initiative in simulation-based acquisition. In this paper
we will discuss the CB simulation architecture, its components, and how the
suite was used in support of a major experimental exercise series by
providing realistic weapons of mass destruction simulation support to the
exercise. Specifically DTRA supported the exercise with simulation support to
the time-critical targeting phase. This exercise utilized advanced
distributed simulation to represent counterforce attacks on theoretical
chemical production and storage facilities and the subsequent downwind threat
and chemical sensing and detection. Federation components modeled
strategic/tactical weapon attacks on and damage to suspected chemical agent
production and storage facilities, the subsequent downwind threat hazards,
and a generic UAV-based point and standoff detection system. Experiment
personnel fed the detection data developed by the simulation to military
personnel manning the weapons of mass destruction (WMD) cell for the
exercise, providing simulation-based training stimuli for WMD cell personnel
and Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TTP) development at the same time.
DoD personnel investigated several means of stimulating the WMD cell with
detection data derived in the simulated environment. The paper will discuss
the principal findings lessons learned in the use of WMD simulation in
support of a major exercise.
M. Lane Gilchrist, Jr.
Steven F. Gottschalk
high-fidelity, interactive training programs to limit risk to personnel and
resources operating satellite missions around the world requires a
well-defined, standardized training plan that clearly documents the
"cradle to grave" process for developing a qualified satellite
operator for the 21st Century. Well-publicized mishaps involving satellites
and ground operating systems are becoming commonplace; and in almost all
cases, an improved training plan and program would have reduced these mishaps
and their ultimate impact on the public. However, in reality, little time is
spent on improving satellite command and control training programs even
though this training is the likely key to preventing a future mishap. The
impact of these mishaps is not fully appreciated because the public does not
yet understand their ever-growing dependence on civil, commercial,
intelligence, and military satellite systems. Ultimately, satellite command
and control training needs to be improved to reduce the risk of a major
mishap that could lead to loss of the mission, personnel, or resources. After
describing the research that shows training as the key to preventing mishaps
in the commercial, civil, intelligence, and military organizations; this
paper will recommend standards for training in all satellite command and
control organizations. Following this, it will describe a training plan to
meet those standards. Lastly, the paper will define the process and outline a
program under which such a training plan would operate. Developing this
training plan will result in highly qualified satellite operators who provide
seamless, safe, and efficient satellite operations to people around the
Stahl, Julia Loughran
The end of the Cold War has increased US involvement in crises that stop short of war, including humanitarian assistance (HA), disaster relief (DR), and peacekeeping (PK) operations. These crises are often multi-dimensional, with security, political, economic, environmental, and humanitarian dimensions. Developing a comprehensive solution to these crises requires collaborative planning, coordination, and execution by multiple US government (USG) agencies, international organizations (IOs), and/or coalition partners. Many cultural problems must be overcome before these disparate communities can truly integrate planning and execution, but technology can help improve opportunities for, and the speed of, collaboration and information sharing. Web portals – sites that combine content with collaboration tools and serve as an entry point into information from multiple related sites – constitute a promising solution to this challenge. Vertical portals focus on a specific domain of interest and can promote virtual (distributed) communities of people with similar interests. This paper will discuss the need for, and characteristics of, a proposed Crisis Planning and Response (CPR) portal that will provide access to information relevant to HA, DR, PK, and other contingencies while customizing information for individual users based on user profiles. Interested, globally dispersed communities can use the proposed portal for information sharing and dissemination, planning, and training. In short, by providing a common virtual meeting place, it will promote a fuller understanding of each community’s culture. A robust CPR portal will serve as an information resource, support collaboration among multiple distributed users, and provide just-in-time training and education ranging from passive to active to experiential via access to simulation and role-playing. Ultimately, the CPR portal will allow us to contribute more fully to the world by being more responsive to issues facing us as a nation.
Bruce McDonald, Ph.D.
paper describes the cost and operational effectiveness analyses being
conducted on the STRICOM Embedded Simulation program.
The program is developing Embedded Simulation (ES) to support Embedded
Training (ET) and Embedded Operations (EO) for Army ground vehicles.
The near term target for this program is the M1A2 SEP Abrams main
battle tank. The basic approach
to this cost effectiveness analysis is to determine the costs of various live
training exercises and compare these costs to those that would be incurred
using ET technology. Live
training costs include operation and maintenance costs for the trainees’
vehicles, other blue forces (BLUFOR) vehicles and for the opposing force (OPFOR)
vehicles, as well as for range operation costs.
The authors have gathered data on miles driven for various training
exercises (e.g. Hasty Attack) as well as detailed operating costs (e.g.
O&S Class IX Parts, Petroleum, Oil and Lubricants (POL), and Intermediate
Maintenance) for the Abrams Tank and Bradley Fighting Vehicles.
These data were derived from the OSMIS (Operating and Support
Management Information System) database.
OSMIS is the U.S. Army’s source of historical operating and support
cost information for tactical units. With
this information, we were able to calculate the costs of various live
training exercises. We then
calculated the costs of equivalent exercises using ET technology.
During embedded training exercises, some vehicle components are active
and other components are not. Consequently,
we were able to calculate the operating costs of vehicles during various
types of embedded training exercises (moving, vehicle stationary, turret
stationary). This allows us to
predict the relative cost effectiveness of embedded vs. full-up live
exercises without making the naïve assumption that embedded training costs
nothing. These cost savings are
compared to ET acquisition costs to determine the payback period. These costs are expected to decline over time as the
state-of-the-art produces smaller, faster and cheaper computers and displays.
This paper discusses the results of this cost effectiveness
McCloughan, CDR, USCG (re)
Richard Arnold USCG, Training Officer
every saved life, enforced fisheries
treaty, foiled drug smuggling attempt, and safe port are high-performing
Coast Guard people." Coast Guard 2020. The Coast Guard’s Advanced
Distributed Learning Strategy (CGADLS) sets forth a new paradigm intended to
provide access to the highest quality education and training that can be
tailored to individual needs and delivered cost effectively, whenever and
wherever it is required. The
Coast Guards vision harnesses the power of the Internet and other virtual or
private wide-area networks to deliver high quality learning.
The CGADLP employs a low cost, hybrid approach to using technology by
bringing together intelligent tutors, distributed subject matter experts,
real time, in-depth learning management, and a diverse array of support tools
to ensure a responsive, high quality "learner-centric" system. To
make best use of the technologically advanced equipment the service is
deploying on its boats, ships and aircraft, the Coast Guard must have
personnel who are just as technically sophisticated and who can access the
information they need to operate and maintain this equipment to its best
advantage. The Coast Guard’s
Advanced Distributed Learning Plan is its response to the challenge of
providing the information and learning its personnel expect and deserve as
they confront their future operational challenges.
Donald A. MacCuish, Professor
Edd P. Chenoweth, J-36, EUCOM
year's I/ITSEC paper about ACSC's Fifty Years of Lessons Learned in Distance
Learning had two purposes. First
was to inform others of practices to avoid in the design, development, and
implementation of distance education, or non-resident educational programs.
Our second purpose was to provide a frame of reference for this and
future I/ITSEC presentations. Over the past twelve months, we have made significant changes
to our non-resident program. For example, substantively, we have increased
the rigor of our non-resident program and, in so doing we have reduced the
delta between it and the resident program.
This change brings us closer to the notion of one ACSC Curriculum.
We have also more keenly integrated the use of current technology,
especially in the area of war gaming, and have set the stage for conversion
of existing multi-media presentations to more interactive formats.
Although proper media mix is less glamorous than war games and
multi-media presentations it does, however, represent a significant
pedagogical change. Esthetics is the other area of significant change.
Impression can make the difference between perception of
user-friendliness and user rejection of any program.
The impact of this impression is the decision to enjoy the learning
experience or to go through the motions and fill the PME block to get
promoted. During our presentation, we will demonstrate many of the changes we
have made to our program. Unfortunately,
the printed word limits us to a written synopsis of these changes.
Significance: what is the significance of these efforts to the Federal
Government's Advanced Distributed Learning Initiative?
It means ACSC is a key ADL practitioner.
Advanced Distributed Learning Initiative (ADL) was launched in November 1997
by the Secretary of Defense. The
ADL Initiative will allow for high quality learning available anytime,
anywhere, tailored to individual needs.
It will enable global access and reuse of learning tools and content
through the iterative development of industry supported guidelines and
specifications. A key component
of the ADL Initiative is collaboration.
Collaboration is necessary for the establishment of common
specifications and for the sharing of tools and learning content.
It will also enable achievement of cost-savings by re-use, thus
avoiding duplication of many instructional objects. The rapid pace of
technological change, combined with limited DoD investments in learning
technology research, suggests a need to reinvent how the Department conducts
and implements research and development activities. The ADL Co-Laboratory
network was initiated by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD)
Readiness & Training Office in 1999 and has subsequently become an
important resource for the military services and the joint community.
The ADL Co-Lab hub is located in Alexandria, Virginia and focuses on
policy-level issues, development of common tools and specifications,
development of compliance testing software, interagency coordination, and
advanced research. The ADL interservice node was established in Orlando to
promote collaboration in ADL systems development, prototyping, and
acquisition across the Department of Defense.
An Academic ADL Co-Lab node was also established at the University of
Wisconsin as a first step in leveraging the tremendous knowledge resources
available in the nation’s universities and community colleges. This paper
will provide an overview of the ADL Co-Laboratory network, including a
description of its objectives and structure.
This paper will also provide information on the current and future
initiatives, including information on the ADL prototypes and status of the
development of common specifications.
David Stewart, LTC Stephen L. Rust
the expansion of NATO and the Warsaw Pact Initiative, the U.S. must be able
to train with numerous new countries. This provides opportunities for
coordinated distributive training facilities, which are inter-operable
between multiple countries. Consequently, countries are developing new
modeling and simulation facilities to inter-operate and train with NATO and
U.S. forces. These countries have training and exercise requirements similar
to U.S. requirements but with country unique tactics and equipment. The
establishment of a new simulation center or the enhancement of an existing
one creates numerous implementation problems. The myriad of equipment,
simulation tools, and virtual simulators that are available often force
managers to study the problem before any action is attempted. Then, technical
performance issues and tradeoffs create a paralysis due to the complexity of
the issues and their eventual ramifications. One must thoroughly understand
the inter-relationships between tools, hardware, formats, databases, and
interoperability for these decisions to be sound over the long term. After
the equipment and tools are resolved, one must then consider the issue of
training necessary for competent staff performance.
example, choosing a particular hardware solution for one reason often creates
problems with software applications or formats. Further, if software is
chosen, problems may develop due to formats, database issues, or a
requirement for more expensive hardware. The sobering fact is that hardware,
software tools and applications, as well as site performance requirements
must all be considered concurrently before any decisions are made. In
general, some commercial tools offer the lowest cost, while others offer the
highest performance; still, others tout their interoperability or
user-friendliness. Hence, contractor-provided input invariably focuses on a
small segment of simulation issues and offers their own products as solutions
– instead of an unbiased approach. This further confuses the manager when
simulation experts from different companies have reasonable approaches that
are different and incompatible. The site developer must minimize problems for
all site operations.
paper considers a standardized approach to developing a simulation center.
The intent is to identify a relatively
method for developing a new facility with a short supply of time and funds,
and large amounts of requirements. Ideally, any new facility should be
flexible, leverage from previous development efforts, handle multiple
simulation types, and provide an evolutionary path through evolving
simulations. Additionally, a new facility should allow multiple paths for
evolution where numerous commercial products can be incorporated with the
benefits of competition…
Vaclav Prenosil, Czech Military Academy
Abernathy, Ben Blood, and Philip W. Holden
US Government’s Partnership for Peace (PfP) program provides US assistance
to countries willing to enhance their interoperability with US and Allied
nations. The primary focus is on
Central and Eastern European countries and allows these countries to use US
Foreign Military Financing (FMF) funds for projects such as building
simulation centers that improve training and interoperability. The PfP and
FMF programs have been instrumental in building European Simulation Centers
through the STRICOM/ADST II contract as part of a Foreign Military Sale
(FMS). The Simulation Center at the Czech Military Academy follows
this plan, using primarily US grant money, with additional host nation funds
as available. A similar center is being installed in the Slovak Republic.
paper describes the process for foreign countries to use these programs to
build a Simulation Center under the auspices of the US Government.
Typically the work is phased, with the first phase being the start-up
of a new center. This includes
the design, acquisition and installation of the network infrastructure and
computer workstations, the installation and configuration of the simulation
software and training of the host country personnel.
The second phase is to expand the capabilities, adding manned
(Virtual) simulators, desktop simulators, additional After Action Review (AAR)
Capability, and working with the host nation to integrate computer assisted
exercises into their training program or curriculum, and to participate in
Joint and multi-national exercises. The
paper includes lessons learned on the implementation of the Simulation Center
in the Czech Republic.
environments (SEs) are a major advance but a natural progression on
conventional modeling and simulation: their significance is that they not
only combine models, simulations, people and real equipment in shared access
to a common synthetic world, they cater for interactions between players and
with the environment of which they are part. Enabled by advances in
computing, visualization and information technology, models, simulations and
their users can come together in a synthetic environment that can explore
problems and issues of great complexity to provide a scope for exploitation
that has barely yet been realized. But already impressive applications in
defence, such as the Air Defence SE and exercises Purple Link/Purple Sound,
have provided experience and proved much of the underlying technology.
Synthetic environments can improve the effectiveness and efficiency of
defence capability by enabling things to be done better, faster, cheaper and
together. They have a particularly valuable role in improving: combat
readiness through collective training, campaign planning and mission
rehearsal; equipment procurement through synthetic environment based
acquisition; and digitization of the joint battlespace. Synthetic
environments will deliver significant benefits but only if they deliver
credible answers through sound verification and validation. They must not be
a panacea and must be applied where cost-effective. The potential is
recognized at the highest levels in the Ministry of Defence and industry, and
is seen as an essential tool for implementing the Smart Procurement
Initiative and the Joint Training and War-fighting Initiative.
Robert "Buddha" Snyder, US Navy, CNO (N889B
In recent years, the documented decline of Fleet aviation readiness during the Inter-Deployment Training Cycle (IDTC) has become a major concern with Navy leadership. Plans to reverse the IDTC readiness decline include the increased use of simulators; however, Navy aircrew trainers in use today were acquired to support the Fleet Readiness Squadrons (FRS). FRS trainer fidelity (IE. visual, tactile, and motion) and capacity requirements were defined by both FRS curriculum and newly winged aviator needs. Fleet aviators are afforded simulator time based on FRS excess capacity and availability. Today's technology can provide affordable, Fleet-centric simulation training with expanded mission training/rehearsal capability and a multitude of visual enhancements and sensor cues. The Chief of Naval Operations (OPNAV) N889 Naval Aviation Training mission is to resource aviation manpower and training at the appropriate time and level to sustain optimum Naval Aviation readiness. Readiness attainment and tracking is most critical during the IDTC. N889 responded to the IDTC "lost readiness" challenge with a multidisciplinary team formed from government and industry representatives. The result was AIRPLAN 21, a strategy composed of eight focus areas: Aviation Maintenance Supply Readiness (AMSR), Aircrew Combat Training Continuum (ACTC), Flight Hour Program (FHP), Aircrew Career Continuation Pay (ACCP) Program, DEPOT Maintenance, Joint Tactical Combat Training System (JTCTS), Navy Aviation Pilot Production Improvement (NAPPI) Program and Fleet Aviation Simulation Training (FAST) Plan. These eight focus areas were developed to identify and track OPNAV programs that would directly impact IDTC readiness. The first seven elements were funded and are producing positive results. N889 and the Naval Aviation Training Strategic Advisory Group (NATSAG) are aggressively championing the unfunded FAST plan. These AIRPLAN 21 focus areas provide Navy Aviation’s first attempt to gauge resource allocation success and provide a finite measurement of return on investment (ROI) in terms of readiness. The FAST plan is based on the individual aircraft communities' Training and Readiness Matrix (T&RM) which, in turn, is tied to their individual Primary Mission Area (PMA) training requirements. The T&RM documents define specific training tasks along with their associated PMA readiness values. Completed training events, along with their resultant readiness values, are rolled up and closely tracked throughout the IDTC. Annual FAST technology assessments provide the requirements and acquisition communities with current aircrew training device technologies information that shows potential to improve readiness. OPNAV requirement officers, Fleet operations and training personnel, acquisition program managers, and simulator industry technical representatives all contribute to the development and update of the FAST Plan. An ongoing effort by the two major air type commanders, Commander Naval Air Force U S Atlantic Fleet (CNAL) and Commander Naval Air Force U S Pacific Fleet (CNAP), is the mapping of the Joint Mission Essential Task List (JMETL) to T&RM training events. This effort will further validate the T&RM and continue to refine simulator training devise fidelity requirements. Naval Aviation is now uniquely positioned to lead the Navy's overall effort to define the resource allocation strategies necessary to achieve and maintain optimal warfighting readiness. Technology evolution and real world events move faster than the DoD budgetary process can accommodate. In reality, it may take years for a new simulator product or training capability to reach the individual aviator. However, AIRPLAN 21 and, in particular, the FAST plan for Fleet aircrew simulators provide the foundation to recapture "readiness lost," and the first viable metrics to measure ROI in terms of readiness for Naval Aviation resourcing decisions.
Brian Bowden, USN
readiness impact does a reduced availability of gravity bombs have on a
Carrier Air Wing 15 months into the inter-deployment training cycle (IDTC)?
What impact will a reduction of flight hours or number of aircraft
have on readiness? What training
events are accomplished on a specific range?
What contributions do those range events make to unit readiness and
the Universal Naval Task List (UNTL)? What contribution are available
resources making towards reduced Status of Resources and Training System
(SORTS) training levels? What
contribution are simulators making towards readiness?
are a few of the questions asked daily at all levels of Naval Aviation: from
squadrons and detachments to Type Commanders to Fleet Commanders to the Chief
of Naval Operations. Resource
availability is at the core of these questions. The Navy’s Atlantic and Pacific Fleet Type Commanders
identified the essential resources that contribute to readiness as: People,
Parts, Planes, Petroleum, Weapons, Adversaries, Ranges, Temporary Assigned
Duty (TAD) dollars, and Simulators (P4+WARTS).
The overall readiness objective of Pacific/Atlantic Fleet Air Wings
and Squadrons is to sustain the highest level of training feasible,
recognizing that balancing resources is a constant challenge.
captured at the deckplate forms the basis of making readiness decisions.
The Navy has aggressively moved to employ the means to access the
information. The aviation TYCOMs
have recently funded and installed the infrastructure to collect, store, and
access the information from the deckplate and other databases for analysis,
assessment, and optimization of resources at all levels of the Navy’s
"warehouse" of information is creating a synergistic environment
where the "whole story" is told: operations data is compared with
maintenance and logistic data, training events are optimized and trend
analysis conducted that enable commanders at all levels to make decisions
paper describes the challenges of Navy leadership’s efforts to maximize
readiness on deployment date with the resources available.
Distributed Learning Information and Technical Services,
views expressed in this article are those of the author and do not reflect
the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S.
Government" As generally defined in the Unified Command Plan (UCP), one
of the principal missions of the United States Joint Forces Command (USJFCOM)
and the Joint Warfighting Center (JWFC) is to provide high-fidelity
operational level Joint training to potential Joint Task Force Commanders and
their staffs, globally. To successfully accomplish this mission, USJFCOM
currently employs several mechanisms, chief among them are major computer
assisted (CAX) distributed exercises (Unified Endeavor), Deployable Training
Teams (DTTs) consisting of a hand picked cadre of O4-O6 level Observer
Trainers (OTs), and other specifically tailored joint interoperability
events. During these and other
joint training evolutions, a myriad of tactics, techniques, procedures,
planning strategies and other critical Joint warfighting skills and
information is developed, exchanged, employed and learned.
The aforementioned skills and information pieces are defined in this
paper as Joint warfighting "content".
Capturing the essence of this critical joint warfighting content and
making it available to Joint warfighters globally, anytime anywhere is a
concept that has been recently embraced by the senior leadership in USJFCOM
and the JWFC. This paper will
describe background, rationale and key concepts behind the development of the
current process used by the JWFC to capture, develop, certify and make this
content available to Joint operators via the Navy Internet Protocol Routing
Network (NIPRNET) and Secret Internet Protocol Routing Network (SIPRNET)----and
provide an operator’s view of its anticipated impact on joint readiness.
Chris Lewis-Cooper AGC(ETS)
is the British Army’s programme to replace the aging Clansman radio system
with secure voice and data communications capable of supporting the future
digital battlespace. The pace of
change in the operational requirement and the range of potential solutions
make the business of specifying training equipment and estimating training
costs in a timely fashion very difficult.
Preliminary task analysis identified a probable requirement for a
simulator to train BOWMAN System Managers and a specification was requested
at short notice. Conventional
training options analysis techniques would have been too slow and
unresponsive for this task, and a new systems engineering approach was
adopted. The method, referred to as the Systems Engineering Approach to
Training (SEAT), encouraged all stakeholders to collaborate in modeling the
specification and through-life management of the training system within which
the simulator will operate. The
paper describes the case study in detail and goes on to comment on the
potential for the SEAT approach to save up to one half of the time and cost
of future changes to this training system specification.
Verstegen M.Sc. (TNO Human Factors)
first phase in the acquisition of advanced training means -such as
simulators, CBT and Virtual Environments- is the development of a needs
statement: a rough description of the training means that must be acquired
and a first estimate of the costs involved. For an organization, needs
statements are the basis for the planning of financial, and other resources.
This paper describes a methodology for the development of needs statements
for advanced training systems that was developed for the Royal Netherlands
Army. At present, needs statements for advanced training means are often
written in an ad hoc way, not based on training needs but purely on physical
fidelity. In other cases, the acquisition of training means is postponed
until the new operational systems have arrived, which leads to unacceptable
delays in personnel training. The goal of our project is to specify a way to
determine the present and future training needs within a limited time span,
based on information that can be incomplete or insecure, and to motivate
whether and why the acquisition of advanced training means is necessary and
make a rough estimate of the resources that should be reserved for this
on available knowledge and experience, e.g. from the MASTER and the BOOT
projects, and frequent discussions with domain experts and future users, we
have developed a methodology that leads users step by step through the
process of developing a needs statement. The methodology offers a structured
and standardized way to develop a needs statement. This does, however, not
mean the development process will always be the same: depending on, for
example the complexity of the domain and the amount of information available,
steps will take more or less time, some steps will sometimes get less
emphasis or will be partly executed only.
proposed methodology consists of three main phases, each with a number of
steps and decision points:
Decide whether or not to start the development of a needs statement
for advanced training means
Select (a combination of) training means and develop global training
Estimate costs and organizational, personnel and logistic consequences
Developing a complete and thorough needs statement takes time and manpower. Therefore, the methodology starts with an inventory of the situation in order to decide whether it is worthwhile to invest in such an undertaking. For this first phase, we develop a checklist that can be completed within a short amount of time. In phase II and III the training needs are further analyzed. The intention at this stage is not to develop final and fine grained training programs, but to start thinking about how training will probably take place or should take place and which kind of training systems will probably be used. On this basis a more realistic cost estimation can be made, taking several alternatives into account.
M Branum, Cynthia H. Himes
paper will describe the experiences and lessons learned of the C-130J
Maintenance & Aircrew Training System (MATS) team in procuring a military
training system in the commercial market.
When procuring military products that are similar to those offered on
the commercial marketplace, using a commercial contract can save the
government time and money. However, the benefits of using commercial
procedures to buy a training system must be weighed against the risks of
purchasing items that require modification or do not exactly meet the
customers needs. The lessons
learned by the C-130J MATS team have wide application across other military
training system acquisitions in the commercial market. Procuring a training
system as a commercial item can be particularly difficult because the system
can be composed of many dissimilar elements such as training devices,
courseware, and operations that may or may not have a commercial equivalent.
The commercial designation has presented several unique challenges for
the C-130J MATS team. The
commercial market provides similar products for portions of the training
system, especially aircraft flight simulators.
However, it is much more difficult to find commercial equivalents to
military maintenance training devices. While
the C-130J MATS will reap some benefits of a commercial acquisition, not all
expected benefits will be realized. The
pros and cons of acquiring a typical military training system on the
commercial market will be discussed, along with lessons learned and
recommendations for improvement.
K. Lawlis, Ph.D.
A. Thomas CCP
ability to determine software product quality and suitability for training
management systems has become increasingly more important to the government
as it becomes more dependent upon commercial off-the-shelf software products.
An effective software product evaluation can determine product quality
and suitability prior to purchase. There
are no established rules for a software product evaluation, so organizations
usually define their own processes. These
processes are often defined and/or followed very loosely.
While many good pioneering efforts in this area have increased the
body of knowledge of product evaluation, the lack of a standard, well-defined
process has led to many processes of questionable validity.
The result has been that many government organizations have made large
investments in poor product choices, and they are now suffering the
consequences. This paper
provides a definition for a software product evaluation process that is
grounded in the scientific method and in decision theory.
It then goes on to describe a case study where the application of this
process resulted in the selection of a product that will become a part of a
large component-based training management system for Air Education and
Training Command. The software
product evaluation process defined in this paper starts with a trade study to
narrow the list of candidate products. The
trade study relies on vendor responses to a questionnaire asking about
support for the requirements that have been established for the product to be
selected. Those products that
support an adequate number of requirements are recommended for a closer look,
and these recommended products are subjected to a hands-on evaluation.
This hands-on evaluation is much more intense, with evaluators looking
at both the requirements satisfied by each product and the quality of the
product’s support for these requirements, represented by evaluation
criteria. The combination of the
two – requirements and criteria – provides the basis for the final
analysis of the evaluation results. The
overall analysis uses a number of partial analyses of the evaluation data
collected. First, the overall
requirements coverage and the criteria ratings are captured in overall
Analysis Requirements Coverage Matrices and Analysis Criteria Matrices.
This provides a good picture of the results, but it is just the
beginning of an in-depth analysis. To
determine different dimensions of the evaluations, other factors that can
partition the results are also used. For
each partition, the same calculations are performed for both the requirements
and the criteria. The primary
emphasis of the analysis is on the criteria. The requirements coverage is a rough indication of how
suitable a product may be, based on how well it addresses the needs of the
expected users. However, the
criteria determine the quality of the product with respect to how well it
implements the requirements.
Chief of Naval Education and Training (CNET) is improving training
decision support processes and systems through the innovative application
of current business modeling and simulation practices.
This effort is being conducted under CNET's Training Business
Modeling and Simulation (TBMS) program.
Through the development and implementation of a standardized
architecture and methodology, CNET is incrementally developing a training
decision support capability anchored by a foundation of computer
simulation models that provide "ground-truth" information.
maturing decision support capability will allow decision-makers to
"Fly Before They Buy" new training technology or process
improvements. The end-state
of the TBMS program is envisioned to be a web-based Training Business Area
Resource Repository (TBARR). Decision-makers
will be able to use this repository to quickly test simplistic or complex
improvements to underlying business processes or information technology
systems in support of the training continuum, and also evaluate the
consequences of such actions in simulation before implementation.
The tested and validated scenarios will provide critical metrics to
the training community, such as cost, resource requirements, and student
time-to-train (to include Under Instruction (UI), Awaiting Instruction,
(AI), Interrupted Instruction (II), and Awaiting Transfer (AT)).
The simulated consequences can then be compared to the cost of
implementation to compute Return on Investment to the Navy.
paper will describe the TBMS architecture and standardized methodology for
executing TBMS efforts. Leveraging
High-Level Architecture (HLA) concepts, this architecture is developed for
the use and re-use of business process models created using
commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) applications.
The architecture purposefully sacrifices complete interoperability
in an open system with open standards to gain the benefits of rapid model
development in a structured architecture with standard methodologies for
development, modification, and analysis.
paper will also present a real-world application of this methodology for
Navy Training. A short
demonstration of the simulation model will be presented with a summary of
how the model was used to provide cost benefit analysis of information
technology and support process modifications.
sharing of information that is fostered by the TBMS architecture will
increase capability and cost-effectiveness by increased interoperability
and reuse of business process models and business simulations. Participants in the CNET TBMS project will have the benefit
of using a one-stop shopping location for all modeling and simulation
related materials. Common
standards, methodology, ROI requirements, and validation and verification
policies and procedures will also mark the architecture and will provide
substantial payback. A system
level view of business processes will be documented, validated, and
available for future reference and training applications.
Ultimately, the Navy will spend fewer resources on training process
simulation development and analysis, and will benefit by more informed
decisions through a robust training decision support system.
paper describes the partnership established between the National Center
for Simulation (NCS), its industry, academic and government members, and
University High School (UHS) of Orlando, Florida. The objective of this
"Partners in Education Program" is to develop a secondary school
curriculum with a focus on modeling and simulation to prepare students for
further education or training and/or careers in an exciting, challenging
high technology field. Introducing modeling and simulation into the high
school program requires not only support but a commitment by all parties.
Military organizations in the area and NASA were quick to endorse the
focus school concept, recognizing that some graduates enter the military,
others go on to college and might also go into the service later, or there
are those who enter the simulation workforce and contribute to the
nation’s overall simulation capability. The cooperation and resources
provided by the Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division, US
Army Simulation, Training and Instrumentation Command, Air Force Agency
for Modeling and Simulation and the University of Central Florida,
including its Institute for Simulation and Training, have been
outstanding. All of these organizations are in or adjacent to the Central
Florida Research Park, making it very convenient for tours, demonstrations
and student work opportunities. The program to date has been very
successful, serving as a template for other secondary schools and
educational institutions of all levels. Teacher training, which includes
classroom instruction, tours and demonstrations, has energized the faculty
and fostered an exceptional interest in technology by the students.
Approximately 100 students are enrolled in the program for this first year
of its existence. The demand is expected to grow as the program
progresses. The program expects to produce graduates who are familiar with
the high technologies that will influence and even shape their lives
through a cutting-edge curriculum and, perhaps more importantly, through
exposure to industry professionals who have taken an interest in their
Development and future.
research on Distributed Mission Training (DMT) has shown that pilots and
AWACS Weapons Directors rate DMT as highly effective for training
multi-ship, multi-bogey air combat. DMT exercises have also been utilized
as opportunities for pilots participating in Flight Lead Upgrade (FLUG)
training to gain experience in planning, briefing, leading, and debriefing
four-ship missions in an intensive air-to-air threat environment. A
four-phase research program to assess the effectiveness of using DMT to
augment FLUG training was undertaken in Apr 99 by the Air Force Research
Laboratory, Warfighter Training Research Division. First, training records
were reviewed to identify four-ship FLUG missions that would most benefit
from DMT experience and to establish baseline rates for sorties that were
repeated due to non-effective upgrading pilot proficiency. These data
indicated that among four-ship training missions, the highest refly rates
are for Dissimilar Air Combat Tactics, and Low-Altitude Surface Attack
Tactics. Second, a five-day DMT–FLUG protocol was developed targeting
these missions. Third, DMT–FLUG training exercises were conducted over a
one-year period. During these exercises, upgrading pilots lead several
missions of increasing complexity using the Air Force Research Laboratory
four-ship DMT testbed located in Mesa, AZ with AWACS weapons controllers
participating from AFRL’s research facility at Brooks AFB, TX.
DMT-FLUG exercises were conducted in Jun, Aug, and Oct 99, and Feb
00. Fourth, transfer to aircraft training was assessed through review of
training records and interviews with both upgrading pilots and their
instructors. As of 1 Sep 00, eight out of twelve upgrading pilots who
participated in DMT-FLUG have successfully completed the FLUG program
without any repeated missions, one pilot repeated one mission, two
transferred out of fighters, and the remaining pilot is still in training.
Performance of pilots and AWACS weapons directors within DMT exercises is
discussed with emphasis on identifying the mission tasks that are most
appropriate for DMT.
Mission Training (DMT) for the warfighter is now a reality with two F-15C
Mission Training Centers (MTC) in operation.
The next increase in capability are on the horizon with the F-16C
MTC and AWACS MTC being on contract.
An Operations and Integration (O&I) contractor will be selected
to coordinate communications and interfaces between MTCs.
innovative contracting type, Fee for Service, is used with DMT.
Here only services used are purchased, rather than buying the
equipment. This takes the
risk from the government and puts it on the contractor.
focus of the training is on teaching pilots individual and team tasks from
the Master Training Task List. These
tasks include tactical training and procedure training such as navigation
and responding to emergencies. Current
capabilities include individual training for up to four students each at
two locations to two four-ships networked together as a team against
manned and constructive threats. These
two four-ships are at Eglin and Langley AFB.
The AWACS MTC is expected to long haul network with the F-15C MTC
this summer as part of an operational evaluation.
status of the F-16C MTC is the first DMT trainer will come on-line fourth
quarter of 2001. The key to
making DMT work is the various MTC's ability to interface together.
Interface specification will be the responsibility of the O&I
contractor. To facilitate
networking the F-15C and F-16C MTCs have been designed with a large amount
of commonality in the areas required for compatibility.
paper describes the current status of the DMT program. The paper will
discuss the development and integration of the F-15C MTC at Eglin AFB FL
and Langley AFB, VA. The
primary focus of the paper will be upon lessons learned in the
acquisition, development and fielding of the F-15C MTC.
technological advancements allowing for the networking
of multiple aircrew training devices (ATDs) and
the implementation of the Distributed Mission Training (DMT) initiative,
the processes used to assess the capability of ATDs to provide
accurate and credible training has evolved into a graduated,
Unit-level Mission Training Centers (MTCs) with linked high
fidelity simulators are the core of the DMT system.
These components are envisioned to operate as independent devices
(i.e., single ship) or within a networked environment (local and long
haul) with both homogeneous and heterogeneous systems.
As executor of the Combat Air Forces (CAF)
Simulator Certification (SIMCERT) program, the 29th
Training Systems Squadron (29TSS) of the 53D Wing, USAF Air Warfare
Center, will initiate SIMCERT activities at the initial
MTC sites. In addition, 29TSS
will conduct a systems evaluation (SYSEVAL) with respect to DMT
Following brief overviews of ATDS employed by the CAF and of the DMT initiative, the SIMCERT process is discussed at length. The scope and specific objectives associated with phase I, phase II, and phase III SIMCERT activities are described, with examples of assessments conducted at each level provided. The importance of early identification and (if possible) isolation of anomalies during the SIMCERT process is stressed, and the use of both objective and subjective assessments to determine certification status is discussed. The need for SYSEVAL is discussed and the critical operational issues (COIS) are provided. The paper concludes with lessons learned during 29tss’s involvement with the acquisition and assessments of the initial DMT assets and a discussion of how these lessons have influenced the SIMCERT processes.
February 2000, DERA, a research and technology agency of the UK MoD,
conducted the first in a series of simulation trials to investigate the
potential of a collective environment for aircrew training. The trial
involved simulating a mixed package of air-to-air and air-to-ground manned
simulators, with additional friendly forces provided by computer generated
forces (CGF) and human role-players. Hostile forces were also provided
using air-to-air manned simulators, CGF and human role-players. The
simulated operational environment was designed to be as realistic as
possible. Front-line crews manned
simulators, while other military personnel took the roles of the command
chain for both friendly and hostile forces. This allowed the simulated
missions to be run as they would be in a real operational environment,
with full pre-sortie briefings, crew planning, sortie execution and
debriefing. The implementation of the trial infrastructure involved
significant development and integration effort, covering aspects such as:
Credible Computer Generated Forces
Long-haul secure data and voice communications
Terrain database generation
Scenario development and management
Exercise and technical management systems, including data recording and
Planning, briefing and debriefing systems
paper covers the development of the trial infrastructure, and lessons
learnt during development and use.
M. McIntyre & Ebb Smith
synthetic Composite Air Operations (COMAO) exercise was conducted by the
Defence Evaluation & Research Agency (DERA), in the United Kingdom
(UK) during February 2000.
A complex mission scenario was created over a simulator network
involving; a manned 4-ship of
Ground Attack aircraft, a manned 4-ship of Air Defence aircraft, with
other friendly forces such as Suppression of Enemy Air Defence (SEAD)
assets and Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) assets represented
by Computer generated Forces (CGF). In addition hostile forces, both
Ground-Based Air Defence (GBAD) and air threats were
represented by CGF, under the control of a Sector Operations Centre
Director (a human role player).
The scenario was based on a realistic operational setting.
The manned participants were frontline aircrew who flew one mission
per day, over a number of days, increasing in complexity.
Each day involved a complete Plan, Brief, Execute, Debrief cycle.
Operational military personnel
also role played CGF assets by giving appropriate voice inputs;
over a telephone during mission planning and briefing (as if located at
another air base) and via radio transmissions during mission execution.
An AWACS controller was also role
played during mission execution, controlling both CGF and manned players.
Both objective and subjective measures of aircrew performance indicate
that training value was achieved and tactical lessons learned over the
course of the exercise. A number of other research objectives were also
achieved, simultaneously, including:
a comparison of the training value of simulator environments, of
differing levels of complexity, to the training value
of the aircraft for role specific mission task elements; comparison
of the effectiveness of live vs. synthetic COMAO training;
evaluation of the utility of using role players and
facilitators in the scenario; assessment of interactions
between manned and CGF members of an aircraft package. The initial
response from aircrew is very positive indicating training value and
immersion, the capability to practise things that cannot be done in the
real aircraft during peacetime training, and meaningful interaction with aircraft in other roles,
within a complex mission environment.
Ldr Sarah A Heycock
Ldr Mark F Brown
has been a notoriously subjective, poorly-assessed part of flying training
across the UK Royal Air Force (RAF) for many years. Airmanship is a critical part of any flying instruction and
yet is largely unassessed or perhaps worse, incorrectly assessed.
This proposal is aimed at standardising a very subjective area that
differs greatly between RAF Commands.
However, to go to a purely objective assessment brings its own
disadvantages in that it is too clinical, particularly as the assessment
of individual capacity and airmanship is in an environment that is subject
to many external influences. Consequently,
this airmanship proposal has been put together for the use of all those
undertaking flying training to aid diagnosis of student weaknesses with
subsequent spin-offs to clarify assessment, dedicated instruction and role
disposal. It consists of the
following areas: Situational Awareness; Mental Capacity; Decisiveness;
Communication; and Resource Management.
Eighth United States Army (EUSA) in the Republic of Korea employs UH-60
and CH-47 flight simulators to support individual and crew training for
Blackhawk and Chinook pilots, respectively.
These simulators are high fidelity, man-in-the-loop, training
devices that support initial entry, qualification, and sustainment
training in system operations, crew coordination, emergency procedures,
and combat skills. As part of
the EUSA Korean Simulator Upgrade program, the two flight simulators are
receiving an upgrade to the visual image generation system (including a
geo-specific database of the Korean Peninsula) while maintaining, as a
minimum, existing performance capabilities.
One of the key training areas to maintain was the tactical
environment. In the existing
visual database, target sites and pathways were modeled into the database
manually, based on training requirements and customer inputs, using custom
database generation tools. The
sites and paths, along with the behaviors of these targets, were under
instructor controls; thus, providing numerous, realistic, dynamic, yet
deterministic and repeatable tactical scenarios. In addition to these real-time scenarios, both training
devices provide a reset and playback capability that allows the student
and instructor to review the mission and allows fly-out to real-time at
any time during the playback. Under
the scope of the contract, these capabilities were to be maintained. The
solution needed to be a constructive simulation that not only maintained
previous tactical environment fidelity (critical to each helicopter’s
training environment) but one that added enough robustness to provide a
set of routes that can be altered as training requirements change without
requiring a large database modeling effort.
With an off-line scenario generation capability and realistic
target movement models, Modular Semi-Automated Forces (ModSAF) was
selected as the constructive simulation.
By adding a Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) network
interface between the legacy device and ModSAF, the Instructor Operator
Station (IOS) at the training device can control each ModSAF target as
directed by the existing tactics within the legacy training device.
The use of DIS as the interface also provides future growth
potential for the devices to perform collective training in a DIS or High
Level Architecture (HLA) networked environment.
U. S. Special Operations Forces (SOF) conducted their second Synthetic
Theater of War-Architecture (STOW-A) exercise during the week of October
25th, 1999. The first STOW-A exercise utilized the Distributed Interactive
Simulation (DIS) protocol; the second exercise was designed and executed
using the High Level Architecture (HLA). The exercise consisted of two
missions, which were classic infiltrate and assault using air and ground
assets, requiring joint coordination between the Air Force and Army
pilots, Rangers and the other SOF units. This exercise had two primary
objectives. The first objective was to conduct a realistic Computer Aided
Exercise (CAX) using manned simulators from the 160th Special Operations
Aviation Regiment (SOAR) at Ft. Campbell, KY and the 19th Special
Operations Squadron (SOS) at Hurlburt Field, FL.
The second was to establish a distributed training architecture
using HLA that could be used to refine and validate tactics for
multi-aircraft, all-weather operations. The exercise achieved the goals
and objectives of all the participants. This paper captures the lessons
learned during the integration, testing and execution of the SOF STOW-A
training exercise using HLA. We address the technical challenges the
federation developers overcame related to Run-Time Infrastructure (RTI)
connectivity over a Wide Area Network (WAN), and the use of a DIS filter
and gateway to integrate radios and non-HLA simulation applications into
the federation execution. We discuss the elements used to coordinate and
execute the federation between distributed sites.
The US Army, Air Force, Navy, and Marines, joined by a number of contractors and representatives from academia, conducted a Joint Training Event (JTE) on the floor of the Orange County Convention Center during I/ITSEC 99. The JTE involved approximately 30 High Level Architecture (HLA) federates including virtual simulators, semi-automated forces (SAF), and HLA tools. To our knowledge this was the largest number of diverse HLA federates ever called upon to operate together. There was a significant amount of technical planning and preparation conducted by knowledgeable engineers prior to the event, to try to ensure its success. The event, conducted as a series of four 30-minute vignettes over three days, involved warfighters supervising training, warfighters being trained, plus technical operation of the simulators and simulations by a variety of contractors and government personnel. The JTE was managed to balance the dual objectives of pioneering technical achievements and warfighter training effectiveness. The event is considered to have been a significant success. This paper conveys the experiences gained from the perspective of federation buildup and control. The story begins with a description of the complex federation we wanted to establish, the steps we took to try to accomplish it, and what we achieved. The federate test strategy we used is presented along with influencing factors, problems encountered and lessons learned. Establishment of the federation on the I/ITSEC floor and management of the federation execution are similarly presented.
Naval Aviation Training Systems and Defense Advanced Research Projects
Agency (DARPA) teamed to investigate the feasibility and costs associated
with the modification of a legacy flight simulator (F14D) that was not
previously Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) capable, to become a
High Level Architecture (HLA) Federate. The F14D legacy flight simulator
was modified using the Gateway approach at the Naval Air Station Oceana VA
based "What If Simulation System for Advanced Research and
Development (WIZZARD) Tactical Research Facility.
This paper will examine the experiment performed, in context to the
draft High Level Architecture (HLA) Interoperability Maturation Model.
This paper will describe the Maturation Model and explain why this
approach was developed. This paper then compares the F14D legacy flight
simulators transition to HLA and the Maturation Model Transition level
that was achieved. This paper also discusses associated costs, risks, benefits,
and implications to the warfighter when upgrading these older legacy
flight systems to the HLA environment
it moves into the new millennium, the Department of Defense (DoD) faces
the challenge of creating Armed Forces that are "… dominant across
the full spectrum of military operations - persuasive in peace, decisive
in war, preeminent in any form of conflict." The training readiness
of such a force is receiving renewed emphasis just as the challenges to
conducting effective training are increasing. Competition for resources,
loss of traditional training facilities in the United States and abroad,
and the very complexity of modern warfare are training realities. Nowhere
are these training challenges more evident than in training at the
strategic and operational levels of war. One direct result of this
situation is the ever-increasing reliance on modeling and simulation to
traverse the gap between training requirements and resources. The DoD has
sponsored a number of new organizations and new training initiatives. The
Joint Warfighting Center and the Defense Modeling and Simulation Office
are two examples of new organizations supporting the training community
and the new Joint Training Management Information System (JTIMS) is an
example of a state of the art, web-based system directly supporting the
Combatant Commands. The JTIMS aids commanders in translating doctrine to
specific tasks, in determining a set of conditions under which the tasks
are conducted, and defining the measures of performance against which an
organization may be evaluated on a particular task. This paper will
provide the current status of programs that facilitate the Knowledge
Acquisition (KA) function of translating doctrine to tasks. The paper will
address the current status of the Joint Training System (JTS), the
Universal Joint Task List (UJTL) 4.0, Service Tactical Task Lists (TTLs),
and the JTIMS itself. The paper will further provide examples of
automating the KA function using JTIMS, the UJTL 4.0, and a Joint
Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (JSEAD) mission, complete with the
compilation of tasks, conditions, and measures of performance. The paper
will conclude with a discussion of further processes connected to this
initial KA effort.
use of a mixture of live, virtual, and constructive training has become
accepted practice for training within the Department of Defense.
We call training environments that use a combination of these
techniques an Advanced Learning Environment (ALE).
A key issue is getting the right mix of live, virtual, and
constructive training in order to achieve cost-effective training.
We present a technology-based methodology for task analysis that
assists in making the tradeoffs necessary for designing a cost-effective
ALE. This technology-based methodology represents an update of traditional
Instructional System Design methods that have been used for training
analyses. The method divides the training of each task into four steps:
Familiarization, Acquiring the skills, Practicing the skills, and
Validating the skills. We use
the acronym FAPV to refer to these four steps. We have implemented the FAPV analysis with a tool that starts
with a database of tasks and training times.
The tool allows dynamic tradeoffs across a variety of variables,
including student loads, choice of training devices, available facilities,
student/instructor ratios, and training device reliability.
This paper describes the FAPV analysis and process, and illustrates
the results with three examples developed for the US Army.
effectiveness and cost associated with training in live, virtual, and
constructive environments can vary significantly. FAPV analysis helps the training developer estimate the
impact on training effectiveness and associated costs of the choice of
live, virtual, and constructive training.
The dynamic variables allows the training developer to make rapid
tradeoffs between multiple training environment configurations to select
training devices and determine the number of training devices that are
required to meet student throughput goals.
Automated Decision Aid System for Hazardous Incidents (ADASHI) is a
unique, portable, computer-based integrated decision-aid support system
for improving the response to a hazardous incident by military and civil
responders to chemical and biological incidents. The incident commander
(IC) can use ADASHI at the incident site or it can be used at the higher
echelon operation centers to actively support decision-makers. The tool
has the capability to support individual and collective training at team
locations and at the responder's home. ADASHI is designed to function on
laptops and desktop computers providing user flexibility and portability
to remote locations. The software architecture can be adapted to support
advanced distributed learning strategies.
effectively integrates the specific technical functions required to manage
a hazardous incident or WMD event. Those functions include, but are not
limited to initial hazard assessment, hazard source analysis, mitigation
alternatives, physical protection requirements, decontamination methods,
hazard area prediction, detection planning and sampling, medical
treatment, and triage criteria. Specific functional inputs are integrated
with decision criteria enhancing response management in a crisis
situation. ADASHI is automatically monitoring the essential aspects of an
event, whether it be a "What if" simulated event for training
purposes or a real event.
automated multifunction tracking and monitoring can be used as a training
tool where individual data inputs can influence a weapons of mass
destruction (WMD) training scenario outcome. The trainee must then select
a specific operational option in order to mitigate the effects of the
incident. ADASHI's expert system can then help determine the scope of
operational alternatives available and query the trainee using direct
questions, memory prompts, etc. to help in making an informed decision.
The expert database structure alleviates the training burden by offering
in electronic format the volumes of disparate reference material. Team
leaders and members can perform "trial and error" learning free
from criticism while they build confidence and expertise without
compromising the confidence that their team has in them. ADASHI can be
utilized to augment the traditional 'table-top training' by providing
automated tracking of decisions and making projections of the consequences
of those decisions as they impact on the situation and the response
resources available. ADASHI is to be utilized as an "over the
shoulder" decision-support system to aid incident commanders in
making better, more timely decisions by rapidly processing the
multivariate input data and providing critical information to that
incident commander or team leader in a high-stress environment. It also
can be exploited as a powerful training tool to significantly improve the
multidisciplined emergency response team's readiness for
chemical/biological (CB) release incidents.
warfare has demanded a different kind of approach to combat readiness.
Modeling and simulation have successfully reduced instructional resources,
increased training and retention quality, and have allowed non-lethal
experience for combat conditions and mitigated the environmental impact of
live training exercises. It makes absolute sense in a time of diminishing
controlled clinical exposure to combat medicine conditions that this
successful application of modeling and simulation be applied to the field
of combat medicine. Simulation applied to medicine should yield the same
results and advantages that come from warfighting, aviation, or other
military simulations, and should follow the same requirements and
principles. Under the U.S. Army's Combat Trauma Patient Simulation Program
(CTPS), managed by Simulation Training and Instrumentation Command (STRICOM),
and sponsored by Medical Research and Material Command (MRMC), a series of
user based simulation assessments were conducted to facilitate the
creation of a military medical simulation system.
The user assessment methodology was not meant to produce an
independent test to measure definitive first order principles. It was more
correctly an attempt to survey a variety of military medical users as to
their perceptions of the efficacy of using simulation within their
educational domain for further development and research. The user
assessments were conducted over a period of two and a half years, and are
continuing as part of the CTPS program. They were conducted in the
broadest range possible, in all areas of medical education and with as
many domain experts as possible. Some of the assessments were directly
related to CTPS and included use of existing CTPS hardware, particularly
the Human Patient Simulator. While the CTPS chosen simulator was used,
assessments were made of other types of training aids, devices, and
patient simulators as well. This paper describes the results of those
Simulation and Training
paper first describes two methods of speech generation to simulate voice
communication: Speech Sampling and Speech Synthesis. The Digital Voice Response System (DVRS) simulates Automatic
Terminal Information System (ATIS) and Radio Transmission (RT) chatter.
ATIS broadcasts weather and airfield information.
RT chatter designates radio conversations between aircraft pilots
and Air Traffic Control (ATC) operators on air traffic services provided
on different radio frequencies such as Ground Control, Arrival Control and
DVRS used sampling and playback of digitized voice to simulate ATIS.
Words and phrases were pre-recorded using a particular
individual’s voice and were then digitized into audio files.
This technique ensures maximum voice fidelity within the
audio-sampling rate. However,
it carries some maintenance drawback such as requiring more recording from
the same individual, as new words need to be added to the vocabulary.
new DVRS is taking advantage of Speech Synthesis or Text-To-Speech (TTS)
technology for ATIS simulation. Relieved
from the chore of sampling and editing speech, the simulation developer
can concentrate on the simulation model. TTS
provides complete vocabulary and even some words are not part of the
standard vocabulary; speech can still be generated using phoneme symbols.
The DVRS application interacts with a Microsoft Speech Application
Program Interface (SAPITM) –compliant TTS engine.
This architecture allows DVRS to continuously benefit from improved
SAPI-compliant TTS engines. However,
the biggest challenge currently facing TTS research is to resolve the lack
of naturalness in synthesized speech.
comparison of Sampling method and Synthesis method leads to a compromise
in the areas of voice communication simulation.
Real ATIS has become mainly synthesized, thanks to the convenience
of TTS technology. This fully
justifies the choice of simulation with synthesized ATIS. However, RT chatter simulation’s value resides significantly
in the human emotion embedded in the speech.
So the Sampling method is more appropriate for RT chatter
simulation, probably until TTS research makes a breakthrough in speech
Michael J. Singer
Stuart C. Grant
U. S. Army is developing distributed interactive simulation (DIS) systems
for combat training and military concept development, testing, and
evaluation. The early
emphasis and implementation has been on linking vehicle simulators,
without providing for the training or participation of dismounted soldiers
(Knerr, et al., 1994). The
Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences (ARI) and
Defence Research and Development Canada are investigating distributed
training for dismounted soldiers. Unlike
vehicle simulators, where the crew are able to interact within the
simulator unimpeded by the simulation technology, simulators for
dismounted combatants interpose the limitations of simulation technology
between team members. Any effect this has on the acquisition of team
skills is exacerbated in distributed simulations because interaction
between team members will be further limited. To investigate the nature
and severity of this situation, the reported experiment addresses the
development of team coordination under conditions of either distributed or
local mission rehearsal. In the virtual environment (VE) scenario two
person teams search buildings for hazardous materials and neutralize them
while being opposed by computer generated forces.
Each participant is trained to standard criteria on all tasks and
activities before the team is formed and mission rehearsals begin.
Each team then performs eight missions with an after-action review
(AAR) after each mission. Mission sessions are distributed over several days.
The preliminary data show improvement in team overall performance
in the number of rooms searched, time to perform collective tasks, and
hazardous materials disarmed. We
anticipate that teams trained using distributed simulation, having more
limited opportunities to interact away from the mission and AAR, will not
develop the same levels of performance achieved by those teams trained in
the same location.
Joseph Cohn, Ph.D.
recent years, advances in both computer hardware and software have set the
stage for designing Virtual Environments (VE) of ever-increasing fidelity.
These improvements in VE technology have revived interest in using virtual
worlds to provide training. There are many advantages to using VE-based
training. For example, VE provides a cost-effective, flexible training
environment that can be quickly and easily reconfigured to provide
mission-specific training. Also, VE affords instructors the opportunity to
expose students to situations that would otherwise be impossible (i.e.
life threatening) to recreate in real-life training scenarios. As well, VE
provides a unique opportunity for trainers to evaluate their students
either in real time, by freezing training at critical points, or by
replaying the entire training scenario upon completion.
of the key assumptions in using VE-based training is that the training
received in the VE world will transfer to the real world. However, it has often proven difficult to establish this
transfer of training. One reason for this difficulty is that a consensus
is lacking in how to establish that training-transfer has occurred. We
present here a system of guidelines for establishing training transfer
from a VE to a real-world task. In formulating our guidelines we draw upon
a wide range of sources, including the flight simulator literature,
academic and human factors research as well as findings from our own
to be addressed include: defining a specific training task in terms of a
series of readily observable variables that are critical to successfully
learning the task; providing subjects with training in a VE that
emphasizes this variable set; transitioning these trained subjects to the real-world task, while recording these same variables;
observing a control group exposed only to the real-world task; finally,
using a cross-validation process (Subject Matter Expert feedback), to
supplement our evaluation of the degree to which training transfer has
occurred. We choose as our model case a shiphandling task. Establishing a
set of guidelines should provide future trainers/VE developers with a set
of tools for determining how best to design their VE worlds and training
M. Schaafstal, Ph.D.
M. Lyons, Ph.D.
teams increasingly takes place in synthetic environments.
However, team training is often still modeled after live team
training, including the disadvantages of live training, such as
instructor-intense performance monitoring, and the fact that all
appropriate other teammates have to be available. This paper explores the latter issue: how to overcome the
bottlenecks of the availability and drawbacks of human teammates in
training teams in synthetic environments, while keeping the advantages:
the opportunity to learn in a collaborative and cooperative fashion. Simulated teammates are a promising alternative to human
teammates, because they are always available, may be modeled after
experienced training personnel, and may be more cost effective in the long
run. The research challenge
lies in keeping the advantages associated with human teammates: simulated
teammates should display the same collaborative and cooperative behavior
typically associated with human teammates.
This paper will review the relevant available research data, and
will explore how intelligent teammates should be defined and modeled so as
to take advantage of both worlds: optimizing the possibility of
cooperative learning, as well as optimizing individual and team learning
existing suite of training devices for Army aviators is composed of single
cockpit, stand-alone devices designed to support training appropriate for
an individual aviator or a single crew. These training devices, while
completely appropriate for individual aviator and crew training do not
possess the networking and interoperability capability necessary to
address collective, unit-level training of multiple crews. This inability
to provide company/troop level collective training is to be corrected with
the development and procurement of AVCATT-A.
paper will provide an overview of the total AVCATT-A training solution to
meet stringent Army aviation collective training requirements. The AVCATT-A
represents a different approach to both the level of training addressed
and the fidelity of the training devices. AVCATT-A is intended to provide
company/troop level training for Army aviation reconnaissance, attack,
assault and support units via six networked, reconfigurable cockpits
interacting with a rich synthetic battlespace housed in a mobile facility.
This approach differs radically from that of fixed site, aircraft
specific, limited synthetic battlespace, individual aviator or crew level
training devices that comprise the existing training suite.
current workstation designs used by SAFs, such as CCTT SAF and ModSAF,
date back to a SIMNET legacy of the late 1980s.
CCTT and other large simulation programs within Department of
Defense are becoming the exception rather than the rule. The SAF Suite and Standalone configurations of CCTT SAF were
created in part to provide a more cost-effective platform by combining
application and workstation roles that normally would require no less than
three host computers. The
next logical step is to port SAF Suite and Standalone to the even more
cost-effective Intel-based PC platform.
porting of SAF Suite and Standalone to the PC requires a change in host
computer platform, operating system (OS), compiler, and supporting
software libraries. The
current configuration is the IBM PowerPC/AIX OS UNIX workstation with the
Powerada compiler from OC Systems, Inc.
Powerada includes AdaMotif, a commercial Motif binding for Ada.
The Intel-based PC configuration is a Pentium III/Linux OS PC
workstation with the GNU Ada compiler, GNAT, and other public supporting
James G. Diehl
Terence P. Brennan
training among the Services is increasingly important and valuable, given
frequent deployments and smaller force structures. However, training Service tactical units on interoperability
tasks is an expense in terms of both money and time. Nevertheless, it is the goal of US Joint Forces Command to
prepare its components’ routinely deploying units to perform
interoperably during a contingency to ensure that no soldier, sailor,
airman or Marine encounters an interoperability task for the first time in
the deployed theater. Given the enormous challenge to train on Service
specific tasks as well as joint interoperability tasks and the growing use
of tactical simulators across the Services, the ability to link Service
training events through the use of simulations and the ability of Service
simulators to be linked with the intent to conduct joint interoperability
training are important capabilities for the joint forces of the future.
Joint logistics, joint fires and targeting, joint intelligence, and joint
theater air and missile defense appear to offer significant promise as
focus points for the creation of linked Service exercises as well as,
potentially, a Virtual Interoperability Training Center. The intent of
this paper is to define the requirement for "virtual"
interoperability training and to offer a look at potential vehicles for
the linkage of Service training events to address joint interoperability,
as well as the possibility of establishing a Virtual Interoperability
Training Center, which would allow Service tactical simulators to link to
one another and address joint interoperability challenges.
significant trend in the use of synthetic environments for military unit
training is to move away from using generic scenarios that cover a
multitude of training objectives. Instead, dedicated scenarios are
designed that cover a smaller set of specific training objectives. A few
tools exist that support the development of scenarios tailored to these
objectives and the collection of data for an after-action review based on
the objectives. For real-time monitoring of the exercise however, most
environments use a standard set of tools, e.g. plan view display, 3D
stealth and ORBAT (ORder of BATtle) Browser. These tools only provide a
generic view on the exercise. Specific information necessary for
evaluation of the training objectives is often not present or only
available after time-consuming manual adjustment of the tools. This paper
reports on the definition of a training support toolset that uses training
objectives as a framework. The toolset enables the instructional staff to
focus on training objectives during all stages of the lifecycle of an
exercise: definition, preparation, execution and review. The current
emphasis is on the execution and the review stages. The paradigm for the
approach described in this paper is to regard the training support toolset
as a set of complementary views on the synthetic environment. Each view is
optimised to display certain types of entity information, e.g. position in
the battlefield, force hierarchy or vehicle status. To support the
evaluation of a particular training objective or group of objectives
during an exercise, the toolset is configured for the instructional staff
as a dedicated set of views, enabling them to retrieve the necessary
other guidelines used for the construction of the toolset are the
presentation of additional information as overlays over the views, and the
use of system-wide controls that influence all relevant views in the
toolset. The paper gives examples that show how the toolset allows the
members of the instructional staff to retrieve information on entities in
an effective and efficient way. The instructional staff uses the
information obtained to build a common mental picture of the performance
of the trainees by evaluating the training objectives during the execution
stage. They can provide on-line feedback, or store the information for use
in an objectives-based after-action review. The approach is applied in
co-operation with the Royal Netherlands Army to prototype training support
tools for tactical training environments. One of their main interests in
this approach is to conduct high-quality training exercises with a
relatively small instructional staff.
J. Begley II
support observer/controllers (OCs) at the Army’s live instrumented
Maneuver Combat Training Centers (MCTCs) by performing exercise control
functions and preparing after action review (AAR) aids for feedback
sessions. The Army plans to field an instrumentation system that will give
units a MCTC-like training capability at their home stations, but the Army
cannot afford to provide the same degree of dedicated analytical support
that has been provided for MCTCs. The benefits of home station
instrumentation are likely to be reduced when OCs at home station are
supported by unit personal tasked temporarily to serve as analysts. The US
Army Training Modernization Directorate (ATMD) envisioned the concept of a
training analysis and feedback center of excellence (TAAF-X), supporting
multiple MCTCs and home stations concurrently. A TAAF-X can provide home
stations with access to experienced analysts, possibly reduce the ratio of
analysts required per unit trained, and provide a continual human link
between MCTCs and home stations. ATMD asked us to assess the feasibility
of implementing the TAAF-X concept. We identified potential problems
implementing the TAAF-X concept and proposed solutions where possible.
Through an iterative process we refined the TAAF-X concept.
O’Neal, Program Manager
Brewer, Senior Engineer
Navy Project SEA 1412 is integrating a set of team trainers using
Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) to develop the Maritime Warfare
Training System (MWTS). The US Navy has a similar Program – Battle Force
Tactical Training (BFTT) System, which will eventually include 158 major
surface ships and five shore sites, providing training for individual and
multiple ships, using distributed interactive simulation. This technology
enables a number of ships and shore units to participate in the same
virtual battlespace even though they may be geographically dispersed; e.g.
one fleet unit could be at San Diego and one in Sydney, Australia, and
they could participate in the same exercise through electronic linkages.
DIS is the current mature standard for simulator interoperability and is
used by BFTT. The US DoD has mandated that M&S projects be High Level
Architecture (HLA) compliant. BFTT
is currently migrating to HLA.
is in both Australia's and the United States’ interests to collaborate,
since this will ultimately ensure that Australian Navy training systems
both in the ships and ashore will be able to communicate with their US
counterparts. The RAN could then participate in coalition training
exercises with the USN in a series of exercises which might be termed
Virtual RIMPAC. Through these two similar Programs, Australian and US
researchers are sharing their experiences with DIS for naval training,
including various difficult technical issues. This paper will discuss the
issues from both the Australian and USN perspective, and outline a
proposed collaborative R&D effort in the area of migrating to the
newer HLA. Australian
researchers have suggested a migration path for SEA 1412 which is similar
to the BFTT migration path. At the higher level, both Australian and USN
researchers are interested in investigating whether their systems will
prove effective both from a cost and training perspective in delivering
training to the RAN and USN, and how they endeavour to measure it.
LPD-17 is the Navy's next generation amphibious ship. Designed to carry
Marines and all their support equipment anywhere in the world and land
them with helicopters and air cushion landing craft. The ship has an
integrated machinery control system (MCS) with consoles around the ship
connected by a ships wide area network (SWAN). Any console can be shifted
to "training mode", and the CORE database (CORE is not an
acronym per se, it is the a term which refers to the basic software which
resides in all consoles and includes data handlers, I/O handlers,
initialization routines, etc.) of that console will be populated by the
simulation in place of real data. The operator will then control the
simulated equipment using the same HMI pages he has for real control.
For team training, multiple consoles can be shifted to
"training mode" with one console designated for use by an
instructor, who will be able to initiate faults and equipment failures in
the simulation, which the operator can then respond to. The instructor can
also manipulate the simulation to modify the scenario presented to the
trainee or to account for actions which would be do manually in real life.
The system can be used for new operator training in the basics of
machinery control, and refresher training in Engineering Operating
Sequence System (EOSS) Operating and Casualty Procedures.
innovative method has been developed to provide the necessary data to the
F/A-18 wing tip weapon stations enabling interoperability with existing
Rangeless Air Combat Training instrumented pods. Without any modifications to existing aircraft hardware or
software, the Air Combat Training Interface Device (ACTID), embedded in
the aircraft, gives the F/A-18 the capability of rangeless air combat
training when fitted with the Rangeless Air Combat Training instrumented
instrumented pods, which use Global Positioning Satellite information,
give air combat crews an instant training range – anywhere in the world
– while eliminating the restriction to train over a designated
geographical area. Digital
aircraft data and weapon systems data is required by the rangeless pod in
order to support air-to-air training and air-to-ground weapon scoring.
The design of the F/A-18 aircraft does not provide a means of
transferring digital data to an external pod, effectively prohibiting the
use of rangeless air combat training systems.
was developed as an IR&D funded project to provide the digital data
existing on the F/A-18 avionics multiplex data busses to the wing tip
weapon stations. The
uniqueness of the solution is that the data of interest for rangeless air
combat training can be transferred to the wing tip weapon launcher using
existing aircraft data bus wiring and a set of crossover cables installed
for that purpose.
three-dimensional pre- and post-strike target visualization tools, such as
the Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s (DTRA) Weapons Analysis Lethality
Tool Set (WALTS), provide a valuable addition to mission planning, the
battle damage assessment (BDA) process, training, simulations and mission
rehearsal. When struck, the
3D target models are dynamically repolygonized in near-real time using
physics codes describing the weapon-target interactions.
These models are then rendered for user inspection on the WALTS
viewer or are passed to other rendering systems using the HLA methodology
for further environment interaction.
Range data, when treated as a HLA federate, drives WALTS and, in return,
WALTS provides for an enhanced after-action review and restrict/no-restrike
training capability. Additionally,
simulated weapons scoring can be used to quantify student performance
during training and mission rehearsal.
Finally, the HLA concepts allow for range objects and interactions,
including the targets, to be visible to other federates.
These federates can be other simulations or they can be display
systems with varying levels of fidelity.
place for rendering these damaged targets is in the "out the
window" scene of a virtual simulator.
Virtual simulators are no longer limited to using pre-defined
"damage states," i.e. 25%, 50% damaged, etc.
Realistic damage visualization not only allows for an immediate and
accurate feedback, but it also allows instructors to make restrike/no-restrike
decisions on the fly while students are still immersed in their
simulation. Mission rehearsal
is one particular instance where this type of decision making becomes
critical as the physics based weapon effects calculations guide us towards
creating a more realistic and accurate synthetic environment.
provides a good exchange mechanism for this type of integrated simulation.
The WALTS federate can participate with a single virtual simulator
federate, Live Range federate or as a part of a greater federation with
several different types of federates: live, virtual and/or constructive.
support and combat forces is the means by which the US Army will continue
to maintain information dominance capability on the battlefield. However,
only when it is used appropriately and efficiently will information
dominance translate to force dominance. The digitized Army therefore
requires digitized training. Together, the Force XXI Battle Command
Brigade and Below (FBCB2) system and the Multiple Integrated Laser
Engagement System (MILES) 2000 provide vital tools that permit combat
training centers and home stations to train troops in the conduct of
digitized warfare, as well as to impart an understanding about the
employment of information dominance to affect force dominance. Currently,
combat training facilities employ large numbers of human observers to
collect and process truth data for entities involved in training
exercises. The MILES 2000 family of training instrumentation gear provides
direct fire engagement truth data. However, this data must be manually
collected from each unit and centrally processed to support after action
reviews. With the integration of a MILES 2000 communications interface
into FBCB2, digitized training facilities can now make timely, far better
use of truth data available during training exercises. Collection of unit
and engagement truth data can now occur in real time, making it
immediately available for processing and redistribution. This data is both
generated and collected autonomously – simultaneously reducing the
observer staffing and freeing up these observers to teach vital combat
skills and to point out shortcomings as they occur. This paper addresses
recent FBCB2 enhancements that provide MILES 2000 interface capability.
Digitized training process improvements resulting from the MILES 2000
interface are highlighted.
Leading edge Commercial Driving Simulators are being employed by several police departments in the United States to help them cope with the expanding demand to improve their drivers’ safety and proficiency. These simulators are being used in a variety of application areas: Basic Driver Decision Making, Tactical Driver Maneuvering, Hazard and Threat Awareness, Intersection Analysis, Improving Driver Multi-tasking Skills, Patrolling, Pursuit, Practice of Policies and Procedures, and Emergency Code 3 Response. The lessons learned by these police departments, i.e., Raleigh, NC, San Antonio, TX, West Covina, CA and several others, can provide an introductory look at the benefits, challenges, and techniques that work in a simulator-based, tactical training environment. This paper addresses those lessons learned from an operational and mission perspective. In addition, the technology is described. Simulator performance is defined in technical and human factors terms. Special emphasis is made to identify how the technology is used and its success in improving driver performance. Finally, a summary of successful simulator features and their corresponding value to desired performance is provided based upon police department results.
capability of an Army to fight not only resides in the use of leading edge
technology weapons, communications, command and control systems but also
in the readiness of well trained troops and officers. This level of
readiness requires appropriate staff training. However, the needs for such
training at unit level are drastically different to that of individual /
paper describes an innovative approach for the training of commanders of
small armored or mechanized infantry units, company commanders or
section/platoon leaders. It features a realistic virtual tactical
environment, is capable to operate with a limited number of instructors
and is easy to deploy for training at battalion facilities.
tactical trainer (called SYSIMEV-IA) ordered by the French Army to
THOMSON- CSF in Dec 98, will undergo experimental trials in the combat
training center in MAILLY (France) at the end of 2000. The system design
is resulting from a trade-off between cost, realism and fidelity to the
real world. In this particular case, rather than seeking full fidelity in
representing the trainee’s environment, emphasis is put in reproducing
the tactical environment of the commanders; in other words :
simulation-relevant is what influences the trainees decisions. So, the
main objective is to place the trainees in a situation as near as possible
to a real battlefield, providing a tactical situation with immediate
feedback capability (3D simulated sensors, tactical data links, 2D map
presentation, simulated radio communications layer) and to train the
trainees to react to unplanned events, take the initiative and make the
system architecture is based on PC-based 3D graphic desktop stations for
trainees and role players, networked with a sophisticated constructive
simulation PC server, and the
exercise director /instructor / analyst PC stations. The constructive
simulation is controlled in real-time by the instructors who activate the
enemy, neutral, allied and flanking units. The role players carry out the
orders from the trainees. The system can train company commanders or
platoon commanders with their subordinate teams (trained role players).
first application is planned to be followed by a tactical trainer for
commanders of attack helicopters, and also to be experimented for combined
arms tactical training using HLA/DIS networking interface capabilities
within a simulation federation based on legacy simulations.
paper will describe the operational objectives, system architecture,
simulation technologies, and choices and trade-offs that led to this
the earliest days of armored vehicle simulation trainers, forward looking
leaders and planners have envisioned the day when armored vehicle
simulation training could occur on the combat vehicle rather than in a
"simulator white box." The
effectiveness of a training simulation system that could be embedded
(fully enclosed) within a combat vehicle has been discussed and realized
for years. Almost everyone
has agreed that such an "onboard" system would be a tremendous
leap ahead in simulation based training.
However, the long awaited "breakthrough" of this leap
ahead technology has not been forthcoming.
The technology necessary for an embedded simulation system has,
however, been steadily evolving forward, and very few within the
simulation community have recognized this evolution.
The evolutionary process has now created the technologies necessary
to produce an embedded gunnery training system for an armored combat
recently there have been two fundamental problems associated with
embedding simulation systems into combat vehicles.
The first problem has been the space constraints onboard combat
vehicles versus the space required to accommodate the simulator’s very
large image generator and host computers.
The second problem has been the direct view optical sighting
systems on armored vehicles that make injection of virtual images very
difficult, without modifying these sights.
As simulation systems and combat vehicles have evolved (and will
continue to evolve), they have grown more compatible.
The disparity between space onboard a combat vehicle and the space
required to house simulation hardware has diminished due to the
miniaturization of image generator and host computer components.
Also, as combat vehicle sighting systems have shifted away from
optical sights to image projection sights like thermal, FLIR, and daylight
TV, and as micro-display technology has improved there are now multiple
means to project simulated images into or onto vehicle sights for
realistic battlefield training.
are numerous advantages to a simulator that is embedded within a combat
vehicle. A simulation system
onboard a combat vehicle will: (1)
remove the crew from the artificial environment of current "simulator
white boxes," (2) allow
simulation training away from home station,
(3) allow training aboard the vehicle while crews "sit and
wait" during any number of circumstances,
(4) allow rehearsals of missions in assembly areas prior to battles
or onboard ships enroute to an area of conflict, and (5) tremendously
reduce cost per system - almost no hardware is required.
Christina L. Bouwens
The United Stated Marine Corps continues to increase its reliance on simulators to prepare for and augment live-fire training. To fully capitalize on the benefits of these simulators, they must be applied to the operating forces of the Marine Corps identified need for collective, combined arms tactical training for battalion, company and platoon operations. To date, this training has been marginally enhanced through the use of simulators. However, legacy simulator systems were designed to support specific individual and small crew training objectives and these systems do not interact with other systems to support collective training or mission rehearsal. Advances in simulation technology, specifically in the area of distributed simulation, have made it technically feasible for the Marine Corps training community to explore collective, combined arms training using simulators. Recent advancements in the High Level Architecture (HLA) technical specifications and policy implementation show HLA to be a promising approach for achieving the required interoperable environment.
paper will describe an evolutionary approach to the development of an
interoperable environment that is being considered by the Marine Corps for
future generations of training
systems. The described
activity focuses on developing an interoperability specification that will
allow soon-to-be-developed training systems to be designed for
interoperability to a common standard.
A demonstration of the collective training capability is planned
that will assess both the technical feasibility of the interoperability
approach as well as the military utility of the resulting training
discussion of key interoperability issues facing the MAGTF FOM development
effort is also provided.