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I/ITSEC 1990 -- 12th I/ITSEC

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Innovation in the Development of Space-Based Visual Data Base  4

Terrain Independent Feature Modeling   4

Psychophysical Approach to Visual Display Acceptance  5

The Automated Systems Approach to Training (ASAT) 6

Recommended Procedures for Implementing Cost-Effective Embedded Training into Operational Equipment  6

A Process to Evaluate Training Media Alternatives  7

Applying DOD-STD-2167A   7

Combining Real-Time and Time-Sharing Services on a Multiprocessor   7

An Inter Task Protocol for a Multi-Processor Simulator   8

Network Requirements for Distributed Tactical Training   9

Shipboard Training Control–An Approach for Networking Multiple Embedded and Appended Shipboard Trainers  9

The Standardization of Protocol Data Units for Interoperability of Defense Simulations  10

Aircrew Strategy/Intent Detection System    10

Reduced Crew for Opposing Force Surrogate Vehicles at the National Training Center   11

Numerical Identification and Estimation–an Efficient Method for Improving Simulation Fidelity   12

Definition and Validation of the Flying Qualities and Performance Test Criteria for the Modern Operational Flight Trainer   12

The Simulation of the Dynamic Interaction of a Hovercraft Entering a Support Ship Well Deck   13

The Implementation of the Landing Craft, Air Cushion (LCAC) Full Mission Trainer (FMT) Land Dynamics Reaction to Terrain   13

Selecting a Geographic Interface for Air Traffic Control Radar Simulation   14

Mission Rehearsal Database Requirements and Technologies  14

From Source Materials to Data Bases–Higher Fidelity at Lower Cost  15

Modeling Systems Software Architecture  16

Micro-Computer/Array Processor System Design for Active Sonar Simulation   16

Weapons Team Engagement Simulator   16

Meeting the Avionics Maintenance Training Objectives with Simulation–The E-6 Integrated Avionics Trainer   17

Automated Adaptive Instruction for Embedded Training   17

Automatic Scenario Generation and Control for Tactical Training Systems of the 1990’s  18

Using ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) in a Maintenance Diagnostics and Training Simulator   18

Application of FDDI/XTP Network Protocols to Distributed Simulation   19

Implementations of Ethernet-Like Protocols Utilizing ETHERNET Technology for Real Time Simulation Networking   20

ON THE ROLE OF DISTRIBUTED ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) IN LARGE SCALE NETWORK SIMULATION   20

Electric Control Landing–A Low Cost, High Performance Alternative  21

DC Servo-Motors for High Performance, High Reliability Control Loading in Flight Simulators  21

A Midi-Based Aural Simulation System    22

Development and Evaluation of Eye Tracker Performance for Use with the Fiber Optic Helmet Mounted Display   22

Two Approached for Implementing Full color Helmet Mounted Display Suitable for Training and Research   23

Advanced Raster/Calligraphic CRT Projector   24

Semi-Automated Force Simulation Using a Blackboard   24

The Application of Artificial Neural Systems to the Training of Air Combat Decision-Making Skills  24

The Benefits of Desktop Rapid Prototyping   25

Using Speech Recognition in Real-Time Training SystemS FiNding the Balance  26

Applying Mathematical Modeling technology to the Study of Team Training and Performance  26

Threat Databases–are we Repeating Ourselves?  27

Teamwork–An Acquisition Management Approach for Networking Trainers  27

Pilot Training for the European Fighter Aircraft–Getting it Right  28

B-2 Simulator Acquisition the Acquisition Strategy for the 90s  28

Planned Rapid Obsolescence of Training   29

Organizational Barriers to Object-Oriented Development  29

Ada in the 90’s  30

Proposal Analyses by Fast Action Negotiation Group (FANG) Teams  30

Total Quality Management (TQM) in the Competitive (Confrontational) Acquisition Environment  31

Training Cost Data Enhancement System (T-Codes) 31

Mission Rehearsal Behavioral Research Issues  32

Mission Training and Rehearsal Employing Simulation to its full Potential  32

Interoperability:  the Key to Successful Team Training and Rehearsal  33

A Computer Based Performance Measurement System for Team Training   34

Developing Measurement Within an  Evolving Training Program    34

Is Total Contract Training Still Viable?  An Update on E-3 Total Contract Training   35

The C-17 ATS–Caballing, Kibitzing, and Cohabiting   35

Harrier GR MK 5/7 Advanced Technology Mission Simulators  35

Effective Air Combat Team Performance–with Bandit’s Help  36

Multiship Air Combat Team Mission Trainer (TMT) Concept Meeting a Tough Continuation Training Requirement  37

Advanced Amphibious Assault (AAA) Program–an Early Consideration of Required Training Systems  37

Training Scenarios for Space Station Freedom    38

Designing Concurrency into a Training Curriculum Using Computer Based Training   38

 

Innovation in the Development of Space-Based Visual Data Base

Steven M. McCarter and John L. Richard

McDonnell Douglas Company

 

When tasked with the development of a space-based visual data base on a non Z-buffer type image generator, engineers at mcDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company encountered several problems.  These problems included polygon distribution, curved surface shading, texturing, and allotment of moving models.  As always, a finite number of  polygons was available per visual scene.  Judicious use of these polygons was employed at every stage of development, the intent being to provide the most accurate scene content possible.  Trade-offs between curved surface shading and texturing were examined, and made when deem appropriate.  Last, but certainly not least, the number of complexity of moving models would play an important role in the development of the McDonnell douglas Helicopter company Visual System Analysis and Demonstration data base.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

Order it from I/ITSEC’s Website.

 


Terrain Independent Feature Modeling

L. Charles Clark and Michael A. Cosman

Evans and Sutherland Computer Corporation

 

Historically, much of the time and expense of developing visual environment databases has occurred in the process of customizing three-dimensional features to fit properly on the terrain skin, and this interdependence has often imposed limitations in terrain fidelity and teature placement and density.  A new Evans and Sutherland system performs this terrain/feature marriage in real-time with special feature-comforming processes which are implemented in the CIG hardware and which rely on depth-buffer visual priority solution.  This allows modelers to optimize the terrain model for maximum fidelity, and create and organize the feature overlay without regard for the topography of the underlying terrain, greatly simplifying feature design and placement.  Modelers can work at much higher levels of abstraction, while generating visual environments which are more accurate and realistic.

 

This paper describes a new set of modeling strategies which convert high-level feature representations into displayable databases.  Broad-brush feature descriptions such as DMA DFAD or 2851 can be rapidly transformed into compact data structures which create dense high-fidelity visual environments.  Geo-Typical and Geo-Specific features can both be readily accommodated where mandated by mission requirements, and advanced hardware instancing modes allow features to be highly customized with each placement, achieving high compression of the feature database.  The development process may be largely automated, and feature and terrain production can be performed in parallel, greatly reducing database development time and cost.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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Psychophysical Approach to Visual Display Acceptance

LCDR Michael G. Lilienthal

Naval Air Systems Command

 

There has been a rapid development in photo-based generated imagery for flight simulators without an accompanying development of knowledge, test, and acceptance criteria.  Trainer design engineers have developed visual displays based on years of previous experience rather than upon aircrew visual phychophysical requirements.  The criterion for the merit of a display has relied heavily on the acceptance of the visual system by a few experienced aviators and program managers.  Visual scientists and psychophysicists have played a minor role in deciding how and what visual information must be displayed in a simulator to ensure that the scene provides the proper cues to accomplish the training tasks.

 

This paper presents a review of several Navy performance specifications for visual flight simulators and proposes a psychophysical scaling test and acceptance approach for visual cue requirements.  The move to photo-based systems with increased texturing fulfills part of the requirement for visual scene cues.  However, the visual systems must not only generate the proper number of leaves on trees, but they must give the aircrew sufficient dynamic visual cues.  The aircrew should receive the same psychophysical cues that are needed in actual aircraft flights.  These include, for example, the same depth cues, vection, velocity cues, perceptual experience, and closure cues as experienced in flight operations.  Highly reliable direct psychophysical measurement techniques are proposed as part of the test and acceptance protocol for such visual flight simulators.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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The Automated Systems Approach to Training (ASAT)

W. R. MacDiarmid and Patrice Pierce, SAIC

Dr. Ray Perez, Army Research Center

 

This paper describes ASAT, the Automated systems Approach to Training System, which has been designed to automate many of the procedures involved in the Army’s Systems approach to training.  It provides information on the background of the project, specifically addressing the problems that heretofore confronted the training development community within the TRADOC school system in accomplishing their training support mission.  It describes the problems involved in analyzing units and the jobs of individual soldiers and designing, developing and producing training support materials (in both the collective and individual training arenas) for use by commanders, training managers, trainers and soldiers in active and Reserve Component units throughout the Army.  The functional design that emerged to resolve those problems is then discussed and the capabilities of the prototype system are explained.  Specific issues such as hardware suites, use of commercial-off-the-shelf software, man-machine interface, and data base design are addressed.  The paper then goes on to give the results of the economic analysis and the formative evaluation of the prototype system.  Based on those empirical findings, the paper then presents suggestions for making ASAT even more responsive to the needs of those involved in collective and individual training analysis, design and development and how the mature ASAT can be integrated into the TRADOC TRAMOD system

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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Recommended Procedures for Implementing Cost-Effective Embedded Training into Operational Equipment

L. Bruce McDonald, Ph.D., University of Central Florida

JoAnn C. Rullo, University of Central Florida

 

With the increased sophistication of weapons systems and the reduced funds for operating these systems, the military is experiencing significant skill degradation, leading to degraded combat readiness.  Embedded Training has been proposed as a solution to this problem and substantial research is underway to develop efficient Embedded Training design principles.  However, large numbers of weapons systems are currently in development and the designers need guidance now on how to design Embedded Training into those systems.

 

This paper presents an approach for determining the most cost-effective training capabilities to embed into the operational equipment.  This approach is based on the consolidation of research in the areas of Embedded Training and skill degradation.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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A Process to Evaluate Training Media Alternatives

Dr. Erik S. Hougland and Dr. Dennis S. Duke

Naval Training Systems Center

 

This paper describes a process used to evaluate various types of media used in a training organization.  The process used as its basis a training device selection model that incorporates concepts of training effectiveness, technical efficiency and cost into an algorithm in order to determine the most effective training device(s) to be utilized in a training situation.  This algorithm uses weighted scores as a basis for determining an optimal rank ordering in the three categories of training effectiveness, technical efficiency and cost.  The final determination of which media are the most effective in training students is made by the analysis team utilizing data provided by the model.  This paper provides a description of how the process was used by the analysis team in evaluating the training situation at the Marine Corps Security Force battalion.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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Applying DOD-STD-2167A

James O’Day

Hughes Flight Simulation Operations

 

DOD-STD-2167A is rapidly becoming an international defacto standard for software development in the defense industry.  This is largely due to the size of the Department of Defense market for software intensive applications and the lack of a readily available and more widely accepted standard for software development.  At the same time DOD-STD-2167A is on its way to becoming one of the most widely used standards, it is also one of the least understood software development standards in history.   Misconceptions and confusion about the application and tailoring of DOD-STD-2167A are common and stem from a variety of factors.  This paper will discuss some of these factors as well as issues, potential pitfalls, and approaches to applying DOD-STD-2167A.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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Combining Real-Time and Time-Sharing Services on a Multiprocessor

Zira Aral, Ilya Gertner, and Dave Mitchell

Encore Computer Corporation

 

Multiprocessor systems offer a unique opportunity to provide general-purpose time-sharing services without sacrificing the deterministic behavior and minimal latencies required for real-time applications.  It is possible to achieve this by partitioning the set of processors into two parts:  (1) part is dedicated to time-sharing; (2) part is dedicated to real-time computations and control.  Many existing approaches to real-time operating systems are based on modifying the base operating systems in order to meet the real-time constraints.  The result is an environment that is both very costly to develop and maintain. Our approach combines the time-sharing and real-time services in a unique way; traditional time-sharing services continue to run as part of the operating system; while real-time services are implemented at a user-level that run on top of the dedicated set of processes called gangs.  The result is a system that provides all traditional operating services (on System V) and still provides real-time services (for flight simulators).

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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An Inter Task Protocol for a Multi-Processor Simulator

Ken Fearn and Graham Shanks

Marconi Simulation

A Business Unit of  Marconi Command and Control Systems, Limited

 

The paper looks at the relative merits of multi-processor and single-processor architectures and then describes an architecture, which promises to confer the benefits of multi-processor designs without incurring the traditional penalties.  This architecture is built around an Inter Task Protocol (ITP) which is independent of language, operating system and hardware, and can therefore be implemented in any computing environment.  The ITP provides a consistent method for any program/task/process within a simulator to talk to any other, either within a single processor or transparently across processor boundaries.  The ITP is true to the aims of Object Orientated Design in that it encourages the larger units of a simulator (program/task/process) to be self-contained and only accessible through a well-defined interface, which totally hides the implementation of the function.

 

The second part of the paper looks at how ITP has been applied within a large simulator employing a mixed architecture of Ada on 68020 processors and C in MS-Windows on 80386 PCs.  The problems of implementation of the protocol will be examined, especially with respect to Ada and how this impinges on the tasking mechanisms, the operating systems and the underlying network.  Finally an assessment is offered of the success, or failure, of the ITP in regard to achieving the initial objectives:

 

·         Provide an environment for the development of an individual sub-system in isolation from the remainder of the system.

 

·         Provide an architecture, which imposes no software hindrances to growth over more hardware.

 

·         Provide a route to simple and pain free integration of the sub-systems into a complete system.

 

·         Encourage the design of re-usable tasks.

 

·         Reduce the risks involved in developing a large system.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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Network Requirements for Distributed Tactical Training

Thomas L. Gehl and Joseph J. Brann, Ph.D

IBM Corporation

 

The Department of Defense (DOD) has many individual and crew trainers that provide high-fidelity full- and part-task training for a specific element or sub-element of its weapons system.  With the exception of the Simulation Network (SIMNET) suite of tank trainers, most DOD trainers are not sufficiently interconnected to provide simulated battle environment tactical training.  Recently, in workshops such as Standards for the Interoperability of Defense Simulations, the DOD emphasized the need for interoperable training systems across the armed services.  To satisfy this demand, the DOD and industry are currently working together to develop a real-time network protocol standard that has major implications on the development of future training systems.  Network simulation is an innovative and exciting solution to many training needs, which have a broad range of network requirements.  The network requirements need to be specified for each training application to determine the implications of interoperable simulation.

 

This paper will define some network requirements for tactical training.  We will first discuss the user’s needs that we determined from our involvement with the Naval Training Systems Center, the Project Manager of Training devices, the Naval Oceans system Center, the Naval Sea systems Command, the Integrated systems Test, and the current standards process.  From the user’s needs, we will specify network requirements that address the issues of mediums, interfaces, bandwidths, costs, latencies, protocols, and expansion.  Finally, we will discuss our experience of integrating commercial technologies, government standards, and university research into a network prototype to study the effects of network simulation.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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Shipboard Training Control–An Approach for Networking Multiple Embedded and Appended Shipboard Trainers

Robin M. Rouleau

AAI Corporation

 

Meeting the challenge of providing more efficient naval training requires that the effectiveness of the existing embedded, appended, and pierside training devices be improved so that they can provide total training to combat system personnel.  By appropriate interconnection of these trainers, combat system teams can train together in a coordinated exercise without leaving their ships.  The approach chosen is to connect training devices associated with a particular ship into a central shipboard node.  This node is connected to other nodes, hence other ships’ trainers, via the Navy’s local/long haul simulation network.  Hardware and software is designed so that it can be adapted to stimulate many trainers with minor reconfiguration.  Important features of the controller include the capability to generate and run scenarios and to support shipboard display and control of the tactical situation using touch screen displays.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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The Standardization of Protocol Data Units for Interoperability of Defense Simulations

L. Bruce McDonald, Ph.D., Christina Pinon, Robert Glasgow, and Karen Danisas

University of Central Florida

 

The SIMNET program has been a pioneer in “multi-interconnected-simulator” training for the Army.  As the benefits of this training have been demonstrated, the Department of defense (DOD) community has recognized a need for more training of this type and therefore wants to interconnect the current inventory of simulators in a manner similar to SIMNET.  In an attempt to answer this need, a standardization process was begun to allow greater interoperability of defense simulations.  This project is funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects agency (DARPA) and administered by the Army Project Manager for Training Devices (PMTRADE).  The current mission at the Institute for simulation and Training (IST) is to develop a standard for Protocol Data Units (PDU) on the application layer of the communications software.  The simulation PDU’s of the SIMNET protocol were considered as a baseline for this effort.  This paper discusses the approach taken for development of the Draft Standard, lists and describes the recommended PDU’s, and discusses other requirements for interoperability of defense simulations.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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Aircrew Strategy/Intent Detection System

Gregory R. Smith

Victory Integrated Systems, Inc.

 

Current generation simulator and range aircrew/aircraft performance measurement equipment have focused on the collection of time-space (e.g., range to target) data and major mission event (e.g., missile launch) data.  These data, while useful in terms of providing top-level win/loss information, lack sufficient fidelity to diagnose accurately pilot behavior and provide inadequate feedback to effective computer-assisted aircrew training without significant instructor post-processing.  Systems and algorithms which have the capacity to record and analyze detailed aircrew performance data to assess aircrew tasking must be developed for the full capability of computer-based training to be realized.  This paper reviews the work being performed at VICTORY to develop a prototype aircrew Strategy/Intent Detection system (ASIDS).  This system is being developed as an intelligent decision aid for training simulator instructors and operators.  While ASIDS is currently being developed for application in an aircraft training system environment, the concepts and techniques presented below are applicable to any complex man-machine training environment.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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Reduced Crew for Opposing Force Surrogate Vehicles at the National Training Center

David R. Baum, Ph.D.

Hughes Simulation Systems, Inc.

 

Kevin Boettcher, Ph.D.

Honeywell Systems and Research Center

 

Admiral S. Piper

United States Army Project Manager Training Devices

 

Major Ben Taylor

United States Army Combined Arms Training Activity

 

The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of reducing the crew of OPFOR surrogate vehicles at the National Training Center (NTC) from three to two through the introduction of automation.  Cooperative (blue force vehicle with beacon, transponder or reflector; OPFOR vehicle with cueing and line-of-sight sensors) and Non-Cooperative (Automated target Recognition) automation concepts for surveillance and target engagement functions were developed based on an analysis of current OPFOR crew tasks, and constraints and requirements of the NTC.  Parallel hardware/software tradeoffs, and human performance modeling efforts were undertaken.  The Baseline and Reduced-Crew configurations were demonstrated in a combat vehicle simulator.  The results show that a millimeter wave radar and Cooperative Beacon system for target cueing, augmented with low-light-level television for line-of-sight sensing is the preferred automation option, even though it is not a totally on-board, sefl-contained solution.  The modeling and simulation results indicate that the use of an automated gunner could potentially improve the OPFOR vehicle’s target engagement performance to an unacceptably high level.  If such a system were developed, it would have to be “tuned” to achieve realistic engagements, and implemented in such a way as to avoid the perception of unfair advantage for the OPFOR.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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Numerical Identification and Estimation–an Efficient Method for Improving Simulation Fidelity

Robert A. Hess and Bruce L. Hildreth

Systems Control Technology, Inc.

 

The total quality of simulation environments, measured in terms of realism, is largely a function of the fidelity of the mathematical models incorporated within the simulation. Modern aircraft simulations, especially high performance military aircraft, are extremely complex.  As such, it is difficult to improve their fidelity.

 

Modern numerical schemes for systems identification and parameter estimation provide simulation scientists and engineer a productive method for improving simulation fidelity.  Such techniques are capable of extracting accurate mathematical models of aircraft from flight data with much greater efficiency than can be realized using conventional analysis schemes (such as analogue matching).  Numerical identification and estimation (I&E) techniques are not only excellent means for developing aircraft aerodynamic models and propulsion models, but I*E techniques are nearly essential for insuring the quality of verification and validation (V&V) data collected during flight testing.

 

This paper discusses the application of numerical I&E techniques to math model fidelity improvement.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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Definition and Validation of the Flying Qualities and Performance Test Criteria for the Modern Operational Flight Trainer

Tom Humphrey and Mark Winters

Link Flight Simulation Division of CAE-Link Corporation

 

Modern flight training devices often require performance validation against actual aircraft flight test data to help produce realistic performance and handling qualities.  Prior to performing the trainer validation task, a significant analysis and manipulation effort is required to develop the flight test data into a complete and consistent set of test criteria.  By performing this comprehensive data analysis early in the program development, flight modeling validation problems can be identified, minimizing the risk of cost and schedule overruns.  This paper addresses the data analysis and development process performed on a modern helicopter flight trainer (AH-1W) using off-line software analysis tools, simulation modeling feedback, and extensive customer interaction.  Off-line software tools are used to rapidly and efficiently perform such tasks as identifying and resolving discrepancies in the test data base, performing polynomial curve fits and data extrapolations, normalizing similar data sets, and graphically comparing data acquired from different maneuvers and from different aircraft.  The paper addresses how the trainer flight simulation model can be used to adjust or establish trends in the data or to resolve conflicts between similar data sets from different sources.  The necessity of extensive customer involvement in this iterative test criteria definition process is stressed.  The discussion concludes with specific recommendations on the data acquisition and analysis process, based on lessons learned, including the application of trainer specification tolerances.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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The Simulation of the Dynamic Interaction of a Hovercraft Entering a Support Ship Well Deck

Mark E. Donner

Hughes Simulation Systems, Inc.

Training and Control System Division, Flight Simulation Operations

 

The Landing Craft, air cushion (LCAC) is an amphibious hovercraft that the United States Navy uses to transport materials from a support ship in open ocean to land.  A critical part of these ship-to-shore maneuvers is the entry/egress of the LCAC into and out of the well deck of the support ship.  The objective of this paper is to present the algorithms used to model the dynamics of the Landing Craft, air cushion hovercraft as it travels from open ocean, into the support ship’s dynamic wake, and eventually docks in the well deck of the support ship.  The interaction of the LCAC and support ship with the ocean is modeled using an animated sea state.  The dynamics of the LCAC within the support ship’s wake and well deck area are modeled using the elevation profile of the modeled support ship.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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The Implementation of the Landing Craft, Air Cushion (LCAC) Full Mission Trainer (FMT) Land Dynamics Reaction to Terrain

Jeanne S. Class

Hughes Simulation Systems, Inc.

Training and Control System Division, Flight Simulation Operations

 

The Landing Craft, Air Cushion (LCAC) vehicle is a Navel hovercraft that operates in both a sea and terrain environment.  Riding on a 5 foot pressurized cushion of air contained by a skirt system, the craft performance is determined by the nature of the terrain beneath it.  The LCAC Full Mission Trainer, produced by Hughes Simulation Systems, Inc., simulates the craft performance over undulating ground and obstructions on the ground.  This paper presents how the terrain database is generated and how the craft cushion dynamics is modeled.  A discussion of how the modeling of the craft cushion dynamics uses escape areas between the skirt bottom and the ground and volumes of air within the cushion to determine airflow and cushion pressures is presented.  The coefficient of friction implementation for the type of terrain is also discussed.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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Selecting a Geographic Interface for Air Traffic Control Radar Simulation

Ralph E. Whitney, Jr.

Motorola MCD

 

Thomas B. Allen

Contraves USA * SSI

 

The 15G33 Air Traffic Control Proficiency training System (APTS) is a desktop air traffic control trainer currently being developed by Contraves USA – SSI.  The demanding graphics requirements of the APTS necessitate a high-performance 2D graphics interface.  The G-LIB interface was developed as a dual effort between Motorola and Contraves-SSI to optimize performance for the APTS graphics hardware architecture.  G-LIB performance was then measured against a standard Computer Graphics Interface (CGI) software package.  This paper presents the technical findings of a functionality and performance comparison of the CGI graphics standard and the G-LIB interpreter interface to the TI 34010 graphics library.  Both 2D graphical interfaces execute on the same intelligent graphics processor board.  Performance of both graphical interfaces is compared using the same adaptive Search radar (ASR) simulation model as a benchmark.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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Mission Rehearsal Database Requirements and Technologies

Kenneth B. Donovan, Ph.D.

GE Aerospace

Simulation and Control Systems Department

 

Mission rehearsal simulators require geographic databases, which represent the simulated gaming area, threats, and targets.  Although these mission rehearsal databases are similar to databases created for traditional training simulators, the unique needs of the mission rehearsal application for database currency, fidelity, and correlation are driving the database generation system technology of the 1990’s.  In most areas, a close integration of existing database technologies from the simulator training community and the image processing community will address the need.  In a few areas, the technologies must be improved in order to support mission rehearsal.  This paper defines the key requirements of mission rehearsal databases and the technologies, which are being, developed to produce mission rehearsal databases for operation by mid-1990.  The technologies will benefit the training community as well, by reducing the cost and schedule required to develope training simulator databases.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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From Source Materials to Data Bases–Higher Fidelity at Lower Cost

Dr. Heiner D.P. Biesel

Evans and Sutherland Computer Corporation

 

Image Generators (IG’s) of today can produce real-time imagery of remarkable complexity and fidelity.  Databases can cover multiple states, and can support sensor imagery as well as visual flight.  However, as the capacity of IG’s to produce more realistic imagery has increased, training requirements have expanded the range of tasks for which simulators are being used.

 

The requirements of mission rehearsal (MR) complicate matters by demanding the capability to create complex databases in a very short time.  These requirements collectively demand a fresh look at how data bases can be built, and how to harness new technologies to automate as much of the data base generation task as possible.

 

This paper briefly reviews the history of image generators and surveys existing methods for generating data bases, examines means by which these can be streamlined, and reviews several technologies which can be used to automate various aspects of the generation of visual and sensor data bases.  These techniques rely largely upon using photographic and sensor imagery to create both the structure and the content of databases.  For example, photogrammetry can be used to create both terrain and feature geometry directly from photos, while computer vision and image processing techniques can ease the task of identifying and placing features in the database.  The rigid time constraints of mission rehearsal require new methods of planning and monitoring the many tasks of turning a mission plan and a pile of photographs and maps into a usable database.  These and related technologies will form the core of the data base generation systems of the 1990’s.

 

In addition, certain innovations in IG architecture can remove some constraints that have complicated data base creation in the past.  A range-buffer architecture simplifies modeling of features by eliminating separating planes, while the introduction of global texture coverage provides a convenient means of mapping large photo-mosaics to the terrain shape.  By treating features and terrain as separate entities, and merging the two automatically in the IG, level-of-detail management and the conformance of features to terrain shape are greatly simplified.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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Modeling Systems Software Architecture

William C. Roach and John N. Callen

Evans and Sutherland Computer

 

This paper describes a new modeling systems software architecture designed to achieve substantial reductions in cost and lead time for the development and maintenance of visual and sensor simulation databases, and of modeling tools themselves.  Components of the architecture include device-independent data formats and an application tool kit supporting a flexible and user-friendly human interface.  The approach allows modular software functionality to be bundled and flexibly scaled over a wide range of modeling platforms to suit customer needs and budgets.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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Micro-Computer/Array Processor System Design for Active Sonar Simulation

T.P. Magnani and C.J. Paroskie

Link Simulation Operations, CAE-Link Corporation

 

The active acoustic simulation was implemented for the AN/SQS-53C Hull Mounted Sonar System using simulation models and signal generation algorithms completely implemented in software and executed on general purpose array and data processors.  The software requirements are hosted by a VME-bus based system comprised entirely of commercial-off-the-shelf units featuring 60 MFLOPS/3 MIPS of processing power, over 21 Mbytes of memory, standard interfaces, a real-time multi-tasking operating system, and spare provisions for future growth.  The system is a common modular design having potential for reuse in the simulation of other acoustic and non-acoustic sensors, of multiple contact/multiple sensor systems requiring relative positioning, and of many other computationally intensive software systems.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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Weapons Team Engagement Simulator

Albert H. Marshall, Robert T. McCormack, Edward J. Purvis, Ronald S. Wolff,

Naval Training Systems Center

 

The Naval Training Systems Center is developing a Weapons team engagement trainer that will allow up to nine people to practice and rehearse close combat training exercises such as low-intensity conflict, light infantry, SWAT and security operations.  Typical events might include security operations, hostage rescue, shoot-no-shoot, ambush training situations and routine law enforcement operations in a common team scenario environment.  The trainer requires no live ammunition or aggressor actors and is safe.

 

This paper highlights new technology that was developed to make this trainer more realistic than similar currently available trainers.  Improved realism is achieved in this trainer by causing the targets to interact when killed.  Killed targets disappear from the scenario and permit branching of the video scene, based on the teams performance.  Targets shoot-back at the trainees who wear infrared sensors to detect if they took sensible cover when the aggressor shoots.  If a trainee is wounded or killed by the aggressor, an alarm warns him and his weapon is disabled.  Interactive targets and aggressor shoot back serve to increase training realism and stress.  To eventually accommodate up to nine shooters, a high-speed infrared spot tracker was developed to allow all nine team shooters to operate in a common threat scenario.

 

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Meeting the Avionics Maintenance Training Objectives with Simulation–The E-6 Integrated Avionics Trainer

Pamela P. Valdez

Boeing Aerospace and Electronics

 

Norman Coombes and Stephen Mellors

Rediffusion Simulation, Ltd.

 

Simulated flight deck avionics training equipment provides a realistic, safe, controllable environment required to meet sophisticated avionics maintenance training objectives.  The E-6 Integrated Avionics Trainer is a fully modeled, high fidelity, three dimensional, simulated and stimulated actual equipment trainer providing maintenance training for the United States Navy’s E-6 avionics and electrical maintenance technicians.  Flight simulator technology provided the baseline for this sophisticated maintenance simulator to meet the concurrent trainer, aircraft, course curriculum and technical manual delivery schedule.  The trainer provides integrated on-ground maintenance training for 29 flight deck avionics systems, at any airport, with the capability of simultaneously injecting up to 10 of a possible 300 faults.  This paper will address the design issues associated with simulating the vast dichotomy of flight deck avionics and support equipment technology found on the derivative Boeing 707 aircraft, as well as the design considerations necessary for a flexible maintenance training environment.

 

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Automated Adaptive Instruction for Embedded Training

Thomas F. Carolan and Kent E. Williams

University of Central Florida

 

Richard E. Reynolds

Naval Training Systems Center

 

Empirical evidence from cognitive learning research suggests guidelines for structuring instructional information in a manner which is consistent with the way people process it.  A cognitive engineer5ing process based on these guidelines was used to restructure the content of an existing embedded training lesson.  A heuristic was developed to select and adaptively sequence the most appropriate exercises for the individual trainee based upon the individual’s history of performance.  An experimental evaluation of the effectiveness of the cognitively engineered instructional content and the adaptive sequencing strategy was conducted.  Trainees using the cognitively engineered lesson made 65 percent fewer errors on a performance test than the control group.  The results also demonstrate that adaptive exercise sequencing will increase both the effectiveness and efficiency of computer based training.  These results are discussed in the context of the application of intelligent tutoring system research to embedded training.

 

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Automatic Scenario Generation and Control for Tactical Training Systems of the 1990’s

Dr. Robert H. Ahlers, LCDR Richard Campbell, and Barbara J. Pemberton

Naval Training Systems Center

 

New concepts are required for effective utilization of tactical training systems of the 1990’s.  A ten-fold increase in the number of tracks* currently simulated for tactical training systems is a requirement.  However, no corresponding increase in the number of training system instructors to generate or control training system scenarios using this increased number of tracks is anticipated.  This paper presents the results of a research study, and describes ongoing development activities, that address two new concepts to meet the increasing demands on tactical training system instructors:  automatic scenario generation, and automatic scenario control (Figure 1).  Specific topics presented include fleet requirements for training systems scenarios of the 1990’s, followed by a discussion of recommendations for automation of the scenario generation, and scenario control processes to achieve these requirements.

 

*track – information displayed and controlled at a training system instructor console, i.e., ships, aircraft, missiles, electronic warfare data, etc.

 

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Using ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) in a Maintenance Diagnostics and Training Simulator

Frances L. Grant, Ed.D.

Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center

 

Robert G. Main, Ph.D.

California State University, Chico

 

Issues regarding maintenance skills acquisitions are vital to the development of competent technical personnel.  This presentation discusses a model for an embedded training component for equipment operation, maintenance, diagnostics and repair.  Embedded in the equipment, the system model uses automated diagnostic equipment, relational data bases and an expert system to provide a multi-level training system for operators and maintenance technicians for emergency trouble shooting, repair, and periodic maintenance.  The model uses an inference engine with a knowledge base of data from technical manuals, procedures and rules used by experts required for operation, maintenance, and trouble shooting.  The system will receive a dynamic input from equipment sensoring devices (or from a fault producing program for the training mode) and will respond interactively with the operator/technician.  The system will learn from experience and change the maintenance procedures based upon computed statistical probabilities.  Issues regarding state-of-the-art in expert systems applications, intelligent tutoring systems, machine learning and human machine communication needed for the model will be discussed.

 

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Application of FDDI/XTP Network Protocols to Distributed Simulation

M. Bassiouni

Department of Computer Science

University of Central Florida

 

 Jack Thompson

The Institute for Simulation and Training (IST)

University of Central Florida

 

Recent breakthroughs in communications technology have led to the emergence of new network protocols with unprecedented high speeds.  Two such protocols are the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and the eXpress Transmission Protocol (XTP).  In this paper, we present the results of an ongoing performance evaluation project to study/assess the evolution of real-time training networks (e.g., SIMNET) to FDDI and XTP.  Both the long-range and short-range design policies for the integration of these high-speed protocols into simulation networks are considered.  Gatewaying methods specially tailored for FDDI backbones connecting multiple local-area simulation networks are discussed.  The implications of the results and the insight gained from our project for improving the networking of real-time simulators are discussed.

 

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Implementations of Ethernet-Like Protocols Utilizing ETHERNET Technology for Real Time Simulation Networking

Nicos Christou and Michael Georgiopoulos

Department of Electrical Engineering

University of Central Florida

 

Yousuf C. H. Ma

Department of Computer Engineering

University of Central Florida

 

Jack Thompson

The Institute for Simulation and Training (IST)

University of Central Florida

 

Recent advances in computer and communication technologies have made possible the interconnection of a large number of real-time simulators via local area networks.  One of the most popular network access protocols is Ethernet.  In this paper we discuss some of the limitations of the Ethernet protocol when it is used to interconnect real-time simulation devices.  We also introduce two modifications of Ethernet called Ethernet-1 and Ethernet-2 that remedy some of the shortcomings of the Ethernet protocol.  It is worth noting that Ethernet-1 and Ethernet-2 are implementable in hardware.

 

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ON THE ROLE OF DISTRIBUTED ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) IN LARGE SCALE NETWORK SIMULATION

Hung T. Le, Ph.D.

International Business Machines Corporation

Federal Sector Division

 

In this paper, we look at the possible role for a Distributed Artificial Intelligence (Distributed AI) concept to be applied in a large scale networked training environment.  Here a battle conditions environment would consist of many intelligent simulators, each of which is equipped with different, but possibly overlapping expertise.  The goal is to coordinate these battle forces in such a way as to carry out an offensive attack.  The motivation for developing and applying a distributed AI concept seems clear since the problem of a large scale network simulation is, itself, inherently distributed.

 

We will first introduce the critical role of Distributed AI in a large-scale simulation environment in terms of knowledge, goals, skills, and coordination for the intelligent simulators.  Some basic concepts in Distributed AI will be presented together with a number of ongoing research studies in distributed intelligence.  We will then give a few domain examples in battlefield simulation, and describe how Distributed AI methodologies may be explored in such diverse environments.  Finally, we will look at the advantages and disadvantages of Distributed AI as a viable technology for distributed training.  A large conceptual framework will be used in the analysis of difficulties and possibilities of  Distributed AI as applied in the distributed training system environment.

 

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Electric Control Landing–A Low Cost, High Performance Alternative

Stephen A. Baigrie

Reflectone, Inc.

 

The simulation industry’s conventional solution to the problem of providing flight control feel forces in a training device is based on hydraulic loading systems.  The current state of the art in such control loading systems consists of a hydrostatic actuator controlled by a closed loop digital system.  While the performance of these systems meets all training requirements, the cost of such systems remains high.  Today’s highly competitive simulation marketplace demands reduced costs.  Considering current digital control loading systems, the hydraulic components (hydrostatic actuators, hydraulic plumbing, pumps, and valves) are a major recurring cost.   Replacing these hydraulic components with an alternative active loading system has the possibility of significantly lowering recurring costs.  In addition there has been an increasing trend in the industry to non-motion based specialty trainers, in which case a non-hydraulic solution is an advantage.

 

An electric motor based approach to the control loading problem is presented in this paper.  Several systems using this approach have been developed to date, but have not exhibited the performance and fidelity to warrant consideration in most high fidelity training devices.  The paper discusses an electric control loading system with performance that rivals current hydraulic systems.  Particular emphasis is placed on the design considerations, the mechanics of the loader design, the electronics required, and the software algorithms developed.  System performance is appraised against FAA PHASE II standards.  The cost advantages and the applicability to various training devices is also examined.

 

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DC Servo-Motors for High Performance, High Reliability Control Loading in Flight Simulators

Roger E. Eyermann, Bruce L. Hildreth, and Dr. Thomas Trankle

Systems Control Technology, Inc.

 

Nearly all piloted aircraft training simulations currently in use employ hydraulic control loading systems.  Recent advances in DC servo-motor technology from the robotics industry, however, have resulted in systems that provide the performance of hydraulic actuators at a reduction in life cycle costs.  The system performance requirements are met using pilot force feedback, microprocessor-based closed loop pilot force control, and a model following control algorithm.  The cost reductions are a result of lower part count, lower manufacturing tolerances, lower moving part count, and no hydraulic fluid.

 

This paper discusses features of DC servo-motor systems applicable to the flight simulation control loading problem.

 

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A Midi-Based Aural Simulation System

James Mazanowski

Reflectone, Inc.

 

An aural simulation system which takes advantage of the standard Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) provides improved performance and greater flexibility in recreating the sound environment of a device being simulated.  Traditional methods of generating aural cues using additive synthesis techniques have proven to be costly and often ineffective in accurately simulating complex sounds, due to a limited number of harmonic-producing elements and envelope shapes available for each sound.  In the MIDI-based approach, aural cues are produced by digital sampling modules under the control of a dedicated microcomputer with built-in MIDI controllers.  The sampling modules have a large amount of memory, and are capable of playing back loops of actual recorded sounds, as well as loops produced from mathematically generated waveforms or synthesizers.  The MIDI interface, which was originally designed as a communications link between electronic musical instruments, is also well suited to aural simulation tasks, since it contains all the commands necessary for sound effects activation and manipulation in real-time.  These commands, which include note on and off (used for enabling and disabling playback of samples), pitch bending, and channel pressure (used for amplitude changes), allow any type of aural cue to be generated.  Cross-fading among multiple samples is used to reproduce dynamically varying aural cues with great accuracy.  Transient and steady state aural cues are programmed quickly and are reproduced with relatively short samples.  This paper describes the hardware and software implementation of the MIDI-based aural simulation system, and how it provides a more realistic and cost-effective reproduction of the simulator sound environment.  Emphasis is placed on the integration of sound analysis and sample manipulation tools into the system, and on details of managing MIDI command transfers in real-time.

 

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Development and Evaluation of Eye Tracker Performance for Use with the Fiber Optic Helmet Mounted Display

Melvin L. Thomas

Air Force Human Resources Laboratory

 

Dr. Paul A. Wetzel

University of Dayton Research Institute

 

Terrence T. Williams

CAE Electronics

 

To quantitatively evaluate the performance of eye tracking systems for use with the fiber Optic Helmet Mounted Display, eye movement experiments were conducted in both the laboratory and in the helmet and the results were compared.  Experimental methods for evaluation of an eye tracker system are described and data are presented which characterize the present performance of the eye tracker system.

 

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Two Approached for Implementing Full color Helmet Mounted Display Suitable for Training and Research

William S. Beamon, Ph.D.

General Electric Company

 

Russell V. Parrish

NASA Langley Reasearch Center

 

The use of monochrome Helmet Mounted display (HMD) systems is becoming prevalent in today’s complex flight mission environment.  These HMD systems are often implemented in flight vehicles as integrated multifunction displays for flight, weapon, and sensor systems information.  The display formats have been primitive in terms of graphic capabilities, being confined by the stroke, with limited raster-fill, technology employed.  However, many of the emerging concepts for advanced displays are predicated on raster formats, with full color, high resolution images, to be presented with stereoscopic cueing in wide Field of view (FOV) displays, fused with sensor imagery or sensor-based information.  Full color capability is utilized not only as an additional information coding process, but also for increased image realism and for display declutter.  Moreover, the use of stereopsis cueing for enhanced situational awareness and display declutter is often an integral part of these advanced concepts.

 

This paper will describe the derivation of two methods to achieve a high resolution, full color, wide FOV, stereopsis HMD system.  The first method provides a near-term, inexpensive and practical design for a color upgrade to an existing monochrome HMD, and the second method provides a longer term approach using a laser-scanned, fiber coupled system.

 

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Advanced Raster/Calligraphic CRT Projector

J. Page and E. Sims

General Electric Aerospace

Simulation and Control Systems Department

 

M. McCormack

Link-Miles, Limited

Technical Development Department

 

GE and Link-Miles, Ltd. have jointly developed an advanced CRT projector for use in wide field of view (FOV) flight simulators.  The projector has a very high resolution raster, supplemented with a calligraphic point light capability.  An all-digital correction system was developed to provide the necessary flexibility, accuracy, and stability.  Included are geometric and shading corrections necessary to accurately match and blend channels during installation and maintenance activities.  This paper reviews the decisions made during the design of the projector and presents the results of the development.  Particular attention is given to constraints in using CRT projectors in wide FOV visual systems that require numerous projectors to be mounted inside a done.  Maintainability, as well as performance features, is reviewed since they are of major importance in training system applications.

 

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Semi-Automated Force Simulation Using a Blackboard

Frederick Frantz and Kermit Gates

PAR Government Systems Corporation

 

Simulation of opposing and ancillary forces is a critical issue in training environments such as SIMNET and the Combat Training Centers.  This paper addresses a general architecture for developing semi-automated force simulations, based on expert system and blackboard technology.

 

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The Application of Artificial Neural Systems to the Training of Air Combat Decision-Making Skills

Michael X. Crowe

Ball Systems Engineering Division

 

The Air force Human Resources Laboratory (AFHRL) has established a program to design, develop, and validate an expert model of pilot decision-making in Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM) to be used in the training of fighter aircraft pilots.  The intent of this program is to create a computer-based simulation, which can encapsulate the expertise of combat pilots in ACM strategy, tactics, and offensive and defensive decision-making.  The resulting expert system is to be incorporated into a flight simulation package to support the training of these ACM skills to student combat pilots.  The development of the ACM Expert System is based on the latest advancements in the technology of Artificial Neural systems (ANS).

 

To effectively train student combat pilots in ACM skills, it is desirable to move beyond the textbook, allowing the student to interact with a simulated adversary aircraft via computer.  Unfortunately, it is difficult to capture ACM expertise in computer software, which will provide the student with realistic and reasonable adversary behavior.  Most existing systems are “pre-canned” profiles or simple trajectory generators.  The more advanced adversary simulators are rule-based expert systems to represent and recall pilot expertise and create a more reactive system.  However, traditional expert systems suffer from major inadequacies, which have limited their success.  By using an ANS approach to this problem, actual human ACM performance data is being used to “train” an expert system in ACM decision-making skills.  This system is capable of simulating human ACM performance by learning to associate the recognition of a tactical situation with the selection of the proper course of action.  The objective of this paper is to describe current efforts to apply ANS technology to the training of ACM decision-making skills.

 

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The Benefits of Desktop Rapid Prototyping

Cynthia Hubbell, Tony Mancuso, and Dale Wainwright

Hughes Aircraft Company

Ground System Group

 

Navy combat system users have experienced an information explosion as the end of product of recent technology advances.  The by-product is an increase in the complexity of operation of these systems.  Accordingly, a requirement has surfaced to provide an advance disclosure of the man-machine interface approach to illustrate a selected subset of the operator input and display capabilities.  However, the use of custom design hardware and software can be prohibitively expensive in today’s defense environment.  Fortunately, with the improved processing capabilities of today’s desktop computers, combined with the availability and affordability of commercial software demonstration packages, an engineer can now be provided the tools necessary to mockup and demonstrate significant portions of a system’s man-machine interface design in very short time, as significantly less expense.

 

This paper describes the advantages of using desktop computer systems to provide a low-cost rapid prototyping capability for the evaluation of the man-machine interface design of complex training systems.  The example presented in this paper provided cost savings of 75 percent over the cost to program the target hardware.  Furthermore, the cost savings were achieved despite delivery of a significantly more complete disclosure of the man-machine interface.

 

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Using Speech Recognition in Real-Time Training SystemS FiNding the Balance

Lynne M. Pusanik and Robert A. Rejent

Tactical and Training Systems Division

Logicon, Incorporated

 

Many new technologies are being implemented to enhance training system effectiveness, particularly in phraseology applications such as air traffic control (ATC).  One of these technologies, speech recognition, provides both unique challenges to the developer and unique benefits to the user of the system.  This paper shows that requirements for good speech recognition and for good overall training are not mutually exclusive.  Specific issues will be addressed, including the development of an appropriate training phraseology as well as common concerns of the user.  Guidelines for attaining acceptable recognition accuracy will be provided along with some different methods for quantifying accuracy.  Examples of air traffic control phraseology are used in this presentation with specific references to the Shore Based Radar ATC Training System (SATS), the Advanced Shipboard ATC Training system (ASATS), and the Tower Operator Training System (TOTS).

 

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Applying Mathematical Modeling technology to the Study of Team Training and Performance

Michael D. Coovert,

Department of Psychology, University of South Florida

 

Janis A. Cannon-Bowers and Eduardo Salas

Naval Training Systems Center

 

Mathematical modeling technologies hold promise as an approach for providing training system designers with critical information regarding human behavior in complex systems.  Such information is useful in researching training principles, defining instructional strategies, developing performance measures and establishing diagnostic and feedback mechanisms.  An area that is particularly complex for training system designers involves multi-operator systems, where an understanding of individual human performance must be augmented by an understanding of team performance and functioning.  To date, several approaches have been proposed to model team performance, but further methodological advances are needed.  The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of Petri nets, a mathematical modeling technique, as a means to model complex team functioning and as a basis to develop team performance measures.

 

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Threat Databases–are we Repeating Ourselves?

A. Edward Dietz

AAI Corporation

 

Threat databases are a recurring problem in the training industry.  Many trainers need them.  Many agencies have them.  Unfortunately the agencies that have them often are not the agency buying the trainer.  And the agency that has the electrical characteristics is different from the one that has missile models and aircraft performance characteristics.  Also, there is a different set of agencies for native versus other types of threats.  Nor is the database likely to be oriented to trainer needs.

 

This paper provides an organized tutorial on threat database problems and some practical suggestions for users, agencies, and contractors on using them.  Steps are addressed for pre-proposal, development, and testing phases of a program.  Some practical examples of solutions to parts of the problem (e.g., incomplete data and limited test time) are supplied.  Approaches for the composition of threat list requirements are suggested.  Methods to overcome the administrative headaches are also included.  The necessity for close cooperation and coordination between industry and Government is discussed.

 

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Teamwork–An Acquisition Management Approach for Networking Trainers

Craig R. Bradenbaugh

AAI Corporation

 

Recent trainer development programs have provided our forces with a number of good combat system and subsystem trainers.  With the increased capabilities in microprocessors and protocols, Government and industry now face the technical and management challenge of networking trainers of varying levels of fidelity to increase our total training capability.  This requires teamwork from the government, sponsors, users, and industry.  This was recently accomplished with the successful, low cost integration of the Device 20B5 Combat System Team Trainer and the AN/SQQ-89 ASW On Board Trainer.  This paper presents the important management issues and processes for successfully networking these two major United States Navy training systems.  Four Government agencies and two major industry contractors established a realistic technical approach, a budget, and a process to meet the programmed requirements.  The process included defining a low cost approach, conducting a proof-of-concept demonstration by rapid prototyping, and establishing disciplined rules for tradeoffs utilizing each trainer’s existing processing methods, thus avoiding the temptation to redesign or elevate the design.  Cooperation and good communications made these principles stick throughout the program via progress review formats that established achievable action items, and defined responsibility for each organization to keep the program objective.  As a result, the users were satisfied with the tradeoffs made, the trainers were integrated within 14 months, and performance, schedule, and cost objectives were met.  This approach and lessons learned provide some guidelines and direct applications for future networking of existing training systems as relatively low costs.  It is a management challenge as well as a technical challenge.

 

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Pilot Training for the European Fighter Aircraft–Getting it Right

Alan Parfitt

Science 3 (Air)

Ministry of Defense, United Kingdom

 

EFA is the first major RAF aircraft program where training issues have been systematically from an early stage.  Analysis studies, using Government and Contractor effort, have been conducted to define EFA pilot training needs and identify and assess options for meeting them.

 

The studies have provided means for generating a series of Training Packages.  For each Package the contribution made by aircraft hours and synthetic-training devices has been determined and the Package evaluated in terms of resource needs, training effectiveness and likely user acceptance.

 

Results are being used, to assist RAF decisions on the shape of the final training package and during discussions with EFA partner nations.

 

The views expressed in this paper are those of the author and not necessarily those of the United Kingdom Ministry of Defense.

 

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B-2 Simulator Acquisition
the Acquisition Strategy for the 90s

Major Edward J. Higgins, Jr.

Aircrew Training Devices Program Manager

B-2 System Program Office

Wright-Patterson Air Force Base

 

With the dramatic increase in aircraft complexity, the high cost per hour to fly these complex aircraft, and continued resistance to low altitude military training, a major change in the development of aircrew training devices is required.  No longer can the simulator serve as a procedural trainer; it must do much more.  The question is how best to procure a trainer that does do more.  Recently, there has been much written on the acquisition of weapon system trainers through the prime weapon system contractor.  Aside from the increase in cost, this approach can preclude the acquisition element and the user from making direct inputs into the training system development.  This can result in the delivery of a very expensive; capability limited training system to the user.  The associate contractor arrangement that CAE-Link has with Northrop on the B-2 program combined with some innovative training development concepts had made the B-2 Aircrew Training Device (ATD) procurement the model for future training system acquisition.  We in the B-2 program are in the process of building not only the most complex aircrew trainer yet, but at the same time, the best device for training crews.  The complexity of the B-2 Bomber requires nothing less.

 

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Planned Rapid Obsolescence of Training

LCDR Edward L. Sullivan

United States Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations

 

The rapid advance of electronic and information processing technology has shortened the effective life span of an increasing number of systems across all mission areas of the Navy.  Electronic micro-processors have become more prominent in systems, such as mechanical and steam systems, which have not traditionally been considered as affected by the electronic revolution.  Additionally, materials are in the early stages of a similar revolution.  Ceramics, and stronger, lightweight plastics, fiber optics and super-conductors all promise to radically change the way the Navy operates.  Traditional Navy life cycles of twenty years or more for weapons systems are likely only to be seen in big-ticket items such as hulls and airframes.  Systems smaller than these (including ship propulsion systems) are headed for more rapid technological obsolescence.  Technical Training Equipment (TTE), actual Fleet equipment used for training and Training Devices (TDs), systems which simulate fleet or adversary equipment, must be updated or modified frequently to maintain currency with fleet systems or advances in potential opponent technology.  This paper examines the impact upon training effectiveness of deliberately planning on rapid change in combat systems.  Alterations, updates and modifications to keep training equipment (or the related Fleet systems) operating, beyond a nominal five year life, may be more costly and less effective than planning (before system introduction) to replace with new equipment on a predictable near-term basis.  The experience of industry in dealing with rapid improvements in system capabilities and reasonable rapid decreases in unit costs point the way towards planning for change.

 

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Organizational Barriers to Object-Oriented Development

John Glaize, Staff Scientist

Link Flight Simulation Division of CAE-Link Corporation

 

The Defense Department has instituted an aggressive initiative to cut software costs by requiring contractors to build reliable, maintainable, and reusable software.  The STARS program and the Ada programming language are an outgrowth of this initiative.  An effective software development methodology for meeting these requirements is Object-Oriented Development (OOD).  However, experience has shown that the adoption of OOD is not only a technical issue but an organizational issue as well.  There can be significant barriers to successful Object-Oriented Development if the engineering organization is structured along functional lines, as many companies currently are.  Examples of these barriers are in the areas of software ownership and management, cost accounting and work breakdown structure, and geographical considerations.  In order to overcome these barriers and to exploit the full benefits of OOD, a company ma y need to analyze its structure and be open to potential changes to its culture, its engineering policies, and its software organization.

 

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Ada in the 90’s

Paul E. McMahon, Staff Scientist

Link flight Simulation Division of CAE-Link Corporation

 

Tools and processes used with Ada are new and the related issues frequently demand timely action.  Many of these issues involve both management and technical factors.  This results in an increasing necessity for a close working relationship between software management and technical personnel.  In some cases, we have found that new software positions are required and in other cases responsibilities of existing positions are changing to more effectively respond to Ada issues.  Close working relationships, new software positions, and changing roles all play important parts in meeting the challenge of Ada.  This paper presents experiences and lessons learned from our first major Ada simulation project at Link, with a focus on software management issues and changing software roles with Ada in the 90’s.  The paper identified key areas of Ada that need to be managed closely today and also steps ahead in time to look at how Ada may effect us in the next decade.

 

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Proposal Analyses by Fast Action Negotiation Group (FANG) Teams

William G. Callaway, Jr.

Aeronautical Systems Division (ASD)

Trainer Systems System Program Office (YW)

Wright Patterson Air Force Base

 

Douglas E. Woodson

CAE-Link Corporation Link

Flight Simulation Division

 

This paper highlights team-building and how FANG Teams accomplish the following four tasks:  (1) recognize opportunities for expedited analyses (workarounds) that simultaneously negotiate multiple change proposals; (2) plan team assignments and build agendas that harness technical fact-findings into proposal baselines; (3) execute, translate price fact-findings into quality contracts; and (4) motivate individual team member performance to overcome challenges by sharing strategies and rewarding professionalism.  Benefits gained from using the above tasks during July 1989 through January 1990 include the following: enhanced reliability of proposal management information; eliminated wasteful duplications of negotiations; accelerated awards of contract modifications; and reduced acquisition costs.  Groupings of negotiations for nine modifications having a cumulative bid value of $47 million led to cost efficiencies wherein nine change proposals were awarded in the time normally needed to complete one award.  Consolidations of equipment purchases into economic order quantities avoided over $7 million of nonrecurring costs.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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Total Quality Management (TQM) in the Competitive (Confrontational) Acquisition Environment

Major Andrew J. Courtice

United States Air Force (Retired)

 

While the Total Quality Management (TQM) movement in the United States has led to significant advances in the internal processes and products of hundreds of major corporations and government agencies, very little evident change has been realized from the application of TQM to the products and processes which transcend organizational interaction, and especially those processes and products which exist at the most painful, potentially most wasteful and often the most confrontational negative interface anywhere–the interactions of government and industry within the Acquisition and Logistic Support Processes.

 

Given, (1) the severe budgetary and projected manpower cuts facing the military today, (2) the rapidly declining interest of corporate leaders in pursuing a business arena that has resisted sufficient profit margins without the presence of major program, big ticket hardware items, and (3) the continuing evidence of increases in the worldwide threat capability (requiring continuing investment in new technologies and combat capabilities) despite a lessening of geopolitical military pressures.  TQM is the only current, proven and available intermediary with the capability of turning each of these constraints into a positive environment for all of the training industry’s players.  It is time for senior management leaders in both the government and industry to turn their collective attentions from the relatively immediate, internal benefits of TQM and look applying these proven principles to the very survival of all agencies required to exist and profit within the Acquisition and Logistics processes.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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Training Cost Data Enhancement System (T-Codes)

A.J. Boudreaux

Training and Performance Data Center

 

Richard H. Insinger, III

United States Army Project Manager for Training Devices

 

This paper describes the development, structure and operation of the Training cost Data Enhancement system (T-CODES) used to support cost data collection, storage and retrieval for the Project Manager for Training Devices.  T-CODES is a cost database providing access to training device cost data and the supporting schedules and contracts information.  The data set contains training equipment cost and man-hour data by work breakdown structure (WBS), cost breakdown structure, functional category and labor category.

 

T-CODES supports cost estimating and analysis functions; the development of cost estimating relationships (CER) and cost factors; normalization of data; graphic presentation of information; and the generation of ad hoc/standard reports.  T-CODES also supports both the justification of program decisions and the training community requirement for the collection and retrieval of training equipment cost information to the configuration level.  The T-CODES concept and structure is valid in accomplishing costing functions in any of the Military Services.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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Mission Rehearsal Behavioral Research Issues

Dee H. Andrews, John H. Fuller, Jr., and Robert T. Nullmeyer

Operations Training Division

Air Force Human Resources Laboratory

Air Force Systems Command

 

We have entered the era of simulator-based Mission Rehearsal (MR).  The capability will soon exist to provide real world mission rehearsal and practice to mission qualified aircrews before they leave the ground.  The engineering capability to provide MR will undoubtedly improve as time goes on.  However, a variety of behavioral issues need to be addressed before we will be confident about effectively using this new technology for training or practice purposes.  In this paper we list and discuss some of those issues with the goal of setting forth a research agenda.  Plans for MR research, at the Operations Training Division of the Air Force Human Resources Laboratory are described.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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Mission Training and Rehearsal Employing Simulation to its full Potential

CW4 Robert Monette

United States Army, Fort Rucker

 

Gary George and Samuel Knight

Link flight Simulation division of CAE-Link Corporation

 

Potentially one of the most significant applications of today’s simulator technology is the employment of advanced training systems to accomplish mission rehearsals.  The initial challenge in this pursuit has been finding an acceptable definition for the term “mission rehearsal.”  Until recently, available literature on mission rehearsal provided a diverse and often inconsistent and confusing collection of definitions and terminology.  However, in 1989 a paper was published which offered concise definitions of mission preparation, mission preview, combat mission training, and mission rehearsal.  With these definitions, concepts relating to the performance of mission rehearsals can be considered.  Furthermore, the interaction of the subfunctions of preview, preparation, and mission training and how they support the end result can be analyzed.  Pursuing this analysis, however, quickly leads to the realization that it is counterproductive for the military to consider mission rehearsal as a stand-alone function.  This assessment is further supported by studies of mission training and rehearsal concepts employed in the space program.  Accordingly, this paper recommends an integrated mission training rehearsal program to effectively and efficiently prepares our aviation crews for today’s complex military missions.

 

 

Interoperability:  the Key to Successful Team Training and Rehearsal

CW3 Charles Fullmer, United States Army

AH-64 Standardization Instructor Pilot

Fort Rucker

 

Ron Matusof, Staff Engineer

Link flight Simulation Division of CAE-Link Corporation

 

Pamela Woodard, Electronics Engineer

Naval Training Systems Center

 

In the past decade, tremendous advances in training concepts and training technologies have occurred.  These advances have raised the available training capabilities to levels well beyond the state of the art of ten years ago.  The challenge now is to integrate these varied systems to permit combat forces to rehearse collectively in a real-time environment.  Current literature provides an increasing set of requirements necessary to provide proper team interactions during mission rehearsal, and these requirements consistently point toward training system interoperability.  Interoperability, however, is not clearly defined.  The networking of existing and newly procured training systems, with the intent of rehearsing a specific mission, requires that many facets of the environment be common to all team members.  Real-time events, communications weapon effects, threat, weather, and terrain portrayals are a sampling of these facets.  Additionally, the subject of controlling a set of interoperable training systems must be addressed.  This paper discusses interoperability between training systems and how such systems can be used to improve the scope of successful training currently available.  It them addresses the requirements for interoperable training systems and proposes a set of design requirements which are necessary to provide training system interoperability.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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A Computer Based Performance Measurement System for Team Training

Janell Jures

General Physics Corporation

 

The inclusion of a build-in performance measurement system as a formal part of combat system team training requires a structured approach for relating individual tasks to the accomplishment of team training objectives.  The requirement leads to several considerations for performance measurement for a large team training system.  The set of training objectives must provide the structure to (1) collect data for performance assessment, and (2) provide effective and informative feedback.  This report will discuss how the training objectives for the ASW Tactical Team Training system, Device 20A66, were developed and how they were implemented in the device software.  It will include a discussion of the software tools provided to the instructor to assist in Performance Measurement.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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Developing Measurement Within an  Evolving Training Program

William A. Ross

BDM International, Inc.

 

Colonel John P. Schmidt

Combined Arms Training Activity, Fort Leavenworth

 

This paper previews the development of a measurement and feedback system using a systems approach to design in an evolving training setting.  The WarFighter Feedback System is a prototype automated feedback system developed for the Battle Command Training Program.  The goal of the development was to provide a means to prepare and present diagnostic feedback on unit performance to training audiences during After Action Reviews and to support the Army’s requirement for systemic feedback on planning and decision making for Division and Corps headquarters.  The intelligence slice of division operations was selected for the evaluation and demonstration of the principles associated with training performance measurements of collective tasks.  The Intelligence Battlefield Operating system is a subset of Command and control (C2) comprised of several interdependent collective and small group tasks.  The nature of these tasks and the measures of performance associated with them can be organized to support analysis and feedback in various training settings.  Change management approaches and extension of this applied research to the broader context of C2 are the major reported findings.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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Is Total Contract Training Still Viable?
An Update on E-3 Total Contract Training

Major Cameron A. Shontz,

Chief, Training Research and C3 Training Devices Branch

Tactical Air Command, Langley Air Force Base

 

The United States Air Force Tactical Air Command (TAC) E-3 TCT program has had a chance to grow and mature in the last four years.  Its successes have led TAC to continue the program under another five-year-contract.  The smooth transition between contracts without negative impacts to training or student throughput attests to the system’s inherent stability.  But the success has not been free of charge.  Going TCT was new to TAC and required new ways of thinking—and some hard lessons learned.  I believe this is an excellent time to review both E-3 TCT accomplishments and the problems keeping the program on track.  By doing so, I hope to demonstrate TCT practicality, while ensuring that it remains a workable system for future training programs.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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The C-17 ATS–Caballing, Kibitzing, and Cohabiting

Major Don Barton

HQ MAC/DOT, OL V

 

Mr. Clem Wehner

McDonnell Douglas Training Systems

 

The Air Force’s Military Airlift command has, over the last seven years, transitioned most of its weapon systems training to civilian contractors under the Aircrew Training system (ATS) concept.  One of the lessons learned is stationing Air Force subject matter experts (AFSMEs) in plant with the contractor is beneficial to the development effort.  This paper records the history of AFSME involvement on one such ATS effort, the C-17, and details some of the benefits that have resulted from their efforts.  It also offers some considerations for government and industry officials who may want to use government SMEs on other training system development efforts.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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Harrier GR MK 5/7 Advanced Technology Mission Simulators

Brian R. Clifford

United Kingdom Ministry of Defense

 

Paul M. Jackson

Link-Miles Limited

 

In 1985, in anticipation of the phased replacement of the Harrier GR Mk 3 by the Harrier GR Mk 5, the UK version of the AV8B, the UK Air Staff issued a requirement for two Mission Simulators capable of fulfilling a comprehensive pilot training and evaluation task.  It identified the need for simulators which would provide a wide range of psycho-physical cues with accurate flight and systems simulation, integrated with a high resolution, wide field-of-view visual system compatible with the Harrier’s operational roles and inherent speed and agility.  It became apparent that this would require the utilization of new technology, particularly in the area of head and eye-slaved visual displays; studies within the UK MOD confirmed this and concluded that although innovative, the application of such technology was feasible.  This paper reviews some of the background and selection process and briefly describes the Mission Simulators selected to meet the Royal Air Force’s training needs.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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Effective Air Combat Team Performance–with Bandit’s Help

Ronald D. Vraa, Manager of Operational Training Analysis

Link Flight Simulation Division of CAE Link Corporation

 

Success in air combat is a product of effective teamwork–the modern air battle is waged in two- and four-ship flights.  Because of numerous operational and safety constraints, considerable attention is currently being given to developing realistic “Bandit” simulation environments in which to train air-to-air combat teams.  To maximize potential air combat training benefits, emphasis is needed to identify and fulfill requirements for air superiority team performance assessment in these environments.  Operational analysis needs to focus on a thorough understanding of relevant teamwork components and developing ways to exploit Bandit simulation capabilities for performance assessment of those teamwork components.  Ultimately, friendly “Blue” flights should train within the Bandit combat environment and then be capable of extracting from the simulation feedback to identify key factors which contributed to mission results.  The payoff is the capability for realistic team combat training and the wherewithal to measure effectiveness of that training.  To that end, this paper provides an initial definition of air superiority teamwork and team training performance metrics and suggests potential means to employ emerging tactical simulation technologies as a powerful tool to support team performance assessment.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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Multiship Air Combat Team Mission Trainer (TMT) Concept Meeting a Tough Continuation Training Requirement

David P. Dion, Ph.D., Manager of Training Systems Design

Irving R. Bardeen, Senior Staff Scientist

Link Flight Simulation Division of CAE-Link Corporation

 

This paper describes a team training approach and a required ground-based TMT to provide Continuation Training (CT) for teamwork skills in Beyond visual Range (BVR) air combat.  The TMT will overcome many in-flight and ground-based team training limitations by providing multiship training for the multitask, high-threat tactical BVR environment.  The integrated multiple-cockpit TMT has high-fidelity functional characteristics, a realistic/robust threat environment simulation, and a building-block instructional strategy to include dynamic combat training scenarios.  This will provide pilots squadron-level team training to meet two essential requirements.  First, integrate pilot cognitive skills, habit patterns, and team tactics for coordinated multiship BVR air combat–in peacetime or war.  Second, support long-term growth of pilot teams as they strive for teamwork expertise in CT with challenging training that pilots won’t outgrow.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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Advanced Amphibious Assault (AAA) Program–an Early Consideration of Required Training Systems

LtCol James M. Feigley

United States Marine Corps

 

Dr. Charles A. Beagles and Dr. David J. Daly

Naval Training Systems Center

 

A recurrent criticism of most major weapon system acquisition programs has been that training system requirements have been an afterthought.  The result has often been catch-up, shotgun approaches to training development, which often do not respond to the total training requirement.  Extensive support funding is often expended on the use of actual equipment for training and many key operator and maintenance tasks are never thoroughly trained. As part of a more timely attention to training matters, this paper presents an initial view of the future training requirements for the Advanced Amphibious Assault (AAA) Program.  Since the program is in the Concept Exploration Phase, it is clear that the training system requirement will evolve and be further refined.  However, the intent of this paper is to start the training industry in the design of efficient and cost-effective solutions to the future AAA training challenge.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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Training Scenarios for Space Station Freedom

Ankur R. Hajare and George E. Stark

MITRE Corporation

 

A new training facility, call the Space Station Training Facility (SSTF), is being built to provide training to the astronauts who will be on board Space Station Freedom.  This training facility will also support the training of ground support personnel.  The SSTF will contain several trainers, including Module Systems Trainers, Node Systems Trainers, a Proximity Operations Trainer, and Ground Systems Trainers.  A network simulator will provide the capability for integrated training with the Space Station Control Center (SSCC), and for joint-integrated training sessions that involve remote facilities.  To support the wide variety of training requirements, the trainers in the SSTF will operate in the following five modes:

 

1)       Stand-alone

2)       Combined

3)       Joint-combined

4)       Integrated

5)       Joint-integrated

 

These modes of operations are presented with examples of operational scenarios that illustrate team training not only among astronauts but also with support personnel in the ground facilities that participate in the Space Station Freedom Program.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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Designing Concurrency into a Training Curriculum Using Computer Based Training

Ellen M. Le Vita, M.A. and. R. Craig Richards, M.A.

CAE-Link Corporation, Link Training Services Division

 

How do you design a program that will be able to deliver quality training for a weapon system that is technically complex, requires a high level of operational mastery, and will change in six months?  To add to the challenge, the objectives and procedures used to create the training system will change before the training can be delivered.

 

At first glance, training for the Navy’s EA-6B aircrew appears to have the same basic requirements as for other multicrew tactical Navy aircraft.  However, unlike other types of aircraft, three general-purpose computers and multiple special-application microprocessors drive the EA-6B’s weapon system.  The extensive software required to drive these computers provides optimal flexibility for the EA-6B’s evolving mission.  Because of the rapidly changing nature of electronic warfare, the EA-6B’s hardware and software are constantly being updated to meet the challenges of newly developed detection technology.  Major system changes and updates occur every six to eight months.  The expending system capabilities require continuous training restructuring to maintain operator proficiency.

 

The secret to conducting successful training under these circumstances is to rely heavily on Computer-Based Training (CBT), ensuring that management and programming techniques efficiently handle changes and updates.  This paper will discuss CBT development techniques used in the EA-6B program and raise some training concurrency issues associated with weapon systems designed to be updated on a frequent basis.

 

This paper is available on the I/ITSEC Compendium CD-ROM.

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