TABLE OF CONTENTS
Quantifying The Benefits Of Education In A Training Programme
Quantitative Training System Assessments Using General System Performance Theory”
Individual And Team Performance Assessment In Networked Simulation Training
The Benefits Of Real-Time Training Feedback: Developing Performance Measures
The Integration Of Technology Based Training Within Exisiting Training Environments
Cooperative Computer Based Training- A Network Based Training System Using Vr
Unit Based Training
(Ubt) Concept For Delivering The Unit Level Training For The 21st Century Uk
Planning And Analysis For Web Based Training Implementation
Inventive Thinking (It) - A Gift Or A Skill ?
Web Based Training And Support: Beaming Up Scotty
Implementing Vr Technology To Maritime And Offshore Training
Embedded Stimulators For Naval On-Board Training
Embedded Training: Potentials And Challenges
Air Force Modeling, Simulation And Analysis Education
And Training Tiger Team
Multidimensional Task Analysis
Structuring A Simulation Exercise Database Using Strex
Analyzing Training Results Using Data Mining Techniques
Data Parallelism Vs. Control Parallelism In Synthetic
Automatic Generation Of 3d Visual Databases For Simulation And Training Systems
Pc-Based Dynamic Terrain Solutions
The Requirements For Real-Time Imaging Sensor Simulations Used In Military Flying Training
Factors To Consider When Building Synthetic
Interoperability: The Emperor's Old Clothes
Simulated Gps Navigation In Hla Federations
Dis Network Traffic Predictions From Empirical Data
Next Wave Software Technologies And Their Impacts On Modeling And Simulation
A Common Architecture For Crew Skills & Tactical Training Systems
An Hla-Based Distributed System Infrastructure
Synthetic Theater Of War - Architecture Past, Present And Future
Intelligent Element Assessment In Hla Fedep Process
Modeling And Simulation Support Of F-22 And Aim-9x Operational Test And Evaluation (Ot&E)
Tri-Service Modeling And Simulation Resource Repository
Collaborative Environments: An Approach That Works
Using Training Devices For Mission Rehearsal
Fire Support Simulation Tools (Fsst), The Beginning Of Collective Digital Training
A Technologie For Simulating Infantery Combat Effects To Ground Forces
Use Of Operational Diagnostic Software In Maintenance Trainers
Remote Wireless High Resolution Display Systems
Training Needs And Training Opportunities For Emergency Response To Mass-Casualty Incidents
Emergency Response To Terrorism - A Tutorial
Muster(R) Multi-User System For Training Emergency Response
Visual Simulation For Emergency Response Personnel
A Haptic System For Simulation And Planning Of Plastic
Model Architecture For An Underground Train Driving And Failures Simulator
Multifunctional Simulation System For Austrian Railways
Train Cab Simulator (Tcsim) Of Deutsche Bahn Ag (Db Ag)
Integrated Training System For Traffic Control And Station Supervision
How To Build A Whole Family Of Train Simulators Efficiently
Demonstration Of The Distance Learning Platform Supporting Distant Pilot Training
Description And Results Of A Systematic Tele-Tutor Training
The Long Way To An Academic Education Model For Airline Pilots In Germany
Experiences With The Academic Pilot Education Protramme In Avaition Systems And Engineering
The Academic Education Programme For Estonia Airline Pilots
Adaptation Of Regulations To The Needs Of Pilot Training
Designing Future Air Traffic Controller Training
A Multimedia Training System For At Controllers
Air Defence Training Simulator
A New Military Air Traffic Services Training Concept In Germany
Comprehensive Training For A Comprehensive Atm World
Affordable Training Simulators For Everyone: How To Do?
Automatic Databases Generation For Driver Training Simulation Applications
Mosles: Modelling & Simulation For Transport And Logistic Educational Support
Dynamic Real-Time Models For Harbour Machinery And Cranes Simulators
Commander M A Foster Royal Navy and J E Moorman
Department of Nuclear Science and Technology
Advances in modern technology have heralded a plethora of elegant solutions to both existing and
emergent engineering problems. Increased automation in systems control and condition monitoring has been
accompanied by a growth in the market for computer-based simulation and training. Such training can normally be
shown to be highly effective, often supplying improvements in operator efficiency and allowing significant reductions in the overall time required to learn a
particular skill. Arguing the case for investment in sophisticated training packages can routinely be supported
by hard statistics; the benefits of investment in education, however, are less tangible. In the nuclear power
industry for example, it has long been accepted that education acts as an insurance policy against undocumented occurrences; but without clear evidence of its
worth and in the face of increasing budgetary pressures, it remains vulnerable. In this paper, the authors
summarize their continuing research into the use of the concept of annualized probabilistic cost as a means to quantify the benefits of education, with
particular reference to industries where the probability of an accident may be low, but the consequences may be devastating.
Prof. George V. Kondraske,
Prof. Louis J. Everett, Assoc. Dean,
American University of Sharjah, School of Engineering
Mr. Robert Houser, Microsoft, Inc.
Ms. Sujatha Kashyap, Prof. Richard A. Volz,
Dept. of Computer Science, Texas A&M University
Ms. Mo Zhou,
To date, assessment of training systems is performed using complex, empirical, ad-hoc methods. This
makes it difficult to compare one training system against another or to predict the training value added of different approaches or subsystem components
(e.g., use of 3-D graphics instead of 2-D graphics in a training simulation). This paper discusses how we have approached the assessment process using a new
framework called General System Performance Theory (GSPT). GSPT uses the notion of performance capacity envelopes
defined by different dimensions of performance (e.g., speed and accuracy) as a basis for modeling system performance. In
addition, resource economic principles are used to explain system-task interfaces. Thus, a system is viewed to
possess "performance resources" (i.e., the envelope) and a task is viewed to make demands on these performance resources (i.e., as points in the
space that define the envelope). We have used GSPT to develop performance models for the overall training system
as well as for selected subsystems. GSPT was motivated by and is often applied to human performance modeling and
measurement. As such, the trainee can be modeled using the same constructs used to model the training system. A particular example is its
application to evaluation in the context of human rehabilitation. GSPT provides a quantitative basis for including even abstract concepts such as "user friendliness" into assessments.
The goal of our work is to use GSPT to develop the processes for quantitatively determining the value
added by different training subsystem components without requiring the actual fabrication and testing of the training system.
This will enable training system builders to ascertain whether or not it is worth the cost of incorporating different subsystem modalities or different
levels of subsystem quality into their training systems. Ultimately, we foresee computer-aided training system
design tool. To demonstrate how the process can be applied to training systems and to experimentally validate concepts in a training context, we are
building a virtual reality/simulation-based testbed. In this testbed, we have chosen to focus initially on
tasks that stress a particular human capability called Situational Awareness. Situational Awareness is defined in terms of the capacity to be cognizant of and
properly prioritize important information, usually while executing several simultaneous tasks. Tasks of this type
are executed by pilots and air traffic controllers, for example. In our experimental set-up, we can vary parameters (e.g., display resolution) that determine performance capacities of selected subsystems
that comprise our training system and also measure selected lower level performance capacities of trainees. GSPT is used to develop causal models that
attempt to link subsystem performance to overall training system performance, as well as to define the approach to measurement of trainee performance in
training tasks and in the "real world" task for which they are being trained. The training system and
experimental "real world" system are implemented using VIVIDS and a link we have built to WorldUp and WorldToolKit to permit 3-D simulation with
modeling tools which can be run on a wide variety of platforms.
Jos van der Arend and Roger Jansen
TNO Physics and Electronics Laboratory
Within the Netherlands, a number of companies and research institutes involved in simulator technologies
has been co-operating in a project called SIMULTAAN. The SIMULTAAN project partners have combined their knowledge and capabilities to design and build a
distributed training simulation system. The result of the SIMULTAAN project is a generic HLA-based simulator architecture, which will be the baseline for the
partners' future networked training simulators.
In the SIMULTAAN architecture, the SIMULTAAN Scenario Manager tool controls and monitors the federates
(simulators and tools). An essential part of the SIMULTAAN architecture is the SIMULTAAN Performance Assessment SubSystem (PASS), which advises the Scenario
Manager in choosing the best scenario that leads to achieving the training objectives. PASS optimises the learning curve of the individual trainee and the
The SIMULTAAN PASS component takes care of automatic analysis and assessment of trainee and team
performance. During and after a scenario execution the trainee and team performance are analysed and judged; based on this automatic judgement the progress is
determined. Options for this progress are: (1) restart the same scenario or (2) start a new scenario with simpler, more complex or alternative settings or (3)
finish the training program. The instructor can always override the automatic judgement results or scores to influence the individual and team assessment and
The automatic performance assessment in PASS is based on a generic framework with scenario-specific
actions and action-related judgement rules. For each trainee or team of trainees a list of expected actions is prepared. These actions are automatically
checked off during the scenario execution when the action-related judgement rules are found true or correct. The action-specific score weight assembles the
final scenario score. The instructor or training developer prepares the expected action lists, the judgement rules and score weights for each scenario.
The PASS concept has been implemented and evaluated for the alarm rescue team performance in the
SIMULTAAN project demonstration. In this demonstration the team consists of three fire brigade vehicles and a co-ordinating control centre. PASS proved to be
a valuable and flexible generic concept for automatic performance assessment in networked simulation training.
THE BENEFITS OF REAL-TIME TRAINING FEEDBACK: DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE MEASURES
Ms. Alison L. Young
This paper describes a current experimental programme investigating delivery of training feedback
options. The research explores the benefits of real-time feedback, and the medium of delivery. The work is being carried out to investigate the suitability of
Augmented Reality (AR) technology for an embedded training system, which places the trainee in their actual working environment. AR has potential for such a
system since it enhances the real environment with additional information (Young, Stedmon & Cook, 1999).
In particular, the paper describes the performance measurement issues that arise when dealing with a
complex decision-making task. Significant emphasis has been placed on the process measures of performance since it is important to know whether the trainee is
achieving the correct outcome in the desired way. Measuring human performance in this way is to be of increasing importance in the future, given that advanced
technologies provide the capability to monitor detailed processes, thus allowing the human trainer to focus on team aspects of training.
Lieutenant Commander M N Bowden Royal Navy
Once the time consuming and expensive process of specifying, designing and procuring a Technology Based
Training (TBT) solution has been completed, the package has to be integrated into an existing, or possibly a new, training environment.
TBT packages range from multi-million pound high fidelity simulators to simple Computer Aided
Instruction (CAI) tools written in-house by instructors. In order to function efficiently and effectively,
however, they all need not only to fulfil the training objectives (and to prove quantifiably that they do so), but also to fulfil the training design and
quality control requirements extant within any verified and validated training environment.
In order to ensure that this integration and evaluation process takes place smoothly, it has to be taken
into account early on in the project, and planned for carefully. Instructors, training designers and internal
quality controllers all need to be involved in the process.
The main role of the Royal Naval School of Educational and Training Technology (RNSETT) is to identify,
disseminate and assure educational and training technology best practice throughout the Naval Service. On behalf
of Flag Officer Training and Recruiting it undertakes regular quality audits of all Royal Naval training establishments, and has become increasingly involved
with the introduction and subsequent evaluation of a varied range of TBT into the Royal Naval Training System. This
paper will outline the key considerations that need to be made before any TBT product is delivered, and will propose a 'best practice' approach to integrating
it into a training environment and subsequently evaluating it.
The Co-operative Computer Based Training System (CoCBT) TeamTraining Amphibious vehicle M3" is
probably worldwide the first training system that combines a tutorial concept with virtual reality (VR) and simulation components, to train teams in working
on complex processes.
By M Kelly Sc(DBE).
The author wishes to acknowledge the help provided by Mr M Niven DERA (UK), Lt Col M Milligan SO1(Dev)
DGD&D (UK) and Lt Col J N Morris DBE(Sim) (UK).
The delivery of Collective training in the UK Army has been well served recently but Unit training is
still in the sand table and black board era. A need has been identified to deliver Unit Based Training (UBT) in a coherent modern and cost effective form. To
support this the UK MOD Applied Research programme is constructing a Technical Demonstrator Programme in partnership with industry to validate and define the
concept for the Unit Based Trainer. This will capitalise on existing infrastructure and expand and develop the Army training management strategy. It will
benefit from the commercial trends in training delivery and the new power of distributed PCs, the WWW, CBT and PC games.
The programme will examine the architecture, software standards, training management, course authoring,
training delivery, performance assessment and record keeping of a distributed UBT system. The development of structured training schemes, assessment systems
and interfaces to Synthetic Environment based training will be researched.
The benefits to military training will be to increase match to and efficiency of Collective Training, to
train Collective Performance levels 1-3, to compensate for identified skill fade in digitized skills and to optimise Territorial Army training. UBT will
provide training in theatre, on route (ship), at home, by asynchronous, self paced, assessed, personalised training; indeed training 'anywhere anytime'. Team,
international, and combined training will be addresses at the Unit level. UBT will provide an audit trail for training to defend against potential litigation
Deborah A. Williams, TRW
Distance Learning Group
While the benefits of adapting a Web Based Training (WBT) approach are becoming widely understood across
private industry and government arenas, too often the planning and analysis which will facilitate an effective WBT experience is overlooked.
This paper will focus on the necessary planning and analysis that should go into the design of WBT products as well as the critical administrative and
management infrastructure which supports the WBT project. The paper will provide information relative to:
* Organizations seriously considering a move to WBT will gain an understanding of the critical planning
and analysis they must engage in to ensure the success of a WBT initiative.
* Steps inherent in designing a WBT system, which achieves long term objectives for the organization,
will be explored. Special emphasis will be placed on anticipating long-term needs and incorporating this into the
WBT infrastructure and design.
Internal and external factors influencing WBT design and implementation decisions are discussed from a
"lessons learned" perspective which has been gained from five years of experience in the design, implementation, delivery and maintenance of
enterprise level WBT systems for large government, military and private organizations.
MHT General Manager - Israel Aircraft Industries
The paper claims that inventive thinking can be developed using specific methods and tools thus
introducing in the organization a culture of inventive solutions to problems.
The hierarchy of knowledge: Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom and Ingenuity, was previously defined
in a paper given by the author at ITEC 99. To implement IT as a routine, one should first reach the level of Wisdom on the Intellectual Ladder and climb to
the level of Ingenuity. The highest level of Ingenuity is IT. The preliminary need before concentrating on the methods for IT development is the enhancement
of generic thinking skills, i.e. development of cognitive parameters. This is done at MHT, the training division of Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI), by
integrating the Knowledge Acquisition methodologies developed by MHT, with Instrumental Enrichment tools developed by Prof. Feuerstein. This integration
supplies the trainee with the ladder to climb from Knowledge to Wisdom and from Wisdom to Ingenuity. The paper presents the principles of IT and the
methodology of TRIZ, developed by Genrich Altshuler, which supplies the trainee with a technique that enables the implementation of IT to solve problems. This
paper presents a solution implemented in IAI by a team that was exposed to the IT methodology. The TRIZ theory defines five levels of solutions: 1.standard
2.improvement 3.invention inside a paradigm 4.invention outside a paradigm 5.discovery. Whenever a person faces a technical contradiction, the common
engineering approach is to design a compromise. The TRIZ IT does not accept this approach and instead leads to an invention which surmounts the contradiction.
The methodology is leading the person to convert the technical contradiction into a physical contradiction where the contradiction lies within one physical
parameter that should change in opposite directions. Then the person solves the contradiction by climbing on a ladder of abstraction.
The IT method, together with software tools, integrated with IE exercises, enable a safe climb on the
intellectual ladder up to IT, thus enhances the Intellectual Capital of the organization.
Ms Monique M. Volant
Mr Filippo de Stefani
Alenia Marconi Systems Radar Division
Mr Gregory O'Hare
Department of Computer Science, University College Dublin (UCD), Belfield, Dublin,
Mr Stefano Susini
University of Siena - Telecomunication and Telematic Laboratory
ECHOES, Educational Hypermedia Online System (a EU Educational Multimedia programme) is a distributed
simulated environment designed to provide training and support to field engineers. Using Computer (Web) Based Training, Virtual Reality and Intelligent Agents
techniques, ECHOES facilitates courseware delivery and computer supported co-operative work.
Engineers connecting to the ECHOES system via their computer, on Internet or an Intra/Extranet,
encounter a user interface based on the visit metaphor and are presented a virtual environment which they are free to explore. Within this environment,
different services are available: training, chat, library, together with troubleshooting support so that the user can take advantage from the experience of
other technicians and experts.
Benefits expected are twofold: the time required for classroom training is reduced and engineers can get
a lot of information from the system without necessitating human support.
After a brief introduction to the ECHOES Consortium, the paper presents how the system has been designed
and how it can be used to provide periodic training refresh and support to field engineers. Preliminary results of user trials are described and commented
VTT Manufacturing Technology
Virtual prototypes are used mainly in the design process, where systems can be tested in virtual
environment before they are built. This helps the designer to optimise the product better than earlier especially what comes to human interfaces. For example
ergonomics and workplace layouts can be tested for different sized users.
The same virtual models can be used in training when the trainee can familiarise himself and
practise with a computer using a virtual product in virtual environments. This kind of training helps both the designer and the trainee.
This paper discusses the use of virtual technology applications in maritime and offshore areas which are
under development in a ESPRIT research program DISCOVER. The prototype scenarios already demonstrated include incident management training in the case of fire
in the engine room onboard a cruise-liner or in accommondation spaces on an offshore-rig. Virtual modelling of incident, functionality of the simulations and
communications between participants are handled using a multi-user simulation in a computer network.
This kind of training is based on the growing needs of end-users - for example companies operating in
production, integrated transport (port operators, shipping agents, road haulage and shipping companies) and maritime sectors and the training providers
serving them. Training with virtual prototypes will ensure that their working procedures are efficient and safe and that their employees consistently perform
Increasingly complex working environments (e.g. ships' bridges and engine rooms, offshore and onshore
control rooms) coupled with reductions in manning levels, new organisational structures and increased use of technology are placing significant demands upon
individuals and teams to learn new tasks and procedures whilst becoming even more reliant upon their working colleagues to perform competently.
Mr. James R. Cooley, Principal Engineer
In many navies, readiness training is moving out of the classroom and onto combatant vessels.
This evolution is being driven by two factors: declining defense budgets and the need to improve readiness
of combat system team crewmembers. In the past, combat system team training has consisted of two major elements: classroom training and underway training exercises. Both of these training venues come with a
host of disadvantages.
Classroom training requires the maintenance of an extensive shore-based training infrastructure; the
actual training value is limited by the fidelity of the training equipment. Shore-based trainers typically
include equipment and sensor models that only approximate what the combat system team will find on real ships in a real combat environment.
This is due to the nature of the shore-based facility; shore facilities must serve as trainers for many ship classes, and shore-based trainer mockups
tend to lag the state of the actual combat system equipment by several years.
Underway training in a canned warfare environment with real participants has the advantage of training
occurring on real equipment in a real situation. The expense of these exercises, however, severely limits their
utility and the degree of realism that can be attained. Declining defense budgets have also severely limited the
opportunity to train in this environment.
The alternative training strategy is a blend of classroom trainers and shipboard exercises.
An on-board training stimulation system is provided that presents a synthetic training environment to the combat system team on real equipment.
This approach combines the best of both worlds. A stimulation system can synthesize complex combat
scenarios much like those possible at a shore site and provide training on actual equipment just as sea training exercises do.
Furthermore, an on-board stimulation system is available at all times to the crew, even at sea; therefore, training opportunities abound.
The design of an on-board training system is built around a number of building blocks that are dependent
on the type of equipment included in the host combat system. Stimulators and simulators are provided for each
element in the combat system and are networked together and controlled from a simulation computer. The design of
the network that connects the boxes together is such that any complement of boxes can be included without altering the software that executes in the
simulation computer. This design is achieved by using a DIS/HLA protocol for the network architecture and
providing a DIS/HLA front end to each of the stimulation or simulation boxes. The on-board training system is
configurable to any combat system by selecting which stimulators and simulators are needed in a particular situation.
This paper describes the design of a representative on-board training system with emphasis on the radar
stimulation building blocks.
EMBEDDED TRAINING: POTENTIALS AND CHALLENGES
Hilbert Kuiper, Anja van der Hulst, Geert Slegtenhorst
For years Embedded Training was not a fully-fledged alternative amongst other training media such as
distributed simulation, simulators, electronic classroom, and part-task trainers. However, technology is rapidly evolving, which manifests itself for instance
in far reaching capabilities in the field of telematics. Parallel we see a larger mobility of people, and increasingly unpredictable scenarios. These
developments urge for just in time learning, learning on demand, and integration of working and learning. As a result, there is nowadays much more focus on
the possibilities of Embedded Training. Embedded Training coincides with the tendency for Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS).
Embedded training is defined as a capability built into or added onto operational (sub)systems to
enhance and maintain skill proficiency. Literature distinguishes three types of Embedded Training: (1) appended, defined as an add-on to the operational
system and with some built-in components in the operational system, (2) umbilical, the same as an appended system but with a physical connection to external
systems, and (3) fully-embedded, defined as fully integrated with the operational system and having the possibility to connect to other training facilities at
location or at a distance.
We will focus on the potentials and challenges of the fully-embedded type, the spectrum reaching from
operator training upto and including integration with Command and Control.
The presentation will take as a red thread running through it depicting how a future (2010+) maritime
training scenario looks like using the potentials of embedded training and other training facilities, i.e. towards a common synthetic training environment for
joint/combined operations in which embedded training plays a significant role. In this scenario, training facilities on-board as well as ashore will be linked
and use will be made of state-of-the art and emerging technologies (e.g augmented reality, speech recognition and synthesis, intelligent trainee-system
dialogue, tele-coaching) for embedded training applications.
Using this scenario we will focus on the implications and challenges of embedded training as it can be
seen at three different levels: (1) organisational level, (2) technical level, and (3) pedagogical level. Examples of questions that can be posed at the
different levels are:
At the organisational level: how to organize new training programs, how to fit embedded training in the
program to make a seamless link to other training means, what are the personnel implications, does it include a complete organisational change with respect to
training and education?
At the technical level: what are the implications for the acquisition of an operational system, i.e. how
to guarantee the specification of embedded training requirements from the very beginning; what are the potentials of new technologies, e.g. using augmented
tactical displays for real-time performance feedback?
At the pedagogical level: what to train embedded and what not, what to training on-board and what
ashore, what learning goals can be reached with embedded training, how to structure the training, how to test the readiness, how to obtain performance
AIR FORCE MODELING, SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS EDUCATION
AND TRAINING TIGER TEAM”
Dr. Mary C. Fischer, Executive Director
Air Force Agency for Modeling and Simulation (AFAMS)
Dr. Ronald W. Tarr, Program Manager
Performance Technology Group
The Air Force Modeling, Simulation and Analysis Education and Training Tiger Team (ETTT) is an effort to
identify the core body of knowledge required for all Air Force personnel newly assigned to modeling and simulation positions.
On 15 Oct 98, the Air Force Modeling, Simulation and Analysis Working Group (AFMSAWG) approved the establishment of the tiger team to perform an
in-depth study to determine AF specific requirements and to identify AF solutions. The ETTT will identify
educational opportunities and core M&S education requirements, leveraging existing efforts where possible, such as the Defense Modeling and Simulation
Office (DMSO) M&S Education Program with the goal of establishing a state-of-the-art, cost-effective solution.
To facilitate this effort a joint team was established composed of AFAMS personnel augmented with
researchers from University of Central Florida. The team's objectives are to examine performance requirements across the full spectrum of Air Force Modeling,
Simulation and Analysis, develop core M&S competencies, identify existing education and training opportunities, and recommend an approach to meet
recognized shortfalls. This paper will discuss background, structure, methodologies, products, and follow-on effort.
William A. Platt, Stephen J. Guynn, Ronald R. Rising
Increasingly authors are noting both the importance and difficulties associated with task analysis
performed as a component of training analysis leading to the design of instructional activities and materials. Difficulties
can arise when a task analysis approach is used in an inappropriate situation. Different approaches yield different types of data.
Traditional behavioral approaches tend to describe observable activity. Newer cognitive approaches focus
on knowledge content, decision tasks and rules. To offset the difficulties inherent in each of the many separate methods and models of task analysis, the
authors have combined a number of methods each designed to harvest data in a different dimension of the job-task setting.This paper reports on the use of
multidimensional approach in the Veterans Benefits Administration to analyze the newly created job of the Veterans Service Representative (VSR).
Traditional task analysis methods were used along with participant observation to establish the relative importance of salient features of the job task
setting. The relevant dimensions are (1) Organizational design, (2) Work Breakdown Structure, (3) Knowledge
Content, (4) Work Process Flow Logic, (5) Typical Events Time Line, (6) Communications Network, (7) Physical setting Traffic Flow and Perceptual Envelope. The
analysis then continued using models appropriate to each dimension. The analysis models were obtained from the literature or created by the analysis team.
The results yielded a more holistic view of the job task and enabled the team to make distinctions and conclusions that will be helpful in designing
instructional sequences. The fundamental structure of the job defined by law and court decisions could now be contrasted with the subtleties of practice
identified using the many sided view. This included a great deal of heuristic activity and variation from office
to office. Insights relevant to training design were obtained by comparing each data set. A multiple
approach allows findings to be compared by mapping results form one to another. This also provided a stimulus for the investigation of missing data. The
authors believe that this approach is worth repeating and have made suggestions for additional dimensions to be examined.
Conclusions: The multidimensional approach seemed to fit the situation presented in the VBA engaged in
business process re-engineering, training development, and down sizing. The mix of descriptive, behavioral and cognitive approaches was useful in such a
dynamic and changing situation. The-cross checking made possible by using the various views, did reveal aspects of the situation that will be important to
developing instruction. The concept of core tasks surrounded by a local office supporting shell of implementing tasks evolved only after the multiple views
were clear. Thus it was recognized that training must focus on both aspects of the job. Use of a multidimensional approach is recommended for task
environments where active change is the rule, and for use in professional settings.
STRUCTURING A SIMULATION EXERCISE DATABASE USING STREX
Michelle Joab, Odette Auzende, Michel Futtersack, University Paris
Patrice Le Leydour, THOMSON TRAINING & SIMULATION
When initiating a training course, an instructor is faced with the complex task of retrieving the
appropriate exercises and building the relevant sequence (a teaching module) to help the trainees gradually acquire a given skill, either as individuals or as
Retrieval of an exercise is a complex task because most of the useful selection criteria (e.g. the
teaching goals) do not explicitly appear as part of the data set that makes up the exercise. Available exercise data mainly refer to parameter values that the
simulation software will further manipulate in real-time. Furthermore, lack of information about the exercise complexity level makes it difficult to arrange
exercises in a structured sequence.
The availability of a set of training aids that will enable a population of instructors to characterize
existing exercises and further extract structured teaching modules therefore represents a significant step forward compared to today's instructional
This paper briefly describes STREX (STRucturing EXercise database) as a generic approach to answer this
kind of instructional need. Using examples from both TRUck Simulator for Training (TRUST) and Crew Training Simulator for the LECLERC battle tank, it
describes how instructors are given the possibility to add new selection criteria to the existing set (possibly dependent on the previous ones), visualize the
exercise database contents using a tree-like representation and generate teaching modules according to the trainees' needs.
STREX is a tool that is independent of any training domain and can be connected to any exercise creation
tool; STREX software integration simply requires the importing of the exercise data into the STREX database. In order to generate a teaching module, the
instructor has to define the number of exercises, set the desired selection criteria and their relative importance and finally characterize them by entering
trigger values. STREX will then generate a balanced module meeting these constraints; the instructor will remain free to modify the balance of the module as
well as its contents.
ANALYZING TRAINING RESULTS USING DATA MINING TECHNIQUES
Dr. Amnon Gonen, Operations Research Director, GWG - Global War Games Ltd.
Inbal Ben-Israel, Senior Software Engineer, GWG - Global War Games Ltd.
Modern computer data mining systems self learn from the previous history of the investigated training
system, formulating and testing hypotheses about the rules that this training system obeys. When concise and valuable knowledge about the training of interest
had been discovered, it can and should be incorporated into some presentation and lesson learning system.
Training simulators usually poses an After Action review (AAR) module that assists in learning from the
previous training sessions. The AAR does not handle the analysis of several training sessions, past training sessions, comparison among training sessions etc.
The data mining is widely used in civilian applications and here it is first introduced into a training
simulation, looking for statistical connections among the results of training sessions.
The methodology used in this study is as follows:
Detailed description of the database to be analyzed. In this case, the database was
"artificially" generated to reflect all kind of relations between the attributes.
Database preparations. This task is very fundamental and includes merging of tables, manipulating
records from several training sessions, manipulating fields to define new attributes, visualization of the database and data checking to ensure the necessary
quality of the database.
The next step is modeling and deriving results from the data mining software.
Examples of interesting results and limitations of the different algorithms are finally provided.
* The hit rate in engagements and the parameters influencing it.
* The connection between the impact location and other parameters.
The summary presents the main lessons learnt on the usage of data mining for debriefing training
Prof. Felicia Ionescu, Assistant Andrei Jalb_
Politehnica University of Bucharest,
The paper is dealing with the problem of synthetic environments visualization in shared memory
multiprocessor systems. Multiple processes (or threads), executed on available processors of a multiprocessor system, partition the traversing operation of
the scene graph representing the synthetic environment and communicate with each other through shared memory. As usually in parallel processing, two
approaches can be applied to the partitioning problem of the scene graph traversing operation: control parallelism and data parallelism. In control
parallelism approach, the scene graph traversing operation is divided into a sequence of stages, each of them executing a subset of the operation set needed
in each node of the graph. Each stage of traversing operation is implemented in a process (thread) and processes are executed in a pipeline mode. This
approach is very easy to implement, but has a number of limitations. The first problem with pipeline execution of traversing operation is the difficulty to
balance the execution time of processes, and the worst case execution time of one process delays all other processes in the pipeline. Another problem is the
limited number of processors that can be used, due to the small number of traversing stages.
Our work tries to compare pipeline execution of traversing operation with data parallelism approach. The
scene graph of synthetic environment is an irregular structure, which cannot be statically balanced partitioned, and, much more, in different image generation
frames, different sub-graphs are visible, depending on the observer position. Dynamically partitioning of the scene graph is a more suitable solution, which
can exploit the full execution time of all processors. The state-space tree of graph traversing can be efficiently represented as a stack in which every
unexplored path is stored at each step. Every entry in the state-stack stores the root of an unexplored sub-graph together with the complete traversing state
(transformation matrices, materials, textures, light sources, etc), using adequate accumulation of states along the traversing path. The access of multiple
processes to shared resources (state-stack and graphic interface) is synchronized using mutual exclusion mechanisms (such as mutexes, semaphores, events).
Experimental results show the influence of scene graph layout on the parallel speedup. For the same number of polygons in the database, a significant speedup
in data-parallel approach is obtained for a medium grain size of the scene graph and this speedup is greater then in pipeline execution.
Izi Peled and Ran Yakir
BVR Systems (1998) Ltd.
A major cost-driver in modern day training and simulation systems is the visual image generation.
Furthermore, the image generator (IG) is the principal output by which these systems are judged by users and potential customers. A smooth running high
fidelity visual database will demonstrate simulation systems more effectively and enhance the overall training value as well as ensure system acceptance by
Conventional methods of creating 3D visual databases depend on a large amount of manual labor in order
to create a realistic and accurate training environment. This amount of manual modeling and production is prohibitive both in cost and in time-to-market. In
addition to the requirement for realistic, high-quality visual databases in many applications, such as simulations used in training exercises, the real-time
performance is critical. Consequently, a tradeoff is made and the database's visual quality is compromised in order to achieve the goal of high-level
real-time performance. This paper presents an innovative approach developed by BVR Systems for automatic generation of high quality, real-time 3D visual
databases. In addition, it presents real-time software solutions that were developed to further enhance the capabilities and fidelity of the visual databases.
Mr. Graham Upton, Diamond Visionics
Over the last several years there has been a growing requirement for Ground-based simulation training
systems. As part of this requirement there is also a need for added realism within the simulation to provide, in real-time, the manipulation of a simulated
terrain database in a physically realistic manner during an interactive simulation. Dynamic Terrain is not new to the Ground-based simulation community.
However, current technologies require high-end computational platforms, are not real-time (30Hz), and are often cartoonish in appearance.
This paper will examine techniques to provide real-time dynamic terrain in a commercial-off-the-shelf
(COTS) PC with commercially available graphic accelerator cards. The task of developing Dynamic Tessellation is
challenging, especially on a PC-based system. Dynamic Tessellation provides the ability to deform terrain anywhere in the database in real time without the
need for predefined deformable areas. Both Pre-Tessellation and Instantaneous-Tessellation approaches will be reviewed as well as the effects of soil dynamics
and dynamic texture.
Dynamic Terrain is a requirement for realism for the maneuver forces in the Synthetic Environment.
Specifically the application of dynamic terrain encompasses mine breaching, bomb damage, building damage, soil plowing and snow plowing. Specific applications
of dynamic terrain are for the Grizzly Trainer, the Armored Vehicle Launched Mine-Clearing Line Charge (MICLIC), Track Width Mine Rollers and Explosive
Standoff Minefield Breacher (ESMB). Commercial applications include mining operations, air-traffic training for snow clearing and heavy equipment simulation.
Mr Jon Platts, DERA Bedford,
Mr Frank Rutley, CSC Computer Sciences Ltd,
Mr David Green, CSC Computer Sciences Ltd,
The Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (DERA) is currently undertaking research sponsored by the UK
Ministry of Defence into the Air Training Environment. The overall research package is focused on the technology and human factors issues which underpin all
aspects of military training for airborne missions. Simulators will be used for a full range of training tasks from basic training involving the handling of a
single air vehicle, up to mission rehearsal with many vehicles participating. Consequently the need for the correct and apposite simulation of appropriate
sensor systems must be addressed to provide the complete environment in which to immerse trainees and exercise participants. To this end a joint study between
the Flight Management and Control Department of DERA Bedford and Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) has been completed that specifically examines the
requirements of any imaging sensor simulation. This paper identifies the key features that need to be included in any imaging sensor simulation, giving the
customer the ability to match precisely any future system requirements to a particular training need.
In order to provide the fullest answer to the question of how to relate sensor system simulation
fidelity to training need, the team defined the training needs associated with sensor operation skills requirement. This
was achieved by performing a skills and task analysis for representative aircraft and mission profiles and combining this with in-service training
philosophies to produce an overall matrix defining minimum simulator fidelity requirement against the desired training outcome. Key practitioners from each
major aircraft type were interviewed to discuss their experience of the actual method of use of the equipments. The paper is a synthesis of all the research
undertaken at individual units. Common themes showing similar fidelity requirements for similar or disparate
scenarios are drawn together and differences highlighted. Output is a pair of matrices showing mission type, training need and fidelity required for Imaging
Infra Red (IIR) equipments and Night Vision Goggles (NVGs). The matrices provide information on the key features of NVG and IIR simulation for each of the
operational roles, in priority order. The paper also discusses simulation to various levels of realism and
provides a guide to the benefits of simulators on a sliding scale from full physics-based total system simulation, through partial realism, to low tech soft
simulation of the sensor display.
1 " British Crown Copyright 1999. Published with permission of the Defence Evaluation and Research
Agency on behalf of the Controller of HMSO.
Edward V. Rivard, AAI Corporation
Over the years, many threat environments have been built for use in large, single purpose institutional
trainers or as part of system evaluation exercises. Most of these threat environments have included traditional EW threats (Radar
and IFF emanations), and some have included threat network Communications (both data and voice), but few environments have been built that combine the
EW and Comm threats in a way that the two work together to produce an environment that recreates what is seen and heard.
Now that training and evaluation exercises are becoming larger and incorporating all kinds of disparate,
distributed simulations, there is a need to create an integrated EW and Comm threat environment where coordinated activity can be presented for warfighter
training and system evaluation.
This paper addresses some of the issues involved in making such a combined threat environment using
reactive EW and Communications networks elements. It illustrates the importance of having both Comms and EW threats working realistically together in an
exercise so the warfighter is presented with an environment where the contributions of each kind of jamming asset is accounted for fairly.
As an example of the features constructive EW and Communications threat models should have in this kind
of cooperative simulation environment, a simple GCI (Ground Control Interceptor ) situation will be discussed.
This case will be used to illustrate how disrupting the traditional EW (IFF and Radar emanations) and the traditional Comms Voice and Data links can have
similar effects and how combining them provides models with both greater realism and wider applicability.
INTEROPERABILITY: THE EMPEROR'S OLD CLOTHES
Paul W. Sutton, Interoperability Manager
Advanced Technology and Prototype Systems (PD 13)
Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR)
Differing definitions and views of interoperability have resulted in standards and interfaces that are
not always compatible or interoperable with one another. Interoperability standards and interfaces do not
necessarily provide the conditions necessary for real, end-to-end interoperability. Existing models of interoperability do not provide consistent, objective measures of interoperability
performance. They do not generally describe interoperability in sufficient detail to understand how it really works or explain what causes interoperability
performance to vary. This paper provides a conceptual framework of interoperability that addresses these
deficiencies. It postulates a single, consistent measure of interoperability performance, such as the probability
of successful interoperation, to quantify and understand interoperability. It also proposes a causal model of
interoperability that is needed to determine which factors contribute materially to interoperability performance in order to make better use of increasingly
scarce resources. Similarly, it presents a descriptive model to explain how interoperability works.
Dr. P.C.A. van Gool
Illgen Simulation Technologies, Inc.
All modern flight simulators provide either specific or generic simulation of aircraft subsystems
including models for engines, navigation and autopilot. These systems provide pilots and trainees with a computer-generated representation of the environment
and accompanying dynamics. When it comes to GPS navigation however, most simulators use some form of pre-recorded data to simulate the operation of GPS
receivers. There is a definite need for a more precise simulation of GPS navigation.
A technical framework has been developed by the US DoD which is to be applied to the whole range of
potential modelling and simulation applications in the DoD. The framework has also raised much interest in the civil market. The architecture that is part of
the framework, High Level Architecture (HLA), will be the common framework used by those simulations.
The paper will describe the efforts made by ISTI to provide simulated GPS navigation in HLA federations.
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is an all-weather space-based navigation system to satisfy the requirements to determine accurate position, velocity, and
time in a common reference frame, anywhere on or near the Earth on a continuous basis. The system consists of three segments. After a discussion of each of
these segments, the paper will proceed with a discussion of the HLA and its potential benefits for re-use of simulation components. The paper will continue
with a discussion of the global design of the simulated system. The paper will end with a discussion of the benefits of the current system and recommendations
for future work on expanding the system's functionality and applicability.
The developed software subsystem improves the simulation, and therefore the training experience, in
various ways. Introduction of errors into the GPS satellite constellation or introduction of various atmospheric effects are experienced by all receivers in a
consistent way. This enhances the degree of reality and fidelity of each individual simulation and or the distributed simulation as a whole.
Dr. Peter Ryan and Dr. Lucien Zalcman,
Aeronautical & Maritime Research Laboratory,
Defence Science & Technology Organisation (DSTO),
Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) defines an infrastructure for creating a synthetic environment
by linking simulations of various types at distributed locations. DIS operates through broadcasting information about the simulated entities via Protocol Data
Units (PDUs) across a network. For exercises with many simulated entities emitting PDUs frequently, this broadcast paradigm can result in considerable network
traffic. Standard models predict that DIS network traffic will increase linearly as the number of entities in the exercise increases. However this assumes
that each entity will participate at the same level of activity and ignores the complexity of warfare interactions. In this work, a series of experiments was
carried out to measure the DIS traffic issued from standard platforms using the synthetic environment system ModSAF and its derivative NavySAF. Data were
measured for scenarios with computer generated tanks, ships, helicopters, and fast jets and also for manned asset simulators which typically generate higher
traffic rates. The results showed that the assumption of linear scaling for network traffic holds for air and maritime entities engaging in combat beyond
visual range. However, for land entities such as tanks, the traffic scales non-linearly except during quiescent periods of activity such as transiting to a
waypoint. During periods of intense engagement network traffic for land warfare increases in an unpredictable manner with consequences for simulation network
development. For aircraft and ships, weaponry, such as missiles and close-in-weapon-systems, can generate extremely high traffic rates for short periods of
time. These high traffic rates must be taken into consideration when designing experiments and simulation networks.
Tom Strelich, email@example.com
Illgen Simulation Technologies, Inc.
The recent introductions of Sun's Jini1 (pronounced "Genie") technology and the World Wide Web
Consortium's (W3C) eXtensible Markup Language (XML) have the potential to fundamentally change the way software is developed, deployed, and utilized since
they represent the next logical step in the progression and fusion of distributed component architectures with network technology.
The paper describes the problem domain and new software technologies, assesses their impact on simulation integration and interoperation, and provides
a representative scenario illustrating the application of the technologies in a prototype simulation integration architecture.
Eytan Pollak, Ph.D., Lorie Ingraham, Senior Software Engineer, Mark Falash, Software Engineer
Lockheed Martin Information Systems,
Simulators for military aircraft and ground systems have been in use for almost two decades. During that
time, simulation has proven to be successful in training individual, crew, and collective tasks needed to function in real aircraft or ground vehicles.
Traditionally, individual crew skills trainers (such as gunnery) and tactical / battlefield trainers have been designed and implemented independently.
Skill-based crew training systems have been developed as stand-alone systems or as a small group of tightly coupled systems with pilot, gunner, driver,
or other highly specialized environments that have required highly interactive instructor/operator stations (IOSs). Tactical
training systems have evolved somewhat differently and are designed to communicate entity state, tactical environment, and other data over a distributed
network that is monitored to collect, assemble, and present training After Action Review debriefings for those being trained.
Greatly improved training benefits and life-cycle cost benefits could be realized by developing a common architecture that allows both specific crew
skills and collective tactical tasks to be trained using a single simulation system. The need for separate simulation systems was generated due to the
different fidelity requirements of the hardware and software components of these two types of systems. Tactical
simulators have generally sacrificed fidelity to gain scalability and to keep costs within affordable ranges. Skill-based
crew simulators have required faster update rates, high fidelity, and high resolution. Also, tactical simulators
have generally used free-range stochastic scenarios during training, while skill-based crew trainers have generally used well-defined and repeatable scenarios
developed to resemble live-fire ranges and driving courses. For many years, these fundamental differences have
driven the different architecture approaches used for these two types of training simulation systems.
In this paper we will present an approach to cost-effectively combine individual skills and collective
skills training into one simulator set, analyzing and discussing the system architecture issues. We will present an infrastructure that can support both types
of training by maximizing the use of common trainer services and components. A common architecture that allows
the combination of these two systems into a single simulation system will be able to support both skill-based crew training and unit-level tactical training.
This combined type of simulation system has been needed since the beginning of simulator-based training. Due to recent advances in architecture
development techniques, computer hardware, and tools, it is now possible.
Jean-Marc Naud, Makan Pourzandi, Ph.D., Yvan Lagacé
Virtual Prototypes Inc.
This paper describes a software product for simulation development and integration that provides a
simple path to migrate existing legacy simulations to the HLA Run Time Infrastructure (RTI) and to build distributed simulation systems.
It is aimed at existing owners of simulation applications interested in easily deploying their simulation in a distributed, HLA-compliant environment,
minimizing the programming effort. It provides a layer on top of the RTI's most often used services.
This layer shields users from the details of implementing a distributed, object-based system. This Distributed System Infrastructure (DSI) can provide
mechanisms to implement dead reckoning algorithms as well as data marshaling. The DSI also allows simulation models to communicate with each other using the
same mechanisms irrespective of the locality of the models. This means that the DSI layer will relay published data not just to external models though the RTI
but also between models that reside within the same application. The application also introduces a Dynamic Object System (DOS) that simplifies the task of
publishing data to other models. The publishing task is now hidden from the simulation model developers as it is
handled transparently by the DOS. A code generation mechanism has been developed to simplify the porting and
integration of legacy simulation systems with the DOS and DSI. This code generation is based on a System Object Model (SOM) that can be described manually or through import from other tools such as
Rational ROSE. The "fed" file necessary for running the HLA-RTI can also be generated from this System
Object Model. In addition to describing issues found through building this system, the paper also discusses the
experience gained by our organization in converting existing legacy simulation system to HLA.
Mr. Thomas C. Lasch, Project Director, Rick Copeland , Systems Engineer,
U.S. Army STRICOM, PM-STI,
Since the U.S. Army's Synthetic Theater of War - Architecture (STOW-A) program was started in early
1995, the focus has been on the linkage of Brigade/Battalion Battle Simulation (BBS), Modular Semi-Automated Forces (ModSAF) and Simulator Network (SIMNET) to
form a near-seamless simulation training tool for Brigade Combat Team (BCT) - level Commander and Staff training. The
roadmap for the STOW-A program clearly showed a migration to other simulations and simulators, as those systems were fielded (fiscal years 2000-2003).
With the changing nature of training requirements, came a more urgent need for more flexible simulation capabilities linked to live Command, Control,
Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance & Reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems. This paper will
describe how the U.S. Army STOW-A program is adjusting it's programmatic timeline and strategy to meet these new
emerging training needs.
Ercan Öztemel, Cüneyd Fırat, M.Fatih Hocaoglu, Ali Gürbüz
TUBITAK Marmara Research Center
This paper presents a general framework for creating intelligent assistance in the HLA federation
development and execution process. The study conducted identifies the potential areas where the intelligent agent technology can and should be employed.
Intelligent agents are the autonomous systems perceiving the events from the environment, reasoning
about those events and responding accordingly. This study is intended to define a structure for an intelligent agent performing element assessment in HLA
based training environments. It is now clear that this task requires expertise and knowledge of the domain as well as knowledge of the repository. This is
rather complicated especially when the number of available elements is increasing. It is believed that intelligent agents can be quite useful with this
respect. In order to be able to analyze intelligent assistance for element assessment, the element assessment process is first analyzed. Intelligent abilities
then are considered to create an agent that is able to perform element selection as intelligently as possible. Element assessment process is outlined with respect to inputs- process and outputs. This will also highlight the characteristics of elements
to be taken into account in the selection process.
The paper then introduces the requirements for creating such as system. These requirements include user
requirements as well as technical requirements. After requirements are highlighted then a possible architecture for such an agent is described.
This study is part of a EUCLID CEPA 11 RTP 11.14 project that is currently carried out by an
international consortium composed of companies form TURKEY, UK, The NETHERLANDS, GERMANY, and SPAIN. The project is led by an UK company.
MODELING AND SIMULATION SUPPORT OF F-22 AND AIM-9X OPERATIONAL TEST AND EVALUATION (OT&E)
Robert D. Dighton, Research Staff Member, Institute for Defense Analyses
An emerging initiative in the United States is the use of modeling and simulation (M&S) to augment
field testing for operational test and evaluation (OT&E) of new weapon systems, required before the systems can enter full-rate production.
This paper addresses the planned use of M&S to support OT&E of the F-22 and AIM-9X acquisition programs, two major new weapon systems under
development in the U.S. These developmental weapon systems have well-defined M&S planned applications, as
outlined in their approved Test and Evaluation Master Plans (TEMPs), representing an acceptable balance between M&S products and flight test data sources
The F-22 operational test and evaluation will utilize outputs from a manned air combat simulator (ACS)
under development at the prime contractor Lockheed-Martin's Marietta, Georgia facility and several constructive (digital) models, as well as flight test
results. This paper will describe the development plan for the ACS, along with the ACS outputs expected to
support OT&E. Planned inputs from constructive models to Air Force Operational Test and Evaluation Command's (AFOTEC) operational effectiveness and
suitability evaluations will also be described. Data from the 240 flight test sorties at Edwards AFB, California
and Nellis AFB, Nevada dedicated to support OT&E, along with additional data from a combined Development Test/Operational Test phase, will be used to
validate the ACS, allowing the ACS to provide inputs to the AFOTEC effectiveness analysis for a much broader range of scenarios (target types and densities)
than can be provided on existing U.S. test ranges. An overview of the F-22 test program will also be presented to
put this planned use of M&S support of OT&E in context.
The AIM-9X program is also making extensive use of M&S in its development program, from early
development testing through OT&E. This joint Navy/Air Force air-to-air missile program is utilizing several constructive models and hardware-in-the-loop
simulations operating in the prime contractor Raytheon's Tucson, Arizona plant, at China Lake NAS, California and at Eglin AFB, Florida. The AIM-9X program's
goal is to use the outputs from the same suite of simulations throughout the Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) acquisition phase, including
OT&E analyses, to augment data from the limited number of live missile test launches. These live missile shots will also be key contributors to validation
of the simulations. The suite of simulations will be described, along with their interactions leading to an estimate of the probability of kill of threats in
a comprehensive spectrum of operational scenarios. An overview of the AIM-9X acquisition program, with an emphasis on testing plans, will provide the
contextual background for understanding the balanced simulation and flight testing approach. Another important development program requirement is integration
of the AIM-9X with the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS), which is an independent development program, but testing cooperation is needed to
demonstrate the off-boresight capability of the AIM-9X as well as provide an operational high off-boresight weapon slaving test environment for the JHMCS.
This paper will be an adaptation of a paper on the same subject to be presented by the author to the
67th Military Operations Research Society (MORS) symposium at the US Military Academy, West Point, New York on 22 June 1999.
Ms. Catherine DiPlacido
Air Force Agency for Modeling and Simulation
Mr. Robert Rohlfing
University of Central Florida Institute for Simulation and Training
The Tri-Service Steering Group (TSSG) Modeling and Simulation Resource Repository (MSRR) Cooperative
Development Team has contributed significantly to development, implementation, and support of the Office of the Secretary of Defense MSRR (United States of
America). Team contributions directly furthered MSRR objectives of providing affordable, reusable, interoperable,
readily available, and operationally valid M&S resources. Although designed originally for the Department of
Defense, the application has suitability for academia and industry use, especially in two areas:
* providing metadata for components to support the characterization of components and their composition
as part of a simulation system
* providing interfaces and standards that facilitate sharing models and data between government and
By applying the Tri-Service MSRR technology, the sharing of information, whether metadata, simulation
software, or other resource is greatly enhanced.
Since its inception, the Tri-Service Team has an exceptional record of cross-Service cooperation.
The Team harmonized all requirements and constructed an MSRR that provided affordable, reusable, interoperable, readily available, and operationally
valid resources. This same construct could readily be applied to the Defense/Industry Resource Repository (DIRR)
currently being proposed by the Department of Defense.
The Team put aside Service rivalries and developed a shared structure and taxonomy for the Service MSRRs.
The combined resources of the Tri-Service MSRRs now exceed 2500. Over 600 registered points of contact are
available to request additional M&S information. The Tri-Service classified MSRR (CMSRR) exhibits the same
level of Service cooperation. The Team recently developed an Authoritative Data Source (ADS) structure assuring Service collaboration in registering ADS resources, a major
goal of DMSO.
TSSG success stories are numerous. WARSIM (U.S. Army) is
using the AWSIM (U.S. Air Force) surface-to-air engagement algorithm as a result of information obtained from the AFMSRR. The Joint Strike Fighter development test and evaluation team praised our site as an excellent source of information.
The Tri-Service MSRR has proven its worth in many other similar accounts. Expansion into the DIRR is the
next logical progression
George D. Thompson, Jr., Division Director,
Simulation Based Engineering Applications
Illgen Simulation Technologies, Inc.
Simulation Based Acquisition (SBA) has a special interest for the training community because never
before have the needs and requirements for training been considered so early in the acquisition process. SBA is a concept for the acquisition of complex systems that capitalizes on the ability of M&S to represent the behavior of a system
virtually before actual hardware is built. If the M&S are accurate and detailed, iterations on design options
can be evaluated inexpensively and personnel from the acquisition, planning, design, manufacturing, training, and user communities can work together to
consider the whole life cycle of the system when making decisions.
The architectural vision for SBA includes a Collaborative Environment (CE), an integrated product and
process approach to acquisition that provides distributed access for the various user communities to the same set of data and tools.
This paper discusses the issues that we must face when implementing a CE, some of the lessons that we
have learned by navigating through the "minefield" of uncharted territory, and a design approach. The
suggested approach deals with the issues and produces an architecture that is expandable to accommodate other contexts and additional models and simulations.
Among the issues discussed are the multidimensional nature of CEs, overcoming cultural biases,
interoperability, and verification, validation and accreditation (VV&A) of M&S.
Lessons that we have learned about CE architectures are that a variety of interface protocols such as
High Level Architecture (HLA), CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) and direct access protocols must be used to ensure compatibility and growth
for the future. The bulk of the effort in implementing a CE will be spent in building wrappers for legacy models and simulations.
When using M&S, one must consider the problem of data matching for models of differing levels of fidelity. This
is part of data certification and must be done to ensure that data produced by one model is meaningful to another.
To build a distributed architecture for a CE, three existing core technologies, Java, CORBA, and the
Internet, can provide a good starting point. This architecture has the attributes of being processor independent,
extensible, and highly distributed. It works well when incorporating legacy programs into an integrated package
that has a common look and feel for all applications. This architecture has been developed with SBA in mind and
can be applied across all phases of the acquisition process including training. The confluence of the core
technologies of the Internet, Java and CORBA finally makes software "plug-and-play" a reality.
Mr. Thomas C. Lasch, Project Director, Ms. Alesya Paschal, Project Engineer
U.S. Army STRICOM, AMSTI-ED
This paper discusses the design and execution of 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne) (SOAR(A))
Synthetic Theater of War-Architecture (STOW-A) training exercises executed in October 1998 and October 1999. The
160th SOAR(A) STOW-A training exercise provided the 160th SOAR(A) Aviators and the 75th Ranger Regiment Rangers mission planning and execution in a synthetic
environment. The STOW-A effort created an infrastructure that combined existing simulation and simulators to
support this mission planning exercise.
Mr. Thomas C. Lasch, Project Director,
U.S. Army STRICOM, PM-STI,
Rick Copeland , Systems Engineer,
U.S. Army STRICOM, AMSTI-ED,
Mr. Bill Millspaugh, Chief, Simulations Technology,
TechMasters, Inc, Lawton, OK, USA,
Mr. Bob Strider, General Engineer, Laurence (Larry) H.
U.S. Army Space & Missile Defense Battle Lab,
The early focus of the U.S. Army's Synthetic Theater of War - Architecture (STOW-A) program was the
linkage of Brigade/Battalion Battle Simulation (BBS), Modular Semi-Automated Forces (ModSAF) and Simulator Network (SIMNET) to create a Brigade size synthetic
training environment. The goal of this architecture was to form a near-seamless simulation-training tool for
Brigade Combat Team (BCT) Commander and Staff training. This architecture has several drawbacks including the
inability for the simulation to link to live Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance & Reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems and
a heavy reliance on BBS interactors to carry out the Commander's intent. As the Army moves towards a digitized
force structure the training tools and simulations must allow the Brigade sized unit to train as it fights. The
changing nature of training requirements brought about by digitization has highlighted the urgent need for flexible simulation capabilities linked to live
C4ISR systems. The STOW-A program has met a portion of this training challenge through the deployment of a Counterfire Simulation toolkit for DIVARTY and
Dr Peter Clark, Dr Peter Ryan, and Dr Lucien Zalcman
Air Operations Division,
Aeronautical & Maritime Research Laboratory,
Defence Science & Technology Organisation (DSTO),
Advanced Distributed Simulation technologies are changing the way in which military forces train and
rehearse for missions. By connecting many simulators into a shared virtual world, technologies such as Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) can increase
training effectiveness. DIS has been very successful in this role but has shown deficiencies in its scalability because of the broadcast technique across many
computing nodes in a DIS exercise and in its de facto restriction to real time simulation. The High Level Architecture (HLA) has been mandated to address
these deficiencies. Whereas DIS requires compliance to a standard Protocol Data Unit (PDU) set, HLA allows each federate to specify what information it will
generate and what data it receives. However, all participating federates must agree on which information to interchange. The Australian Defence Organisation
(ADO) is moving towards Advanced Distributed Simulation to enhance its training capability and is gaining experience with DIS. Should the ADO consider HLA for
its simulators and simulations or persist with DIS? This paper addresses these issues from an Australian perspective.
Dipl.-Ing. Rainer Int-Veen, Dipl.-Ing. Rudolf Deinlein
DaimlerChrysler Aerospace / Dornier GmbH
One of the worldwide trends in military training is to raise the level of realism constantly. All
situations a soldier could be faced with during combat or operations other than war should be covered in a most realistic way. Especially during a training in
a combat training center specialized for ground force operations all the influences on the individual soldier should be present. Most of today's operations
need ground forces to effectively operate in urban terrain. In this case anti tank, anti person mines, claymore type mines and hand grenades are one of the
very important parts of such scenarios.
This paper discusses the difference between training with and without these weapons. It also discusses
what might happen if these threats are not simulated realistically enough. After a general statement about these elements frequently missing in training
sites, the different technologies are introduced. This paper also contrasts the degree of realism implemented in the various solutions available on the
military market. Furthermore, it is shown how various degrees of realism influence training methods and training efficiency. In the second part, the aspects
of cheating during training and the organizational aspects of equipment distribution and post-exercise recovery.
Finally, this paper addresses the capabilities of the actual TAKABO simulator family for mine and hand
grenade effects developed by DASA. The hardware concept, the components, its software concept and components are
described. This solution for mine and hand grenade simulation contracted by the German Bundeswehr eliminates most of the negative effects explained
T. Michael Moriarity, Principal Development Engineer
Re-use of operational software has long been a viable design consideration in operator trainers.
In the simulation of computer-controlled subsystems characterized by complex functionality, frequent software changes, and the need for high functional
fidelity, using operational software is often the best design alternative. Typically, fire control, electronic
combat signal processing, navigation, or operator/machine interface software is used to support the simulation of ground vehicle or aircraft subsystems.
A subsystem that will continue to grow in complexity in the 21st century is the on-board diagnostic
software systems in ground combat vehicles. Ground combat vehicles that will make up the Army's Joint Vision 2010
force have an array of systems and vetronics that rivals the complexity of aircraft. Increasingly complex
on-board diagnostic software is being developed to efficiently maintain these systems. It is expected that the
diagnostic software will be modified frequently as vehicle subsystems are upgraded and automated diagnostic techniques are improved. Since the on-board
diagnostic software will be the operator/maintainer's primary means of fault detection and isolation, a high degree of functional fidelity will be required to
train the maintainer. These trends make it apparent that re-use of operational diagnostic software should be
considered for maintenance trainers.
To investigate the feasibility of re-using on-board vehicle diagnostic software in a maintenance
trainer, AAI and United Defense developed a proof-of-concept demonstration device for the U.S. Army's A3 Bradley Fighting Vehicle.
The device was first demonstrated at the 1998 I/ITSEC Conference and used vehicle diagnostic software in an interactive courseware (ICW) environment.
ICW led the maintainer through the operation of the diagnostic software to detect, isolate, and identify simulated faults that were inserted under
The Bradley Maintenance Demonstrator showed that incorporating vehicle diagnostic software in a
maintenance trainer is not only feasible, but also desirable for cost-effective training in the use of "real"
diagnostic software. The proof-of-concept development effort also brought to light several technical issues that
require consideration when contemplating the use of operational software in a procedure oriented-maintenance trainer. Two
central issues are 1) the determination of the structural layer at which interfacing between operational and trainer software should take place and 2) the
resolution of control between the two autonomous software systems. This paper reviews the advantages and
disadvantages of using operational software in a maintenance training environment and discusses the issues raised during the development of the demonstrator.
Werner Kraemer, Founding Partner, CIO
Diamond Visionics LLC
Jill Ashby, COR
US ARMY (STRICOM)
Richard E. Pray, President
RPA Electronics Design, LLC
Tethered miniature display systems, such as simulated
binoculars and head-mounted displays systems, are used to simulate virtual presence. Due to the tethered constraint such systems are awkward in their usage
and significantly limit the application. This paper describes a wireless high-resolution display system for a binocular simulation utilizing Infrared (IR)
digital video and data transceiver techniques. Two separate channels of IR transceivers are implemented, one for high frequency digital video and the other for lower frequency attitude
sensor data. The IR transceiver solution described herein sends frame synchronized high frequency video data at a variable rate using variable data
compression techniques. A base unit, with a video compression engine and synchronization signal generator, drives
the high speed IR transmitter. The remote display unit includes a digital video receiver and synchronization subsystems, decompression mechanism, frame buffer
storage, and sophisticated video timing generator to allow interface to various display devices and formats. It
also contains position and attitude sensing capability, a high-resolution full color display, and an efficient rechargeable power system.
Visuell Systemteknik i Linköping AB
Swedish Armed Forces, Naval Centre
Mona J. Crissey
Army Research Laboratory, Human Research and Engineering Directorate
In recent years several methods and tools have been presented for supporting the training of commanders
and personnel involved in military and civilian rescue operations. Typically, these state-of-the-art training aids address a specific training issue
concerning a particular function in an operational scenario. Examples of such aids are triage training for physicians using a simulated accident scene,
training for medical personnel using a human patient simulator, and command-post training using a simulated emergency scenario. However, there is a
significant need for examining the implications of this new technology when it comes to developing adequate training programs for integrated task forces,
consisting of units from different organisations. In particular, it is important to identify the critical phases of an operation, to define the training needs
in these phases, to identify the appropriate training aids for each of the phases, and most important, to ensure that the training conducted can be co-ordinated,
reviewed and evaluated in terms of mission-level parameters. In this paper we study these issues in the context of medical attention in a mass-casualty
incident. We introduce a casualty-flow network model to identify critical functions and use it to explore training needs. Based on our findings we review
several existing training aids and discuss their applicability to emergency response training.
Dennis J. Foth, Engineer III
In today's world we continually hear about major national and international events in which criminal or
terrorist activity is involved... the embassy bombings, the Oklahoma City bombing, the Khobar Towers incident, and the Tokyo Subway Sarin attack are just a
few of the incidents that have made the news. But everyday the threat of criminal activity or terrorism involving hazardous materials exists.
As an emergency responder you're in a unique position-you may be called to respond to such incidents, but you may also be a target.
Emergency responders must recognize the possibility that a criminal or terrorist event has occurred, and know how to handle the incident in order to
protect themselves and possible victims, and to handle potential evidence so that it can be used in a court of law.
This tutorial and paper is designed to raise your level of awareness about criminal and terrorist
activity in which you as an emergency responder may be involved. Specifically, we'll look at the competencies for
analyzing, planning for, and implementing proper procedures at a HazMat incident where criminal or terrorist activity is suspected.
The tutorial will incorporate the content and images of the interactive multimedia CD-ROM course
"Emergency Response to Terrorism for Emergency Responders", and will be presented using the multimedia course.
Topics include the Objectives, Analyzing the Incident, Planning the Response, and Implementing the Planned Response.
There will be periodic questions asked.
Lars Toftegaard Olsen
IFAD, Forskerparken 10
This paper describes the MUSTER" (Multi-User System for Training Emergency Response) System used
for performing practical/flexible emergency training of medical staff in pre-hospital emergency management. Special attention is made to the flexibility with
which emergency scenarios may be constructed.
MUSTER" is a multi-user simulation tool for training decision makers in handling an emergency
situation. The system allows the trainees to work and interact in a virtual simulation world, thereby learning, not only individual skills but also team
skills. In particular the training of co-ordination of the different tasks to be performed in an emergency situation is important.
During a training session it is possible for the supervisor (training supervisor) to monitor the
progress of the trainees. After the training session has finished the supervisor may evaluate the performance of individuals as well as group performance.
Moreover, it is possible for the supervisor to define his own emergency situations and the circumstances under which the trainees need to be able to handle
it, e.g. available resources, the number of helpers and ambulances, etc. This means that the MUSTER" System not only may work as a training tool but also
as a tool for testing emergency plans and trying out field-exercises, helping to ensure success when going live.
The MUSTER" System is implemented in Internet Technologies (Java) and is available on all modern
platforms. The system has been developed by IFAD (www.ifad.dk) in close connection with end-users.
W. Randall Koons, Simulation Technology Manager, Peter Venturini, Senior Instructional Designer,
Phil M. Wade, Operations Manager, Scott Wilson, Software Development Manager
STAR Technology Corporation
In every environment that mankind inhabits, fire, rescue, HAZMAT, and law enforcement units combat
emergency incidents on a 24/7 basis. Emergency response personnel must be prepared to handle life-threatening
conditions while limiting the risk to life and property. Just as the military has prepared for battle by conducting large distributed exercises, the reduced
cost of powerful technology will allow the emergency response community to do the same. This paper discusses the development of simulation techniques for
special requirements of emergency response personnel training.
On-scene, emergency personnel gather visual and aural data of dynamic situations, and direct resources
to resolve the incident. Computer graphics simulation provides the visual cues to the student while simulated radio traffic and role players provide aural and
other cues to simulate a real incident. The student will make decisions and issue orders that affect the simulation and display the results on a computer
There is no user graphical user interface for the student, as the computer must remain transparent to
the student. Training must reflect the real-world conditions of observing an incident and giving verbal instructions. The instructor or simulation technician
operates the user interface controlling the simulation display based student decisions.
Our work with the National Fire Academy in Emmitsburg, Maryland, USA, has led to the development of a
system that satisfies emergency response personnel requirements, while providing the capability to capture decisions for post-incident analysis. The system
consists of a client and a graphics display server that communicate via standard network protocols. The client is a Windows application and the graphics
server can run on PCs or graphics workstations. The system can be configured from one client and one server to multiple clients controlling a network of
The challenge of delivering high visual fidelity simulations on low-cost hardware has been addressed by
a team of software developers, instructional designers, and graphic artists. The importance of high quality visual cues is a critical component of simulation
based training for civil preparedness. Making such a system work on hardware that is affordable to the emergency response community has resulted in a powerful
system that provides the necessary functionality for realistic emergency response training. Our paper will explore the requirements, challenges, and resulting
technology developed for this new arena of simulation training.
Dipl.-Inform. Oliver Burgert, Dipl.-Inform.
Tobias Salb and Prof. Dr.-Ing. Rüdiger Dillmann
Institute for Process Control & Robotics
Universität Karlsruhe (TH), Department for Computer Science
In plastic surgery, there is a high need for preoperative visualisation of the surgical results. This is
used for planning purposes and to show the patient what he or she will look like after the surgery. In plastic surgery, the last point is more important than
in other surgical fields, because the aim of the intervention is to optimise the visual appearance of the patient.
There are existing simulation systems which are able to perform the task described above. Now it would
be useful to have a planning system which gives the surgeon the possibility to manipulate a 3D-model of the patient interactively and adapt it to the wishes
of the patient. This system should contain realistic tissue parameters like stiffness to allow the surgeon to interact with a virtual face as he does with a
real one. It should be possible to feel bone structures and move the skin in a realistic manner. The deformed model should be usable for surgical planning,
therefore the main tissue structures like skin, fat, muscle and bones should behave realistic. This paper will present a framework for such a surgical
The focus of our work lies in the facial area. A patient is scanned using a spiral-CT with a slice
thickness of 1.5 mm. After several image processing steps, we are generating surface models for the main structures like skin and bones. These surface models
are the basis for our deformation system.
We are using the haptic device PHANToM(tm) for the haptic interaction with our surface model. The
surgeon can use the stencil-like endeffector called "stylus" of the PHANToM(tm) to deform the surface structure of the model. By applying pressure,
the surface is deformed by taking in account, that no underlying bone structure may be deformed. The tissue between bone and skin is marked as "to be
removed" by the planing system. The other way around, the surgeon can pull the skin with the stylus and the planing system is inserting "tissue to
be added" in the resulting gap. This tissue can be taken from other parts of the face, this is performed when moving fat from one space to another. It is
also possible to add solid material to the bone structure, which will result in a different behaviour of the soft tissue model of the face. The different
tissue structures are simulated using a fast spring-damper-model. The resulting "ADD"- and "REMOVE"-regions can be displayed separately.
By using this system, it's possible for the surgeon to plan his operation on a realistic 3D-model and to
gather information about the surgical procedure. It is planned to add even more realistic tissue models to the system and add a second PHANToM(tm) for two
handed manipulation of the surface model. Furthermore the "ADD"- and "REMOVE"-regions should be integrated in the original CT images for
intraoperative fast access.
Martijn Boosman, M.Sc.; Designer and President, E\Semble
Co-operating development companies:
Tryllian, Amsterdam; Maassen Consulting bv, Cuijk
The world wide web is a huge source of information. At the same time, the internet is as organized as a
garbage can. Information can therefore not be found and valuable knowledge is left in one place instead of being shared .. as knowledge should be in the
Disaster and emergency response is one of the public domains where information sharing is minimal. The
same research is undertaken at different locations worldwide. Many wheels are invented over and over again and little is learnt from best-practices. The
Internet and the risen attention for disasters has created a better knowledge sharing atmosphere, but it can and should become much better.
In my presentation I will describe and show the use of intelligent software assistants (agents) for
people involved in disaster and emergency response. An agent is a small piece of software that acts like a personal robot roaming the Internet looking for
contacts and information. You can personally tell your robot what to find for you. It will look for the requested information, independently on the Internet
while you do other things, or even switch of your computer. It will return with the information within a time limit you have set.
The agents I will describe have a unique feature, they interact with other agents on the Internet. By
doing so, they learn from each other and give each other tips about where to find the best information. If enough people involved in disaster and emergency
response send out an agent on the net, there will be enough knowledgeable agents to help each other.
INTERNATIONAL MEDICAL MANAGEMENT FOR MASS CASUALTY OCCURRENCES
“WHEN HUMANS NEED TO GO AND WHERE HUMANS CAN NOT GO: SIMULATION IS THE ONLY ANSWER”
SIMULATION FOR SPACE STATION AND BEYOND
SPACE MISSION TRAINING AND SIMULATION FOR OTHER INDUSTRIES
TRAINING FOR THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION
NASA’S USE OF SIMULATION AND TRAINING
INTRODUCTION: WHERE ARE WE?
SOLUTION DEFINITION AND SUPPLY MODELS
MEASURING THE OUTPUT
MODEL ARCHITECTURE FOR AN UNDERGROUND TRAIN DRIVING AND FAILURES SIMULATOR
Rodríguez, M. I., Brazález, A., Busturia, J.M.
Department of Applied Mechanics
Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Técnicas de Gipuzkoa (CEIT)
In this paper, the model architecture used for the construction of an underground driving and failure
system simulator is explained. Special care has been taken in the modelling strategy in order to achieve the desired training objectives. The use of software
component technologies in the development provides advantages such as code reusability, high degree of encapsulation and easy maintenance.
The aims of the underground simulator developed are to train drivers to operate in normal service
conditions and, more importantly, to react appropriately to system failures and incidents. Expected benefits are the reduction of the training period for new
drivers and their increased ability to solve faulty unit conditions during service.
Dynamic models are responsible for reproducing the behaviour of the systems that are not physically
included in the simulator. These systems are modelled as a set of differential and difference equations that predicts the behaviour of the simulated trains
with time. Real-time performance has been maintained even when the model's accuracy increased computational load.
The mathematical models developed comprise the different subsystems of the two types of units that
compose a train. A mechanical model is responsible for the correct behaviour of the vehicle along the track while the electrical model represents the power
supply system and the traction motors. A pneumatic model reproduces the braking system and the suspension elements. Electronics subsystems are also simulated
including the electronic traction control and braking unit and the ATP/ATO (Automatic Train Protection/Automatic Train Operation) systems. Finally electrical
protection boxes and pneumatic controls are also simulated and virtualised.
COM (Component Object Model) technology has been used to build the different subsystems in the
mathematical models. The architecture developed benefits from the advantages of COM objects such as high modularity, easy upgradeability and module
replacement. These characteristics help in the communication between different modules and different programming teams.
The level of detail that the developed mathematical models provide, opens new areas of application for
this kind of simulator, such their use as a tool for designing and commissioning the automatic operation systems in future lines.
PART TASK DRIVER TRAINING
VIDEO VISUAL SYSTEM
TRAIN CAB SIMULATOR RE460 WITH COMPLEX TRAIN DYNAMICS
MULTIFUNCTIONAL SIMULATION SYSTEM FOR AUSTRIAN RAILWAYS
M.Sc. Berger, Johann, Signalling Engineer,
Austrian Railway Headquarters, Vienna.
M.Sc. Bozsóki, Zoltán, System Developer, M.Sc. Molnár, Géza, System Developer, Dr.-Tech. Parádi,
Ferenc Ph.D., Associate Professor, M.Sc. Szilva, Péter Ern_, Technical Project Manager,
System Developer Tran-SYS System Technic Ltd.
Simulation is an important tool for planning and training of railway technology. A new simulation system
called BEST-ÖBB has been developed and put into operation by Tran-SYS System Technic Ltd, Hungary and VST Vossloh System Technik GmbH, Germany.
An important aspect of planning any railway technology is to find an optimal solution for the track
infrastructure and control systems planning, which satisfies the requirement of the operator in terms of services, low installation and running costs. Another
important aspect of installation of a new electronic interlocking system is the quick and efficient training of the e.g. operator crew, preferably using the
railway network that they will eventually use. To meet these objectives in the most cost-effective way, a simulation modelling both the interlocking system
and the train monitoring layer should be used.
Training can cover a number of areas: basic user interface training for operators and maintaining crew
of the interlocking system, further operator training prior to implementation of an additional electronic interlocking system before putting it into
operation, European Train Control System user interface training for engine drivers, crisis stress training for operators on their actual station and
timetable rather than a generic station.
The simulation also allows analysis to be performed on the impact of changing the timetable, for both
annual changes or as a result of track maintenance/reorganization. This feature is supported by tools displaying Distance - Time - Curve and Object
Status/Usage - Time - Diagram.
Krauss Maffei, Wegmann Gmbh & Cokg
In order to be able to evaluate and assess the influences and effects of modifications in train control
technology at the earliest possible stage of the development, the research and development centre (FTZ) of Deutsche Bahn AG (DB AG) has installed a system
designed to analyse current and future train control technologies, the TCSim or train control simulator; this system which incorporates a Krauss-Maffei
Wegmann (KMW) driver training simulator has been set up in collaboration with Daimler-Chrysler Aerospace Dornier Satellite Systems (DSS).
It is based on the general definition of train control components and rules as well as networks or
railway lines, train configurations and timetables.
It is not only the simulation of different train control technologies that provides results required in
search of new approaches to accelerated and yet safe railway operation. The driver training simulator integrated in this system can be included in these
analyses or independently contribute information for this complex system of communication and man-machine interaction.
Dr. István Hrivnák, MIRSE, Assistant Professor,
Department of Transport Automation,
Technical University of Budapest
Attila Dobrosi, System Developer,
Tran-SYS System Technic Ltd.
Jürgen Hofmann, Project Leader,
Vossloh System Technik GmbH.
Rainer Schwentke, Project Leader,
Hamburger Hochbahn AG.
HOCHBAHN company, Hamburg, (HHA) - the second largest public transport operator in the Federal Republic
of Germany - has started modernisation of metro line U1 Train Control and Station Supervision. The most significant functions of traffic control and station
supervision will be automated, such as train and car identification, train control, remote control of station facilities etc. The number of local line control
centres are reduced to two (Ochsenzoll and Farmsen) on the line U1, which length is app. 55 km covering 46 stations. The integration of tasks and the
extension of the traffic control centre's supervisory area requires high level qualification and performance from the human staff. HOCHBAHN has built up an
education and training concept with different features for beginner training (e.g. by CBT functions) as well as expert and refresher training by simulation.
The Integrated Training System for Traffic Control (IBAS) connects all single system components and provides effective tools for all training levels. The
trainee has got the same operational surface as at the centre's workplace. The outside environment and the running of the trains according to original
timetables are simulated by MESSINA (see ITEC99 2nd RTTC presentation: The use of Programmed Event Control for interlocking simulation). The paper introduces
the Train Control and Station Supervisory System, the interface to MESSINA and the dispatcher's training concept.
Krauss-Maffei Wegmann GmbH & Co. KG
In the "Training and Simulation" division of Krauss-Maffei Wegmann we build a wide variety of
training simulators. In a recent contract we are to build a series of train simulators for a single customer. Here, two conflicting goals arise: diversity and
Diversity is required in several respects: we support several locomotive families. Each family consists
of several classes of locomotives. The customer wants to use a variety of track nets and support for an extensive set of training aspects.
Uniformity is required for the customer and the supplier. The customer needs a cohesive look and feel
over all simulators to minimise training effort and to be able to exchange instructors between different training locations. We, the supplier, need uniformity
to minimise effort and duration of the development process and to facilitate long term maintenance including addition of new simulators and upgrades of
Analysing these requirements and recalling the lessons learned producing simulators for trains, tracks
and tanks, we come to the conclusion that there is no single uniform approach to solve this problem.
The specific characteristics of the subsystems like visual system, dynamics, logic, track logic,
instruction management and user interface, must be analysed and the most appropriate solution used.
We will show that a subsystem specific combination of the following architectural patterns promises the
* client server model with dynamically loadable services
* layered architecture (hierarchical machines)
* object oriented application framework
* interpretation of object structures defined in XML
* data base technology
* rule bases and inference engines
AIRCREW MISSION TRAINING VIA DISTRIBUTED SIMULATION-A NATO STUDY
DEMONSTRATION OF THE DISTANCE LEARNING PLATFORM SUPPORTING DISTANT PILOT TRAINING
Dipl.-Inf. Sandra Frings
Institute for Human Factors and Technology Management
University of Stuttgart
Airline pilot instruction is performed in conventional classroom instruction for some 40 years now.
Since the late 80's different kinds of learning programs have been developed which aimed at supporting and complementing conventional classroom instruction.
A complete new way of teaching within airline training is the approach presented in the project
Lilienthal - Multimedia Off- and Online Distance Learning for European Pilot Training, which is funded by the European Commission and the Swiss Federal Office
for Education and Science. Some 101 h of theoretical instruction will be divided into a (computer based) distance learning phase and a presence learning
phase. In the distance learning phase the students will be supported with tele-tutoring services provided by a group of flight training schools, who are
members of a "Virtual Pilot School".
The paper and demonstration is focussed on the communication services available in the distance learning
platform, which is used for communication between the Virtual Pilot School tele-tutors and the students to support them in the process of learning at a
DESCRIPTION AND RESULTS OF A SYSTEMATIC TELE-TUTOR TRAINING
Author: B.S. Emans en L.H. Christoph
University of Amsterdam
The Lilienthal project is a collaboration between various flight schools and universities in Europe. The
participants co-operate in developing a shared Distance Learning Platform (DLP) for the acquisition of a Private Pilot License (PPL), the first stage of any
pilot training, professional or non-professional.
The aim of the project is to develop a Distance Learning Platform (DLP), where students can study for
the theoretical part of their PPL. The entire course takes 100 hours of learning. The students can study 75 hours at home (or wherever there is a computer
available) and 25 hours in the so-called Presence Learning Phase where difficult subjects (not suited for distance education) are taught in a classroom
The DLP consists of more than 250 learning modules, which the student can study in his own time.
Furthermore the DLP has four possibilities for distance communication between students and tutors: e-mail, discussion groups, bulletin boards and a
chat-facility. Students and tutors also have the possibility to use the telephone and fax for aiding the process of distance education.
In the Lilienthal project, the focus is not only on the role of the student, but also the role of the
teacher is considered. This paper describes the systematical training program that teaches classroom teachers to become distance tutors (or Tele-Tutors, as
they are called within the project).
DISTANCE LEARNING FOR THE JAA ATPL AND THE INTERNET
THE JAA-ATPL IS HERE - HOW DO WE GO FORWARD AND PRODUCE NOT ONLY WHAT THE REGULAOTRS REQUIRE BUT
ALSO THE FUTURE AIRLINE EMPLOYEE?
THE NECESSITY OF AN EXCELLENT EDUCATION FOR PILOTS WHICH HAVE TO HANDLE MODERN GLASS COCKPIT
THE LONG WAY TO AN ACADEMIC EDUCATION MODEL FOR AIRLINE PILOTS IN GERMANY
Prof. Dr. Gerhard Faber
University of Technology Chemnitz, Germany
In recent years the workload in the cockpit has experienced tremendous changes as a result of new
technologies improved system structure and automation. Digital glass cockpits in connection with fly-by-wire systems are very comfortable under normal
operations but become more complex unter distrubances, threatening the control of the aircraft. The pilot´s
input controlled activities are declining, while cockpit supervision and cockpit system management dominate in normal operation. Maintaining situation- and
system awareness is becoming more and more difficult for the commercial aircraft pilots oft the third jet genreation after the middle of the 80´s. Despite
better design of the human-machine cockpit interface, the cockpit is sometimes a barrier rather than a window to the process.
Now the reliability of the human-machine interface can be raised through 3 aspects:
* The Hardware Concept
The top level requirements, that design philosophy including alll ergonomic and anthropotechnic aspects
* The Software Ergonomics
The adaptation of the work circumstances by the human-computer interaction with the operator´s
cognitive and psychomotor aabilities
* The Qualifications of the Operator
The pilot´s depth of qualifications and understanding of the system
Additional complexity in the cockpit, increasing aircraft congestion, and the exponential climb in
H3-accidents since the introduction of digital glass cockpits, thus the human factor in accidents, that are founded on education defects and lack of
qualifications, demand new education concepts. A university development in connection with teaching of learning methods and the use of multimedia and
simulators are looked at as problem solving strategies.
Prof. Dr. Jakob Weiß
In Germany my institution is called "Hochschule Bremen". The type of our university is called
"Fachhochschule" in Germany and its official translation into English is "University of Applied Sciences".
Hochschule Bremen has 9 departments, called "Fachbereiche", and 31 degree courses (Studiengänge),
21 of which are called "international". Hochschule Bremen ranks very high with respect to international relations. The number of students is about
This Degree Course is called ILST which stands for "International Degree Course in Aviation and
System Engineering" ("Internationaler Studiengang für Luftfahrtsystemtechnik und -management") and it is associated with the department of
THE ACADEMIC EDUCATION PROGRAMME FOR ESTONIA AIRLINE PILOTS
Villu Mikita, Ph. D.
Ants Aaver Kurmo Annus, Tartu Aviation College
The terms « integrated » and « modular » in the given context of educational system have wider
meaning than in case of speaking about pilot training « integrated and modular courses » according to JAR-FCL. « Integrated » here means the combination
of academic engineering studies, basic aviation studies and professional training according to JAA requirements which all form one whole. « Modular » means
that the modules of engineering, basic aviation and JAR-FCL courses exist as separate units and, in certain cases, can be used independently. For example, if
there is a civil company request for a group of CPL pilots, the corresponding module can be used separately. On the other hand, if an ATPL pilot with work
experience or an Air Force pilot officer wants a diploma of higher education, he/she can choose the engineering module.
Graham J F Hunt, Massey University
The assumptions, which led to the specification of requirements for flight crew licensing under Annex 1
of the Chicago Convention in 1945, are not necessarily valid for the start of the 21st Century. The major
contributors who defined Annex 1 did so from a their backgrounds and experience of military training or from long years and thousands of hours in general
aviation "apprenticeship". These people assumed that this condition was universal and would remain in force indefinitely.
This paper will review the original foundations, which led to the creation of Annex 1 to the ICAO
Chicago Convention. An examination will be made of the drivers, which have led to amendments being made to the Annex during its 54-year history.
It will be argued that the effects of this Annex have been to promote an inspectorial approach to flight crew licensing, which has emphasised the
accumulation of time (as the key denominator for experience) and technical skills within nationally controlled systems. This
approach is incompatible with the realities of globalisation and self-regulation. A new set of constructs will be postulated which will suggest the effect
that global alliances may have in defining operational standards. Further, the absence of a general aviation environment in many countries and international
trends in reducing the size of military systems suggest that the traditional sources for new pilots are disappearing These demographic trends are interacting
with newer regulatory philosophies which emphasise the exposition of operator rules for compliance and surveillance rather than inspection, create an
opportunity to re-assess the nature of licensing for air transport pilots. The outcome of such a re-assessment
may well be the development of parallel systems of flight crew licensing; documents which apply to direct entry to air transport operations; or those, which
would be relevant to apprenticeship-based experience as currently applicable under Civil Aviation Rule Part 61 type rules.
Drs. Marian J. Schuver - van Blanken
National Aerospace Laboratory NLR
The Air Traffic Controller (ATCO) job will change as a result of changes in the future work environment
(with automated tools, new data presentation (and pre-processing) and sophisticated computer assistance tools). These changes will have their impact on the
tasks, skills and knowledge of the ATCO and therewith on air traffic controller training. Further, recent developments in instructional theory and technology
will change the way in which training is designed and conducted. This paper addresses the design of air traffic controller training for future ATM (Air
Traffic Management), reflecting the main results of the CAST project. CAST stands for Consequences of future ATM systems for air traffic controller Selection
and Training (start: 1 January 1998; end: 30 June 1999). The project is co-funded by the EU and co-ordinated by NLR. Other organisations involved in this
project are from the United Kingdom (DERA, NATS), Germany (DFS) and France (Sofréavia and AIRSYS ATM) .
The guidelines for future air traffic controller training described in this paper focus on the training
content and the training design principles. With respect to training content, the future air traffic controller will need more knowledge and skills and of a
different kind as today. In addition to current knowledge and skills (needed to understand the ATC (Air Traffic Control) process and to interpret ATC
situations), new or modified and more complex skills and knowledge are needed related to new characteristics of future ATM (e.g. automated assistance; larger
planning horizon; datalink; collaborative decision making; free routing; new working methods and procedures). With respect to the training design principles
an instructional design approach is recommended, allowing a systematic and rapid training design process based on scenarios. Training design principles for
future ATCO training included in this approach are: design training from the viewpoint of the controller tasks; design training based on principles for
training complex cognitive skills; integrate knowledge and skills (theory and practice); select training methods and media appropriately and integrate team
training and individual training. These guidelines can ensure that future ATCO training is tailored to the future job. The guidelines also have their merit in
solving problems currently encountered and in fulfilling needs currently expressed in ATCO training such as the gap between theory and practice; application
of training methods and media; cost-effective and efficient training; practical guidelines for designing training and systematic and quick design or
adaptation of training.
Mr François Lavigne - STNA, Mr Jacques Routier - SCTA,
Mr Marc LeDraoullec - STERIA, Mr Charles Barrera - CLAIRIS TECHNOLOGIES,
The increase and complexity of air traffic has led the French Air Navigation Bureau (DNA) to set up new
systems, particularly to improve traffic management. For this purpose, the ODS France system (PHIDIAS) is currently being implemented in the various centres (CRNA
(regional air navigation centre)).
The operational start-up of PHIDIAS BASE is associated with a training program including:
- a DEMON demonstrator available in each centre,
- a multimedia training system comprising a course management tool for instructors (CMI) and CBT for
students (the part described in this article).
The instructor module is a base used to take into account and manage all new courses which may or may
not be linked to the evolution of the ODS France system. It serves to manage, organize and structure a computerized training base in an objective way,
depending on the targets aimed for.
The student modules are designed for air traffic controllers who can used them either on a self-service
basis, or on a training network with an instructor.
The PHIBASE CBT module describes the main functions of the PHIDIAS environment: concepts, architecture,
flight transactions etc. The educational approach adopted is a guided simulation of the software parts of PHIDIAS. This type of training must facilitate the
changeover to the PHIDIAS position, and provides a valuable complement for using DEMON.
The CBT also serves to show the controller the result of a control action as seen by the recipient
controller: the tool displays on the same screen what is seen by the recipient controller.
Implementation of this training system in the various French CRNA centres is planned for the end of
1999, in all air traffic control centres. The centre in Reims, which will be the first site to put the ODS France BASE into service in 2000, is to organize
the training of its controllers as from December 1999.
Krauss-Maffei Wegmann GmbH & Co. KG
Dipl.-Ing. Werner Leffler
Krauss-Maffei Wegmann is the main contractor for production facilitation and production-phase delivery
of the simulators for the self-propelled anti-aircraft gun (SPAAG) in service with the German and Dutch air defence. The SPAAG is equipped with its own
reconnaissance systems enabling the crew to detect, identify, acquire, track and engage targets on a stand-alone basis and under all weather conditions.
Moreover, its link-up with the army air defence, reconnaissance and battle management system (GE) or with the target information command and control system
(NL) lies ahead. The ASF/PLT-V is a technically autonomous training equipment for the turret crew (commander and gunner) of the SPAAG 1A2/PRTL. It permits
single and crew training.
Objective of ASF/PLT-V:
Reducing wear and tear on the SPAAG weapons system during training and cutting costs through more
effective and improved training. In a simulated environment, the crew will be trained to master the improved weapons system and employ it effectively in
combat. Owing to the high degree of modularity of all components, the concept selected not only makes it possible to accommodate future technical developments
but also allows additional simulators to be networked with the ASF/PLT-V trainer.
Special features of the system:
* A highly complex gunnery and combat simulator with a 100x100 km terrain database
* Radar simulation
* CAI (computer-aided instruction): fully automatic training process with CAI permits parallel
results-dependent training control for several groups
* Up to seven crew compartments can be networked via the „PDU FOR DIS" standard.
* ECM scenarios: simulation of complex ECM scenarios to meet the increasing threat of electronic
warfare. This is accomplished by taking account of radar properties relative to terrain, terrain objects and air targets.
Lieutenant Colonel Dirk Landgraf
I am Lieutenant Colonel Dirk Landgraf from Air Staff I 3 of the German MOD. As deputy ACOS, I am, along
with others, responsible for all the training issues related to military air traffic control/services (MilATC/S), radar-controlled air defence, electronic
warfare as well as electronic and radar techniques.
My intention is to familiarize you with our approach to training and its organization within the German
Air Force (GAF) and, of course, to present to you the new version of the GAF Training Concept for MilATC/S.
COMPREHENSIVE TRAINING FOR A COMPREHENSIVE ATM WORLD
By: Ole Nikolajsen, Manager Training Quality Control, DFS Training Academy,
Modern ATM training is today more or less slavishly following trends set by training in other fields
like pilot, technician and adult practical training. Much effort is being used in investigating human factors in learning, distance learning and similar
Less effort, unfortunately, is being used into realising what kind of training do we need to satisfy the
requirements of the ATM world in, let us say 5-10 years. What will be the social background of our students, what kind of training objectives will we have -
both of these goalposts are rapidly moving apart?
If we compare a unified European Airspace, harmonised procedures (and language), large commercial and
ecological pressures with a youth with different life goals and job expectations what can we do
Dr. Urban A. Thoeni,
Oerlikon Contraves AG, Training Systems and Simulator Department
In the training community the awareness of the advantages of training in simulators is on the rise.
However, albeit simulator manufacturers are doing their best to satisfy their customer's wishes there is only a moderate amount of business being done in the
domain of training simulators.
In this paper, some reasons for the hesitant development of the market are investigated.
One of the common misconceptions from both customers as well as suppliers is that for every simulator
project the simulator and its training use have to be reinvented from scratch. Novel manufacturers obviously have to do that, but there are now enough
suppliers on the market who have gained ample experience in order to find some standard design issues for every type of project.
Additionally, potential buyers must become aware that they cannot expect full customer-specific design
and at the same time benefit from the decay of prices seen on the high-volume consumer market. Above all, many customers are unsure about the degree of
emulation fidelity a simulator needs to match their training goals. The usual approach in such a case is to ask for total equivalence.
To ease this situation and to get more training simulators in use, some types of standard simulator
designs have to evolve which are supported by several manufacturers and at the same time accepted by customers with both their advantages and disadvantages.
To some extent the situation can be compared to the development of computers where both the technology and the computers' architecture had to mature in order
to provide the initially small user community with equipment suitable for their needs and to make the number of users grow..
For driving simulators some ideas on such standard designs are developed and described. Once these ideas
have penetrated the marked a significant rise in activity can be expected soon.
Stéphane Espié, INRETS, Olivier
The work presented in this paper is developed in the context of EVARISTE RESEAU, a combined work between
INRETS and OKTAL companies. The objective is to develop tools allowing to generate in a simple way realistic and consistent road databases to satisfy the
various needs of driving simulators. This work is, for INRETS, part of the ARCHISIM project. The aim of this project is to design a new kind of traffic model,
based upon a traffic multi-actors approach, and able to host a driving simulator. The model uses results from psychological studies on actual driver's
behaviour. Traffic situations are considered to be the result of the interaction of the various actors involved. The simulated drivers recognize traffic
situations and adapt their behaviours according to these situations.
In this paper we identify some technical requirements for improving driving learning using driving
simulators tools. We try to demonstrate how we can envision to achieve complex driving learning using our approach for road environment description and
Agostino Bruzzone, MISS - DIP - University of Genoa, Francesca Vio, Liophant Simulation Club, Salvatore
The paper proposes an approach for reorganising the training in container handling facilities by using
advanced technologies; this sector is actually based on a very small number of very expensive from the point of view of container operator/port budgets.
The authors are developing a new project for creating a new set of packages for the training
of the cranes drivers and logistics operators based on low level platform CBT (Computer Based Training) interoperable by using the evolving standards
in the area of distributed simulation.
By this approach it will be possible to diffuse the use of CBT training in this area, increasing the
safety of the operations and reducing the costs; this new generation packages will be devoted to be integrated in the educational program with the
pre-existing simulators and with real equipment training.
However the new training equipment will allows to carry out
new training sessions involving multi level inter activity among the operators: integrating both operators (i.e. crane and truck driver) with planners (i.e.
yard and dock planner).
This environment is expected to be used as test case for the development of a new control system based
on virtual reality and devoted to the management of container terminals.
The authors propose the draft structure of the on-going project MOSLES that are promoting as a joint
venture for application in one of the largest container terminal in Italy (the only one that already adopted the
traditional full scope simulator).
Alfonso Brazalez, Aitziber Aizpuru, Jose Luis Arzalluz, Jesus M. Busturia CEIT
This paper describes the development of the dynamic models and the motion base control software for
harbour machinery and cranes training simulators. The simulators reproduce the behaviour of three harbour cranes (Gantry, Trastainer and Conventional) and two
driving cranes (Mafi and Reach-Stacker) for moving containers around the wharf. Due to the large differences between cranes a specific mathematical model has
been developed for each crane.
Mathematical models for each crane have been developed taking into account their specific
characteristics and, specifically, their different training targets. Modelling aspects critical to training increases the applicability of the simulator,
reducing the adaptation period on real machines, after the simulator training stage. In Gantry and Trastainer crane simulators the most important training
targets are the container loading and unloading. To increase the simulator fidelity, the behaviour of the spreader has been modelled with a high degree of
detail. In driving cranes, training is based on increasing the operator driving skills. So special attention has been drawn to the power train and vehicle
Measurements on real cranes have shown that acceleration levels in crane cabins are large enough to
require taking into account. Moreover, crane operators use motion cues -and sound- to perform certain manoeuvres and detect collisions. It is important for
the simulator to reproduce similar acceleration profiles in order to increase the immersion feeling and to develop the mechanisms an operator uses when
operating the real machine. Models are able to generate cabin accelerations and angular velocities with a high degree of accuracy to feed the 6 dof motion
base control software.
The crane models share several common software components such as the integrator and the motion base
control software. The use of a component technology such as COM (Component Object Model) enforces a high level of module encapsulation through the use of
stable interfaces, which allows easy module integration, reusability, upgrading and maintenance.Main conclusions drawn underline the importance of detailed
mathematical models to describe important aspects of training in crane simulators. Additionally, the motion base acceleration control helps to improve the
operator feeling of immersion.